Colchis bladdernut Staphylea colchica, copyright Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz.

Belongs within: Gunneridae.
Contains: Myrtales, Geraniales, Sapindales, Brassicales, Malvales.

The Malvidae is a major clade of flowering plants supported by molecular analysis, defined by Cantino et al. (2007) to include Sapindales, Malvales, Brassicales and Tapisciaceae but expanded by Wang et al. (2009) to include Myrtales, Geraniales and Crossosomatales (thus maintining the Malvidae as the sister group to the other major rosid clade, the Fabidae). The Malvidae roughly corresponds to the "eurosids II" clade of many studies. Within the Malvidae, the Crossosomatales are a relatively small but morphologically diverse assemblage; members of the Crossosomatales do, however, share a similarly much thickened seed coat (Angiosperm Phylogeny Website). The Huerteales are a group of tropical and subtropical plants united by molecular data, members of which bear small flowers in cymose inflorescences with a unilocular ovary.

<==Malvidae [Sapindanae]
    |--+--Myrtales WM09
    |  `--Geraniales WM09
    `--+--+--Picramniaceae [Picramniales] WM09
       |  |    |--Alvaradoa [Alvaradoideae] T00
       |  |    `--Picramnia [Picramnioideae] WM09
       |  |         `--P. pentandra WM09
       |  `--+--Sapindales WM09
       |     `--+--+--Brassicales WM09
       |        |  `--Malvales WM09
       |        `--Huerteales APG16
       |             |--Gerrardinaceae APG16
       |             |--Dipentodon T00 [Dipentodontaceae APG16]
       |             |--Petenaea [Petenaeaceae] APG16
       |             |    `--P. cordata BAN98
       |             `--Tapisciaceae [Tapiscioideae] WM09
       |                  |--Huertea T00
       |                  `--Tapiscia sinensis Oliv. 1890 CD07
       `--Crossosomatales WM09
            |  i. s.: Geissoloma T00 [Geissolomataceae CD07]
            |         Guatemalaceae APG16
            |--+--Aphloia [Aphloiaceae] WM09
            |  |    `--A. theiformis WM09
            |  `--+--Ixerba Cunn. 1839 WM09, A61 [Ixerbaceae]
            |     |    `--I. brexioides Cunn. 1839 A61
            |     `--Strasburgeria [Strasburgeriaceae] WM09
            |          `--S. robusta WM09
            `--+--Staphyleaceae [Staphyleoideae] WM09
               |    |--Euscaphis japonica T00, YA93
               |    |--Turpinia T00
               |    |    |--T. pentandra (Schltr) v.d. Linden 1959 (see below for synonymy) B81
               |    |    `--T. picardae J87
               |    `--Staphylea MS10
               |         |--S. bolanderi H93
               |         |--S. colchica MS10
               |         `--S. trifoliata WM09
               `--+--Stachyurus [Stachyuraceae] WM09
                  |    `--S. praecox WM09
                  `--Crossosomataceae WM09
                       |--Apacheria T00
                       |--Velascoa T00
                       |--Crossosoma WM09
                       |    |--C. bigelovii H93
                       |    `--C. californicum WM09
                       `--Glossopetalon T00
                            |--G. pungens [=Forsellesia pungens; incl. F. pungens var. glabra] H93
                            `--G. spinescens (see below for synonymy) H93

Glossopetalon spinescens [incl. Forsellesia arida, G. spinescens var. aridum, F. nevadensis, F. stipulifera] H93

Turpinia pentandra (Schltr) v.d. Linden 1959 [=Kaernbachia pentandra Schltr 1914; incl. K. brachypetala Schltr 1914, Turpinia brachypetala (Schltr) v.d. Linden 1959, T. papuana Merr. & Perry 1941, T. versteeghii Merr. & Perry 1941] B81

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[APG16] Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2016. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181: 1–20.

[B81] Barker, W. R. 1981. Staphyleaceae. In: Henty, E. E. (ed.) Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 2 pp. 258–261. Melbourne University Press.

[BAN98] Baum, D. A., W. S. Anderson & R. Nyffeler. 1998. A durian by any other name: taxonomy and nomenclature of the core Malvales. Harvard Papers in Botany 3 (2): 315–330.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1–E44.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[MS10] Moore, M. J., P. S. Soltis, C. D. Bell, J. G. Burleigh & D. E. Soltis. 2010. Phylogenetic analysis of 83 plastid genes further resolves the early diversification of eudicots. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 107 (10): 4623–4628.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

[WM09] Wang, H., M. J. Moore, P. S. Soltis, C. D. Bell, S. F. Brockington, R. Alexandre, C. C. Davis, M. Latvis, S. R. Manchester & D. E. Soltis. 2009. Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (10): 3853–3858.

[YA93] Yamamoto, Y., J. Aoki, X.-Z. Wang & S.-H. Hu. 1993. Oribatid mites from subtropical forests of Wu-yan-ling, east China. (1) Two new species of the family Malaconothridae (Acari: Oribatei). Edaphologia 49: 25–31.

Last updated: 26 March 2022.

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