Turritella terebra, copyright Femorale.

Belongs within: Turritellidae.

Turritella is a genus of high-spired marine gastropods known from tropical and subtropical waters in the Oligocene to the present of the Indo-West Pacific, and also from the Miocene of the Atlantic (Knight et al. 1960). Fossils have been assigned to the genus as far back as the early Triassic (T. costifera) but these assignments almost certainly reflect a lack of recent study (Nützel & Erwin 2002). Feeding is by means of ciliary currents, with a series of pinnately branched tentacles capturing detritus as it is drawn towards the mantle cavity.

Characters (from Oldroyd 1927, Knight et al. 1960): Shell moderate to large, slender, many-whorled; whorls convex, neanic primary spirals starting in the order abapical-medial-adapical; aperture rounded, outer lip arcuate, lateral sinus shallow, oblique; no basal sinus. Operculum many-whorled with a fimbriate margin. Shells usually brown with red-brown spots or flames.

<==Turritella Lamarck 1799 NE02
    |--*T. terebra (Linnaeus 1758) [=Turbo terebra] KC60
    |--T. acuticarinata Dunker 1847 [=T. martini Cossmann 1913] F27
    |--T. ‘acuticarinata’ White 1887 non Dunker 1847 F27
    |--T. altilira C64
    |--T. ambulacrum H86
    |--T. anactor Berry 1957 BC01
    |--T. bacillum ZLK11
    |--T. banksii C64
    |--T. breantiana (see below for synonymy) F27
    |--T. burwashi Finlay 1927 [=T. tricarinata Burwash 1914 non Turbo tricarinata Brocchi 1814] F27
    |--T. captiva Hedley 1907 H09
    |--T. cerea Reeve 1849 H09
    |--T. cingulifera Sowerby 1825 H09
    |--T. clapensis Terquem & Jourdy 1871 G01
    |--T. cooperi Carpenter 1866 O27
    |--T. costifera Schauroth 1858 NE02
    |--T. costulata Mighels & Adams 1842 J49 (see below for synonymy)
    |--T. deliciosa Watson 1880 H09
    |--T. erosa CS77
    |--T. exoleta (Linnaeus 1758) [=Turbo exoletus] MP65
    |--T. fascialis Menke 1830 H09
    |--T. fastigiata Adams & Reeve 1850 H09
    |--T. gatunensis C64
    |--T. goniostoma C64
    |--T. hookeri Reeve 1849 S11
    |--T. huttoni Cossmann 1912 [=T. bicincta Hutton 1873 nec Wood 1842 nec Sow. 1850] F27
    |--T. imbricata (Linnaeus 1758) G20, L58 [=Turbo imbricatus G20]
    |--T. inezana C64
    |--T. jenkinsi Finlay 1927 [=T. simplex Jenkins 1864 non d’Orb. 1847] F27
    |--T. jewetti Carpenter 1864 O27
    |--T. lineata [incl. T. obruta] C64
    |--T. maculata F27
    |    |--T. m. maculata F27
    |    `--T. m. schepmani Finlay 1927 (see below for synonymy) F27
    |--T. mariana Dall 1908 O27
    |--T. mortoni W77
    |--T. multilirata Adams & Reeve 1850 H09
    |--T. nodulosa King 1831 O27
    |--T. ocoyana Conrad 1855 C64
    |--T. orthosymmetra B56
    |--T. parkeri McLean 1970 BC01
    |--T. patagonica H86
    |--T. punctata C64
    |--T. repelini Finlay 1927 (see below for synonymy) F27
    |--T. reticulata Mighels & Adams 1842 J49
    |--T. rubescens Reeve 1849 PP78
    |--T. sanguinea C64
    |--T. supraplecta Münster 1841 KC60 (see below for synonymy)
    |--T. tenuis Münster 1841 BR17
    |--T. tigrina [incl. T. tigrina var. cumingii, T. leucostoma] C64
    |--T. transenna Tenison-Woods 1878 F71
    |--T. tricarinata (Brocchi 1814) F27 [=Turbo tricarinata F27; incl. T. communis PP64]
    |--T. triplicata PP64
    |--T. uvasana Conrad 1856 W77
    |    |--T. u. uvasana F27
    |    |--T. u. insulsa Finlay 1927 (see below for synonymy) F27
    |    `--T. u. royi Finlay 1927 (see below for synonymy) F27
    |--T. variata C64
    |--T. vermicularis F27
    |    |--T. v. vermicularis F27
    |    `--T. v. praerepta Finlay 1927 (see below for synonymy) F27
    |--T. whitei K79
    `--T. willetti McLean 1970 BC01

Nomina nuda: Turritella biseriata Conrad 1855 C64
             T. costellata Mighels 1841 J49

Turritella breantiana [incl. T. tricincta Ihering 1897 nec Borson 1820 nec Morris 1845 nec Hutton 1873, T. iheringi Cossmann 1898] F27

Turritella costulata Mighels & Adams 1842 J49 [=Cerithiopsis costulata J64; incl. Cerithiopsis metula J64, Cerithium niveum J64]

Turritella maculata schepmani Finlay 1927 [=T. maculata ornata Schepman 1909 nec Turritella ornata d’Orbigny 1843 nec Michelotti 1847 nec Hutton 1873] F27

Turritella repelini Finlay 1927 [=T. tricincta Repelin 1906 nec Borson 1820 nec Morris 1845 nec Hutton 1873 nec Ihering 1897] F27

Turritella supraplecta Münster 1841 KC60 [=Chemnitzia supraplecta non Melania supraplecta Münster 1841 BR17; incl. T. carinata (preoc.) KC60]

Turritella uvasana insulsa Finlay 1927 [=T. uvasana bicarinata Dickerson 1915 nec Eichwald 1830 nec Pusch 1837 nec Sow. 1847] F27

Turritella uvasana royi Finlay 1927 [=T. uvasana var. tricarinata Dickerson 1915 nec Turbo tricarinata Brocchi 1814 nec Turritella tricarinata Burwash 1914] F27

Turritella vermicularis praerepta Finlay 1927 [=T. vermicularis var. tricincta Schaffer 1912 nec Borson 1820 nec Morris 1845 nec Hutton 1873 nec Ihering 1897 nec Repelin 1906] F27

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B56] Berry, S. S. 1956. Mollusca dredged by the Orca off the Santa Barbara Islands, California, in 1951. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46 (5): 150–157.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[G01] Gründel, J. 2001. Neritimorpha und weitere Caenogastropoda (Gastropoda) aus dem Dogger Norddeutschlands und des nordwestlichen Polens. Berliner Geowissenschaftliche Abhandlungen, Reihe E 36: 45–99.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[H86] Hutton, F. W. 1886. The Mollusca of the Pareora and Oamaru systems of New Zealand. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 205–237.

[J64] Jeffreys, J. G. 1864. The Upper Tertiary fossils at Uddevalla, in Sweden. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33 (Notices and Abstracts): 73–79.

[J49] Johnson, R. I. 1949. Jesse Wedgwood Mighels with a bibliography and a catalogue of his species. Occasional Papers on Mollusks 1 (14): 213–231.

[K79] Kauffman, E. G. 1979. Cretaceous. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A418–A487. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[KC60] Knight, J. B., L. R. Cox, A. M. Keen, R. L. Batten, E. L. Yochelson & R. Robertson. 1960. Gastropoda: systematic descriptions. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt I. Mollusca 1: Mollusca—General Features, Scaphopoda, Amphineura, Monoplacophora, Gastropoda—General Features, Archaeogastropoda and some (mainly Paleozoic) Caenogastropoda and Opisthobranchia pp. I169–I331. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[MP65] Merrill, A. S., & R. E. Petit. 1965. Mollusks new to South Carolina. Nautilus 79 (2): 58–66.

[NE02] Nützel, A., & D. H. Erwin. 2002. Battenizyga, a new Early Triassic gastropod genus with a discussion of the caenogastropod evolution at the Permian/Triassic boundary. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 76 (1): 21–27.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 3. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d'Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[PP78] Poorman, F. L., & L. H. Poorman. 1978. Additional molluscan records from Bahía de Los Angeles, Baja California Norte. Veliger 20 (4): 369–374.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[W77] White, C. A. 1877. Report upon the invertebrate fossils collected in portions of Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, by parties of the expeditions of 1871, 1872, 1873, and 1874. U.S. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (1): 1–219, pls 1–21.

[ZLK11] Zou, S., Q. Li & L. Kong. 2011. Additional gene data and increased sampling give new insights into the phylogenetic relationships of Neogastropoda, within the caenogastropod phylogenetic framework. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61: 425–435.

Last updated: 18 December 2021.

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