Thripidae

Limothrips angulicornis, from OzThrips.


Belongs within: Thysanoptera.
Contains: Caliothrips, Frankliniella, Scirtothrips, Neohydatothrips, Wegenerithrips, Plesiothrips, Chirothrips, Thripini.

The Thripidae are a diverse and cosmopolitan family of thrips including, amongst others, the great majority of the pest thrips species. Recent authors have recognised four subfamilies within the Thripidae. The Panchaetothripinae have the body covered with strong, reticulate sculpture; the remaining subfamilies have the sculpture reduced. The Dendrothripinae possess a characteristic lyre-shaped metathoracic furca.

Characters (from Mound & Marullo 1996): Small to medium in body size (0.5–2.5 mm in length). Antenna with six to eight (rarely nine) segments, terminal segments forming short style at apex of segment VI if present; segments III and IV each with one (occasionally two) emergent, forked or simple, sensory trichomes, each of which is more than twice as long as wide. Tentorium not developed. Wings, if present, slender and usually more or less pointed, with two longitudinal veins each usually bearing a row of setae. Females with serrated ovipositor (rarely reduced) that is downturned at apex. Males commonly smaller and paler than females with a more slender body, often bearing one or more glandular areas on median sternites.

<==Thripidae
    |--Dendrothripinae [Dendrothripini] GE05
    |--Sericothrips Haliday 1836 GM79 [Sericothripinae MM09, Sericothripini]
    |    |--S. diana Girault 1929 G29a
    |    |--S. haydni Girault 1932 G32
    |    `--S. quadrifasciatus Girault 1927 G27b
    |--Panchaetothripinae [Heliothripinae] MM96
    |    |--Sigmothrips aotearoana (Ward 1970) MM04
    |    |--Caliothrips MM96
    |    |--Xestothrips glabratus [=Selenothrips glabratus] MM96
    |    |--Panchaetothrips indicus B88
    |    |--Anisopilothrips Stannard & Mitri 1962 MM96
    |    |    `--*A. venustulus (Priesner 1923) [=Heliothrips venustulus; incl. Astrothrips angulatus Hood 1925] MM96
    |    |--Elixothrips Stannard & Mitri 1962 MM96
    |    |    `--*E. brevisetis (Bagnall 1921) [=Tryphactothrips brevisetis] MM96
    |    |--Brachyurothrips Bagnall 1921 MM96
    |    |    `--*B. anomalus Bagnall 1921 [incl. B. walteri Costa Lima 1956] MM96
    |    |--Oneilliella Wilson 1975 MM96
    |    |    `--*O. williamsi (Hood 1928) [=Hercothrips williamsi] MM96
    |    |--Parthenothrips Uzel 1895 MM96
    |    |    `--*P. dracaenae (Heeger 1854) [=Heliothrips dracaenae] MM96
    |    |--Selenothrips Karny 1911 MM96
    |    |    `--*S. rubrocinctus (Giard 1901) [=Physopus rubrocinctus] MM96
    |    |--Hercinothrips Bagnall 1932 MM96
    |    |    |--*H. bicinctus (Bagnall 1919) MM96, MM04 [=Heliothrips bicinctus MM96]
    |    |    `--H. femoralis (Reuter 1891) [=Heliothrips femoralis; incl. Hel. apicalis Bondar 1931] MM96
    |    |--Dinurothrips Hood 1913 MM96
    |    |    |--*D. hookeri Hood 1913 MM96
    |    |    `--D. vezenyii Bagnall 1919 MM96
    |    |--Helionothrips Bagnall 1932 MM96
    |    |    |--*H. brunneipennis [=Heliothrips brunneipennis] MM96
    |    |    `--H. funebris (Hood 1928) [=Hercothrips funebris] MM96
    |    |--Retithrips Marchal 1910 MM96
    |    |    |--R. syriacus (Mayet 1890) (see below for synonymy) MM96
    |    |    `--R. javanicus MM96
    |    |--Hoodothrips Bondar 1931 [incl. Hoodothripoides Mound 1970] MM96
    |    |    |--H. constrictus (Hood 1925) (see below for synonymy) MM96
    |    |    |--H. brevipilus (Hood 1928) [=Tryphactothrips brevipilus] MM96
    |    |    `--H. lineatus (Hood 1928) (see below for synonymy) MM96
    |    |--Arachisothrips Stannard 1952 MM96
    |    |    |--*A. millsi Stannard 1952 [incl. A. boneti Stannard 1952] MM96
    |    |    |--A. latipennis MM96
    |    |    `--A. seticornis Hood 1955 MM96
    |    `--Heliothrips Haliday 1836 MM96
    |         |--H. haemorrhoidalis (Bouché 1833) (see below for synonymy) MM96
    |         |--H. bifasciipennis Girault 1926 G26a
    |         |--H. semiaureus Girault 1928 G28a [incl. Dinurothrips rufiventris Girault 1929 G30b, G29b]
    |         `--H. sylvanus MM96
    `--Thripinae MM96
         |  i. s.: Adelphithrips cassiniae Mound & Palmer 1981 MM04
         |         Dikrothrips diphyes Mound & Walker 1981 MM04
         |         Lomatothrips paryphis Mound & Walker 1982 MM04
         |         Frankliniella MM96
         |         Scirtothrips MM96
         |         Lefroyothrips Priesner 1938 MM96, JR-SM-G05
         |         Megalurothrips Bagnall 1915 MM96, JR-SM-G05
         |         Aneurothrips MM96
         |         Neohydatothrips MM96
         |         Cricothrips MM96
         |         Moundiella MM96
         |         Bournierothrips Bhatti 1979 MM96
         |         Wegenerithrips MM96
         |         Plesiothrips MM96
         |         Graphidothrips stuardoi MM96
         |         Exothrips MM96
         |         Organothrips bianchii MM96
         |         Muscithrips Bournier 1990 MM96, JR-SM-G05
         |         Xenothrips MM09
         |         Monothrips flavus MM09
         |         Gabanithrips Bhatti & Mound 1992 MM96
         |           `--*G. bantus Bhatti & Mound 1992 MM96
         |         Asprothrips Crawford 1938 MM96
         |           `--A. seminigricornis (Girault 1926) MM96 (see below for synonymy)
         |         Craspedothrips zur Strassen 1966 MM96, JR-SM-G05
         |           `--C. inconstantis (Johansen & Mojica 1986) (see below for synonymy) JR-SM-G05
         |         Scirtidothrips Hood 1954 MM96
         |           `--*S. torquatus Hood 1954 MM96
         |         Rhabdothrips Hood 1933 MM96
         |           `--*R. albus Hood 1933 MM96
         |         Fulmekiola Karny 1925 MM96
         |           `--F. serrata (Kobus 1893) [=Thrips serrata; incl. *F. interrupta Karny 1925] MM96
         |         Microcephalothrips Bagnall 1926 MM96
         |           `--*M. abdominalis (Crawford 1910) [=Thrips abdominalis] MM96
         |         Paraleucothrips Johansen 1983 MM96
         |           `--*P. minusculus Johansen 1983 MM96
         |         Plesiopsothrips Hood 1956 MM96
         |           `--*P. trinidadensis Hood 1956 MM96
         |         Prionotothrips Hood 1954 MM96
         |           `--*P. procerus Hood 1954 MM96
         |         Sciothrips Bhatti 1970 MM96
         |           `--*S. cardamomi (Ramakrishna 1935) [=Taeniothrips cardamomi] MM96
         |         Systenothrips Hood 1956 MM96
         |           `--*S. latens Hood 1956 MM96
         |         Pseudanaphothrips Karny 1921 AY04, GM79
         |           |--P. achaetus M83
         |           `--P. araucariae M04
         |         Aneristothrips De Santis 1957 MM96
         |           |--*A. rostratus De Santis 1957 MM96
         |           `--A. claripennis (Moulton 1933) [=Mycertothrips claripennis] MM96
         |         Arpediothrips Hood 1927 MM96
         |           |--*A. mojave Hood 1927 MM96
         |           `--A. mexicanus Watson 1939 MM96
         |         Bradinothrips Hood 1954 [incl. Palleucothrips Hood 1956] MM96
         |           |--*B. williamsi Hood 1954 MM96
         |           `--B. musae (Hood 1956) [=*Palleucothrips musae] MM96
         |         Cercyothrips Morgan 1925 MM96
         |           |--*C. striatus Morgan 1925 MM96
         |           `--C. galbinus Hood 1957 MM96
         |         Coremothrips Hood 1925 MM96
         |           |--*C. pallidus Hood 1925 MM96
         |           `--C. nubilicus Hood 1954 MM96
         |         Danothrips Bhatti 1971 MM96
         |           |--*D. setifer Bhatti 1971 MM96
         |           `--D. trifasciatus Sakimura 1975 MM96
         |         Dendrothripoides Bagnall 1923 MM96
         |           |--D. innoxius (Karny 1914) [=Euthrips innoxius; incl. *D. ipomeae Bagnall 1923] MM96
         |           `--D. microchaetus MM96
         |         Rhamphothrips Karny 1913 MM96
         |           |--*R. tenuirostris [=Rhynchothrips tenuirostris] MM96
         |           `--R. pandens Sakimura 1983 MM96
         |         Salpingothrips Hood 1935 MM96
         |           |--*S. minimus Hood 1935 MM96
         |           `--S. aimotofus MM96
         |         Tenothrips Bhatti 1967 MM96, JR-SM-G05
         |           |--*T. alis [=Taeniothrips (*Tenothrips) alis] MM96
         |           `--T. frici (Uzel 1895) [=Physopus frici] MM96
         |         Bregmatothrips Hood 1912 MM96
         |           |--*B. venustus Hood 1912 MM96
         |           |--B. difficilis Johansen 1977 MM96
         |           `--B. gracilis Hood & Williams 1915 MM96
         |         Chaetanaphothrips Priesner 1925 MM96
         |           |--*C. orchidii (Moulton 1907) [=Euthrips orchidii] MM96
         |           |--C. leeuweni (Karny 1914) [=Euthrips leeuweni; incl. Scirtothrips clarus Moulton 1942] MM96
         |           `--C. signipennis (Bagnall 1914) MM96 (see below for synonymy)
         |         Corynothrips Williams 1913 MM96
         |           |--*C. stenopterus Williams 1913 MM96
         |           |--C. cruentatus Hood 1934 MM96
         |           `--C. flavus Moulton 1941 MM96
         |         Dorcadothrips Priesner 1932 MM96
         |           |--*D. caespitis Priesner 1932 MM96
         |           |--D. cyperaceae MM96
         |           `--D. xanthius MM96
         |         Kurtomathrips Moulton 1927 MM96
         |           |--*K. morrilli Moulton 1927 MM96
         |           |--K. anahuacensis Johansen 1976 MM96
         |           `--K. brunneus (Watson 1931) [=Prosopothrips brunneus; incl. K. unicolor Bailey 1961] MM96
         |         Scolothrips Hinds 1902 MM96
         |           |--*S. sexmaculatus (Pergande 1894) [=Thrips sexmaculata] MM96
         |           |--S. indicus HC01
         |           `--S. longicornis HC01
         |         Leucothrips Reuter 1904 MM96
         |           |--*L. nigripennis Reuter 1904 MM96
         |           |--L. furcatus MM96
         |           |--L. pictus MM96
         |           `--L. theobromae MM96
         |         Pseudodendrothrips Schmutz 1913 MM96
         |           |--*P. ornatissima Schmutz 1913 MM96
         |           |--P. alboniger Hood 1952 MM96
         |           |--P. fulvus Hood 1952 MM96
         |           `--P. mori M04
         |         Stenchaetothrips Bagnall 1926 [incl. Anaphidothrips Hood 1954] MM96
         |           |--*S. melanurus Bagnall 1926 MM96
         |           |--S. biformis (Bagnall 1913) [=Bagnallia biformis; incl. Chloethrips oryzae] MM96
         |           |--S. brasiliensis (Hood 1954) [=*Anaphidothrips brasiliensis] MM96
         |           `--S. minutus (Deventer 1906) (see below for synonymy) MM96
         |         Bravothrips Johansen 1986 MM96, JR-SM-G05
         |           |--*B. daturae Johansen 1986 MM96
         |           |--B. halffteri Johansen 1986 MM96
         |           |--B. kraussi (Crawford 1948) [=Taeniothrips kraussi] MM96
         |           |--B. mexicanus (Priesner 1933) [=Taeniothrips mexicanus] MM96
         |           `--B. tibialis (Crawford 1948) JR-SM-G05 [=Taeniothrips tibialis MM96]
         |         Ceratothripoides Bagnall 1918 MM96, JR-SM-G05
         |           |--*C. brunneus Bagnall 1918 MM96
         |           |--C. chilticus Johansen 1986 MM96
         |           |--C. funestus (Hood 1915) (see below for synonymy) MM96
         |           |--C. lagoenacollus (Moulton 1933) [=Taeniothrips lagoenacollus] MM96
         |           `--C. silvestris (Hood 1935) [=Taeniothrips silvestris] MM96
         |         Halmathrips Hood 1936 MM96
         |           |--*H. citricinctus Hood 1936 MM96
         |           |--H. beckeri Stannard 1953 [=H. (Phaosothrips) beckeri] MM96
         |           |--H. debilis Stannard 1953
         |           |--H. ferruginus Johansen 1974 [=H. (Demetriothrips) ferruginus] MM96
         |           `--H. tricinctus Stannard 1953 MM96
         |         Arorathrips Bhatti 1990 MM96
         |           |--*A. mexicanus (Crawford 1909) [=Chirothrips mexicanus] MM96
         |           |--A. crassiscelis (Zur Strassen 1967) [=Chirothrips crassiscelis] MM96
         |           |--A. fulvus (Moulton 1936) [=Chirothrips fulvus; incl. C. dolosus De Santis 1967] MM96
         |           |--A. nigriceps (Hood 1952) [=Chirothrips nigriceps] MM96
         |           |--A. spiniceps (Hood 1915) [=Chirothrips spiniceps] MM96
         |           `--A. xanthius (Hood 1934) [=Chirothrips xanthius; incl. C. oryzae De Santis 1967] MM96
         |         Chaetisothrips Priesner 1957 MM96
         |           |--*C. striatus (Hood 1935) (see below for synonymy) MM96
         |           |--C. chavesi Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
         |           |--C. garciamirandai Johansen 1982 MM96
         |           |--C. gardeniae (Crawford 1945) [=Isochaetothrips gardeniae] MM96
         |           |--C. mecocephalus Sakimura 1969 [incl. Isochaetothrips garciaamarae Johansen 1978] MM96
         |           |--C. medinai Sakimura 1969 MM96
         |           `--C. reticulatus (Crawford 1910) (see below for synonymy) MM96
         |         Echinothrips Moulton 1911 MM96
         |           |--*E. mexicanus Moulton 1911 MM96
         |           |--E. americanus Morgan 1913 [incl. Dictyothrips floridensis Watson 1919] MM96
         |           |--E. asperatus Hood 1957 MM96
         |           |--E. caribbeanus Hood 1955 MM96
         |           |--E. pinnatus Hood 1960 MM96
         |           |--E. selaginellae Mound 1994 MM96
         |           `--E. subflavus Hood 1927 MM96
         |         Psectrothrips Hood 1937 [incl. Lacandonithrips Johansen 1981] MM96
         |           |--*P. delostomae Hood 1937 MM96
         |           |--P. beckeri Stannard 1951 MM96
         |           |--P. elegantis (Johansen 1981) [=*Lacandonithrips elegantis] MM96
         |           |--P. interruptus (Hood 1957) [=Pseudothrips interruptus] MM96
         |           |--P. longiceps (Hood 1954) [=Pseudothrips longiceps] MM96
         |           |--P. palmerae Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
         |           `--P. spadix (Hood 1916) [=Pseudothrips spadix] MM96
         |         Hydatothrips Karny 1913 MM96
         |           |--*H. adolfifriderici Karny 1913 MM96
         |           |--H. argenticinctus Girault 1927 G27a
         |           |--H. gliricidiae Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
         |           |--H. guanacastei Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
         |           |--H. haschemi Girault 1930 G30a
         |           |--H. poeta Girault 1926 G26b
         |           |--H. sternalis (Hood 1935) [=Sericothrips sternalis] MM96
         |           |--H. tricinctus (Hood 1928) [=Sericothrips tricinctus] MM96
         |           `--H. volcano Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
         |--Chirothripini MM96
         |    |--Chirothrips MM96
         |    `--Limothrips Haliday 1836 MM96
         |         |--*L. cerealium (Haliday 1836) [=Thrips (*Limothrips) cerealium] MM96
         |         |--L. angulicornis MM96
         |         |--L. australiensis Girault 1928 G28b
         |         `--L. formosus Girault 1929 G29a
         `--Thripini MM09

Thripidae incertae sedis:
  Ceratothrips Reuter 1899 M83, GM79
    |--C. frici M83
    `--C. quadratus (Hood 1918) G28a, GM79 [=Pterothrips quadratus G28a]
  Sorgothrips Priesner 1936 JR-SM-G05
  Anomothrips Bhatti 1978 JR-SM-G05
  Odontothripiella Bagnall 1929 JR-SM-G05
  Odontothrips Amyot & Serville 1843 JR-SM-G05
  Pezothrips Karny 1907 JR-SM-G05
    |--P. aureus Girault 1929 G29a
    `--P. kellyanus M04
  Projectothrips Moulton 1929 JR-SM-G05
  Australothrips bicolor Bagnall 1916 G28a, GM79 [incl. Ceratothrips rufiventris Girault 1926 G28a, G26b]
  Dichromothrips MM09
  Trichromothrips MM09

Asprothrips seminigricornis (Girault 1926) MM96 [=Euthrips seminigricornis MM96, Pseudanaphothrips seminigricornis G26b; incl. Scitothrips antennatus MM96, *Asprothrips raui Crawford 1938 MM96]

Ceratothripoides funestus (Hood 1915) [=Physothrips funestus; incl. Taeniothrips martorellorum Medina Gaud 1961] MM96

Chaetanaphothrips signipennis (Bagnall 1914) MM96 [=Scirtothrips signipennis MM96, Anaphothrips signipennis G26b]

Chaetisothrips reticulatus (Crawford 1910) [=Dictyothrips reticulatus; incl. Isochaetothrips dampfi Priesner 1933] MM96

*Chaetisothrips striatus (Hood 1935) [=Isochaetothrips striatus; incl. C. striatus caribbeanus Sakimura 1969] MM96

Craspedothrips inconstantis (Johansen & Mojica 1986) [=Wegenerithrips inconstantis MM96, Ceratothripoides inconstantis] JR-SM-G05

Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouché 1833) [=Thrips haemorrhoidalis; incl. *H. adonidum Halliday 1836, H. ceylonicus] MM96

Hoodothrips constrictus (Hood 1925) [=Astrothrips constrictus; incl. Tryphactothrips ipomoeae Moulton 1933, *Hoodothrips neivai Bondar 1931, H. nigriflavus Medina Gaud 1961] MM96

Hoodothrips lineatus (Hood 1928) [=Tryphactothrips lineatus; incl. *Hoodothripoides braziliensis Mound 1970] MM96

Retithrips syriacus (Mayet 1890) [=Thrips (Heliothrips) syriacus; incl. *R. aegyptiacus Marchal 1910, Stylothrips bondari Bondar 1924] MM96

Stenchaetothrips minutus (Deventer 1906) [=Thrips minutus; incl. T. minutus var. puttemansi Costa Lima 1926, Stenchaetothrips saccharoni] MM96

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AY04] Austin, A. D., D. K. Yeates, G. Cassis, M. J. Fletcher, J. La Salle, J. F. Lawrence, P. B. McQuillan, L. A. Mound, D. J. Bickel, P. J. Gullan, D. F. Hales & G. S. Taylor. 2004. Insects 'Down Under' - diversity, endemism and evolution of the Australian insect fauna: examples from select orders. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 216-234.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[G26a] Girault, A. A. 1926a. Characteristics of new Australian insects. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 197-198).

[G26b] Girault, A. A. 1926b. New pests from Australia. III. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 203-204).

[G27a] Girault, A. A. 1927a. Thysanoptera nova Australiensis from Queensland. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 213).

[G27b] Girault, A. A. 1927b. Thysanoptera nova Australiensis. II. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 214-215).

[G28a] Girault, A. A. 1928a. A prodigeous discourse on wild animals. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 218-220).

[G28b] Girault, A. A. 1928b. Some Insecta and a new All Highness. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 225-228).

[G29a] Girault, A. A. 1929a. Description of a case of lunacy in Homo and of six-legged articulates. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 262-265).

[G29b] Girault, A. A. 1929b. New pests from Australia. VI. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 266-269).

[G30a] Girault, A. A. 1930a. New pests from Australia. VII. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 270-272).

[G30b] Girault, A. A. 1930b. New pests from Australia. VIII. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 273-277).

[G32] Girault, A. A. 1932. Hymenoptera, Thysanoptera nova Australiensis. II. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 292).

[GM79] Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 1-400.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HC01] Ho, C.-C., & W.-H. Chen. 2001. Life cycle, food consumption, and seasonal occurrence of Scolothrips indicus (Thysanoptera: Aeolothripidae) on eggplant. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 409-412. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[JR-SM-G05] Johansen, R. M., A. P. Retana-Salazar & A. Mojica-Guzmán. 2005. A review of the New World bryophyte-feeding genus Wegenerithrips Johansen 1983 (Insecta, Thysanoptera, Thripidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (1): 61-83.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: An annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1-98.

[MM04] Martin, N. A., & L. A. Mound. 2004. Host plants for some New Zealand thrips (Thysanoptera: Terebrantia). New Zealand Entomologist 27: 119-123.

[M04] Mound, L. A. 2004. Australian Thysanoptera—biological diversity and a diversity of studies. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 248-257.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1-487.

[MM09] Mound, L. A. & M. Masumoto. 2009. Australian Thripinae of the Anaphothrips genus-group (Thysanoptera), with three new genera and thirty-three new species. Zootaxa 2042: 1-76.

Heterothripidae

Female Heterothrips pectinifer, from Thrips of California.


Belongs within: Thysanoptera.

The Heterothripidae are a smallish family of New World thrips species. The biology of the family is poorly known, though many species appear to be flower-living (Mound & Marullo 1996). The great majority of species are placed in the genus Heterothrips, which lacks the long expanded setae on the head and pronotum of Aulacothrips, and the triangle of strong reticulate sculpture on the metanotum of Scutothrips. Lenkothrips has been treated as a subgenus of Heterothrips, but has the sensoria on antennal segments III and IV curved towards the base of segment laterally, whereas they are restricted to the apex in Heterothrips (Mound & Marullo 1996).

Characters (from Mound & Marullo 1996): Antenna with nine segments; segments III and IV with continuous, circum-polar sensory areas, usually transverse around apex but sometimes curved basally on each side of these segments.

<==Heterothripidae [Heterothripoidea]
    |--Protothrips Z02
    |--Archaeothrips Z02
    |--Lenkothrips De Santis & Sureda 1970 MM96
    |    `--*L. sensitivus (De Santis & Sureda 1970) [=Heterothrips (*Lenkothrips) sensitivus] MM96
    |--Aulacothrips Hood 1952 MM96
    |    `--*A. dictyotus Hood 1952 MM96
    |--Scutothrips Stannard 1972 MM96
    |    |--*S. incaensis Stannard 1972 MM96
    |    |--S. byrsonimae Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
    |    |--S. nudus [incl. S. moreirai Moulton 1932] MM96
    |    `--S. peruvianus MM96
    `--Heterothrips Hood 1908 [incl. Protemnothrips Hood 1937] MM96
         |--*H. arisaemae Hood 1908 MM96
         |--H. aesculi Watson 1915 MM96
         |--H. alvarezi Johansen 1991 MM96
         |--H. analis Hood 1915 MM96
         |--H. angusticeps Hood 1954 MM96
         |--H. animosus Johansen 1986 MM96
         |--H. anodae Johansen 1989 MM96
         |--H. auranticornis Watson 1922 MM96
         |--H. azaleae Hood 1916 MM96
         |--H. bicolor Hood 1954 MM96
         |--H. bolivianus Stannard 1972 MM96
         |--H. brasiliensis Moulton 1932 MM96
         |--H. cacti Hood 1955 [incl. H. sensibilis De Santis 1980] MM96
         |--H. californiensis Johansen 1989 MM96
         |--H. castaneus Johansen 1981 MM96
         |--H. clusiae Hood 1955 MM96
         |--H. condei Moulton 1932 MM96
         |--H. cuernavacae Watson 1939 MM96
         |--H. decacornis Crawford 1909 [incl. H. bonampakus Johansen 1981, H. borinquen Hood 1915] MM96
         |--H. decoratus Hood 1954 MM96
         |--H. eversi Stannard 1958 MM96
         |--H. fimbriatus Hood 1934 MM96
         |--H. flavicornis Hood 1915 MM96
         |--H. flavicruris Hood 1934 MM96
         |--H. flavidus Hood 1954 MM96
         |--H. flavitibia Moulton 1932 MM96
         |--H. gillettei Moulton 1929 MM96
         |--H. julius Stannard 1972 MM96
         |--H. lasquerellae Hood 1939 MM96
         |--H. lewisi Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
         |--H. limbatus Hood 1925 MM96
         |--H. lyoniae Hood 1916 MM96
         |--H. marginatus Hood 1954 MM96
         |--H. mexicanus Watson 1924 MM96
         |--H. miconiae Hood 1937 [=H. (*Protemnothrips) miconiae] MM96
         |--H. mimosae Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
         |--H. minor Hood 1915 MM96
         |--H. moestus De Santis 1966 MM96
         |--H. myrceugenellae Gallego de Sureda 1973 MM96
         |--H. oneillae Medina Gaud 1963 MM96
         |--H. ornatus Hood 1938 MM96
         |--H. pastraniae Tapia 1952 (n. d.) MM96
         |--H. pectinifer Hood 1915 MM96
         |--H. pilosus Buffa 1908 (n. d.) MM96
         |--H. pithecolobiumaffinis Johansen 1989 MM96
         |--H. prosopidis Crawford 1943 MM96
         |--H. pubescens Hood 1934 MM96
         |--H. quercicola Crawford 1942 MM96
         |--H. salicis Shull 1909 MM96
         |--H. semiflavus De Santis 1972 MM96
         |--H. sericatus Hood 1913 MM96
         |--H. spinosus Moulton 1932 MM96
         |--H. striatus Moulton 1932 MM96
         |--H. trinidadensis Hood 1955 MM96
         |--H. varitibia Moulton 1932 MM96
         |--H. vernus Hood 1939 MM96
         |--H. vitifloridus Bailey & Cott 1955 MM96
         |--H. vitis Hood 1916 [incl. H. tiliae Watson 1920] MM96
         |--H. watsoni Bailey & Cott 1955 MM96
         `--H. xolismae Hood 1936 MM96

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1-487.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Order Thripida Fallen, 1914. (=Thysanoptera Haliday, 1836) The thrips. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 133-143. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

Wegenerithrips

Right forewing of Wegenerithrips admirabilis, from Johansen et al. (2005).


Belongs within: Thripidae.

Wegenerithrips is a New World genus of thrips with sabre-shaped forewings, the upper vein of which bears sparse and interrupted setae.

Characters (from Johansen et al. 2005): Very small thrips known only from females (0.738–1.16 mm in length). Body predominantly clear yellow, or bicolored: yellow with brownish abdomen, or head and thorax brown with yellow abdomen. Subhypodermal pigment yellow to orange. Antennal segments I–II yello, III–VIII dark brown. Fore wings dark greyish-brown; hind wings whitish with a dark brown median longitudinal vitta. Ocellar crescents orange to red. Body setae dark brown. Head in dorsal view broader than long, slightly produced in front (including bases of antennae) or only between bases of antennae; cheeks slightly convex to almost straight and subparallel; occiput sculptured with transverse and confluent striae. Chaetotaxy of head with anteocellars (pair I) commonly present (rarely absent); lateral setae (pair II) present; interocellars (pair III) commonly very long, between hind ocelli, sometimes posterior displaced to near basal margin of ocellar triangle; postoculars i–ii present. Compound eyes ellipsoidal, protruding, regularly faceted and pilose; ocellar triangle at centre between both eyes, anterior ocellus inclined or directed forwards. Antennae 8-segmented; II with two setae surrounding dorsoapical chordotonal sensilla; segment III with subbasal hyaline and membranose ring, pedicel cylindric to slightly fungiform, segments III–VI globose and pedicellate, each with annulae and microtrichia; segments III–IV each with a bifurcate trichome (dorsal and ventral respectively). Mouth-cone commonly long (nearly to completely reaching posterior margin of prosternum), narrow to broadly round, longer or shorter than head's dorsal length. Maxillary palps three-segmented; labial palpi two-segmented. Pronotum broader than long, smooth or with some faint transverse striae in anterior margin that become stronger in posterior margin. Chaetotaxy of pronotum with two major anteroangulars commonly short, two major anteromarginals commonly long but sometimes reduced; four minor posteromarginals; two posteroangulars, the inner one very long, the outer reduced; basantra membranous, ferna entire but constricted at middle. Mesonotum transverse, oblong, pentagonal to hexagonal, with transverse parallel to confluent striae; with two pairs of posteromarginal setae, and one lateral on each side. Metanotum scutum transverse, smooth at centre, concentrically striated, or with polygonal reticulation; pair of median setae on anterior margin or posterior displaced. Pterosternum: mesosternal furca with spinula, absent in metasternal furca. Legs slender and moderately long; all tarsi two-segmented. Fore wings sabre-like, commonly with apex curved forwards, upper vein with sparse and interrupted chaetotaxy, second vein with regularly placed setae; posterior fringe cilia wavy. Abdomen with suture separating laterotergites and pleurites. Tergite I with two setae at middle (also present on tergites II–VIII). Tergite VIII with ctenidium anterolateral to spiracle; with craspedum (sometimes not apparent) in posterior margin. Tergite X with short to long longitudinal suture. Sternites II–VII each with accessory transverse setae row plus posteromarginals.

<==Wegenerithrips Johansen 1983 JR-SM-G05
    |  i. s.: W. trinidadensis (Hood 1956) JR-SM-G05
    |         W. virginianus (Johansen & Mojica 1986) [=Plesiopsothrips virginianus] JR-SM-G05
    |--W. exiguamirabilis Johansen, Retana-Salazar & Mojica-Guzmán 2005 JR-SM-G05
    `--+--*W. admirabilis Johansen 1983 JR-SM-G05
       `--+--W. teoceloensis Johansen, Retana-Salazar & Mojica-Guzmán 2005 JR-SM-G05
          `--+--+--W. longistilus Johansen, Retana-Salazar & Mojica-Guzmán 2005 JR-SM-G05
             |  `--+--W. centraliamericanus Johansen, Retana-Salazar & Mojica-Guzmán 2005 JR-SM-G05
             |     `--W. grandemirabilis Johansen, Retana-Salazar & Mojica-Guzmán 2005 JR-SM-G05
             `--+--W. godmansalvinorum Johansen, Retana-Salazar & Mojica-Guzmán 2005 JR-SM-G05
                `--+--W. bicolor Johansen, Retana-Salazar & Mojica-Guzmán 2005 JR-SM-G05
                   `--W. minor Johansen, Retana-Salazar & Mojica-Guzmán 2005 JR-SM-G05

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[JR-SM-G05] Johansen, R. M., A. P. Retana-Salazar & A. Mojica-Guzmán. 2005. A review of the New World bryophyte-feeding genus Wegenerithrips Johansen 1983 (Insecta, Thysanoptera, Thripidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (1): 61-83.

Thrips

Onion thrips Thrips tabaci, photographed by Nigel Cattlin.


Belongs within: Thripini.

Thrips is a large genus of thrips, most diverse in the Holarctic and Old World tropics, though some species have become cosmopolitan pest species. These include the onion thrips Thrips tabaci and the melon thrips T. palmi, both of which feed on a wide range of crops and can transmit viruses between them. Members of Thrips are characterised by the absence of ocellar setae I, and the presence of paired tergal ctenidia posteromesad of the spiracles on tergite VIII (Mound & Marullo 1996).

Thrips Linnaeus 1758 JR-SM-G05
    |--*T. physapus Linnaeus 1758 MM96
    |--T. addendus (Priesner 1933) [=Taeniothrips addendus] MM96
    |--T. aligherini Girault 1927 G27b
    |--T. australis (Bagnall 1915) [=Isoneurothrips australis; incl. I. marisabellae Ortiz 1973] MM96
    |--T. coprosmae Mound 1978 MM04
    |--T. darci Girault 1930 G30
    |--T. exilicornis MM96
    |--T. flavus M04
    |--T. florum Schmutz 1913 MM96
    |--T. formosanus Priesner 1934 S76
    |--T. hawaiiensis (Morgan 1913) [=Euthrips hawaiiensis] MM96
    |--T. imaginis Bagnall 1926 GM79
    |--T. indigenus Girault 1929 G29
    |--T. japonicus Bagnall 1914 GM79 [=T. partirufus Girault 1927 G27c]
    |--T. lacteicorpus Girault 1927 GM79
    |--T. major M04
    |--T. obscuratus (Crawford 1941) MM04
    |--T. orientalis (Bagnall 1915) [=Isoneurothrips orientalis] MM96
    |--T. pallidulus Bagnall 1924 S76
    |--T. palmi Karny 1925 MM96
    |--T. seminiveus Girault 1926 G26
    |--T. setipennis M04
    |--T. shakespearei Girault 1927 G27a
    |--T. simplex (Morison 1930) [=Physothrips simplex] MM96
    |--T. tabaci Lindeman 1889 MM96
    |--T. trehernei B08
    |--T. unispinus M04
    `--T. vulgatissimus MM96

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B08] Bartos, M. 2008. Alternative predatory tactics in a juvenile jumping spider. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 300-305.

[G26] Girault, A. A. 1926. New pests from Australia. IV. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 205).

[G27a] Girault, A. A. 1927a. Some new wild animals. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 208-210).

[G27b] Girault, A. A. 1927b. New Australian animals so far overlooked by outsiders. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 211-212).

[G27c] Girault, A. A. 1927c. A discourse on wild animals. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 216-217).

[G29] Girault, A. A. 1929. North American Hymenoptera Mymaridae. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 233-261).

[G30] Girault, A. A. 1930. New pests from Australia. VIII. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 273-277).

[GM79] Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 1-400.

[JR-SM-G05] Johansen, R. M., A. P. Retana-Salazar & A. Mojica-Guzmán. 2005. A review of the New World bryophyte-feeding genus Wegenerithrips Johansen 1983 (Insecta, Thysanoptera, Thripidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (1): 61-83.

[MM04] Martin, N. A., & L. A. Mound. 2004. Host plants for some New Zealand thrips (Thysanoptera: Terebrantia). New Zealand Entomologist 27: 119-123.

[M04] Mound, L. A. 2004. Australian Thysanoptera - biological diversity and a diversity of studies. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 248-257.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1-487.

[S76] Strassen, R. zur. 1976. Hochmontane Arisaema-Arten (Araceae) in Nepal als Wirtspflanzen floricoler Fransenflügler (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (1-3): 55-59.

Caliothrips

Bean thrips Caliothrips phaseoli, photographed by Ted MacRae.


Belongs within: Thripidae.

Caliothrips is a genus of thrips often associated with grasses, though some species are minor crop pests.

Characters (from Mound & Marullo 1996): Head and pronotum dark with conspicuous reticulate sculpture; wrinkle- or dot-shaped markings present within reticulate sculpture. Antennae eight-segmented; head with cheeks more or less parallel-sided, not constricted into neck-like region. Forewings usually with dark and light bands, first vein with wide interval in setal row. Metathoracic furca with two long curved arms extending to mesothorax. Tarsi one-segmented. Tergite VIII reticulate; tergite X usually with longitudinal split.

<==Caliothrips Daniel 1904 MM96
    |--C. fasciatus (Pergande 1895) [=Heliothrips fasciatus; incl. *C. woodworthi] MM96
    |--C. cinctipennis MM96
    |--C. fasciapennis (Hinds 1902) [=Heliothrips fasciapennis] MM96
    |--C. flavescentis De Santis 1967 MM96
    |--C. insularis (Hood 1928) [=Hercothrips insularis; incl. Heliothrips bruneri Morgan 1929] MM96
    |--C. marginipennis (Hood 1912) [=Heliothrips marginipennis] MM96
    |--C. masculinus (Hood 1928) [=Hercothrips masculinus] MM96
    |--C. multistriatus MM96
    |--C. nanus (Hood 1928) [=Hercothrips nanus] MM96
    |--C. phaseoli (Hood 1912) (see below for synonymy) MM96
    `--C. punctipennis (Hood 1912) [=Heliothrips punctipennis] MM96

Caliothrips phaseoli (Hood 1912) [=Heliothrips phaseoli; incl. Hel. braziliensis Morgan 1929, Caliothrips flavescentis De Santis 1967, Hercothrips ipomoeae Moulton 1932] MM96

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1-487.

Chirothrips

Male and female of Chirothrips manicatus, from CSIRO.


Belongs within: Thripidae.

Chirothrips is a cosmopolitan genus of thrips whose members are all found living in grass flowers. Each individual thrips develops within a single floret on the grass's flower-stalk, and individuals within a species may vary in size depending on the nutritional quality of the host floret (Mound & Marullo 1996).

Characters (from Mound & Marullo 1996): Pronotum trapezoidal, posterior margin at least 1.5 times as wide as anterior margin; sense cones on antennal segments III–IV simple, not forked; antennal segment II usually strongly asymmetric, external margin often produced into a point; mesofurca well-developed, T-shaped, invaginated medially and with paired lateral flanges or, if mesofurca reduced, then metanotum and ventral surface of head with numerous short stout setae.

<==Chirothrips Haliday 1836 MM96 [=Chirtothrips (l. c.) G28]
    |--*C. manicatus (Haliday 1836) [=Thrips (*Chirothrips) manicata] MM96
    |--C. ah Girault 1929 G29
    |--C. atricorpus Girault 1927 G27
    |--C. dorsalis MM96
    |--C. falsus Priesner 1925 MM96
    |--C. frontalis MM96
    |--C. orizaba Hood 1938 MM96
    |--C. pallidicornis M83
    |--C. patruelis MM96
    |--C. priesneri Hood 1949 MM96
    |--C. productus MM96
    |--C. pubescens Hood 1949 MM96
    |--C. ruthae MM96
    |--C. sericatus Hood 1949 MM96
    |--C. simplex MM96
    |--C. spinosus Moulton 1946 MM96
    |--C. texanus MM96
    `--C. vestis MM96

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[G27] Girault, A. A. 1927. Thysanoptera nova Australiensis from Queensland. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 213).

[G28] Girault, A. A. 1928. Some Insecta and a new All Highness. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 225-228).

[G29] Girault, A. A. 1929. New pests from Australia. VI. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 266-269).

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: An annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1-98.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1-487.

Frankliniella

Western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis, from here.


Belongs within: Thripidae.

Frankliniella is a large genus of thrips, most diverse in the Neotropics though some species are cosmopolitan crop pests. These include the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and the common blossom thrips F. schultzei. They cause scarring and deformation of leaves, flowers and fruit of a wide range of crops, and can also transmit viruses between plants.

Characters (from Mound & Marullo 1996): Antennae eight-segmented (rarely seven-segmented), segments III and IV each with a forked trichome; head with ocellar setae I present, III variable in position; compound eyes usually with four pigmented ommatidia (rarely five or absent); pronotum usually with two pairs of long setae on anterior margin (sometimes reduced) and two pairs of long posteroangular setae; pronotal posterior margin with median pair of setae (pm I) shorter than submedian pair (pm II); mesonotal median setae arising at anterior margin of the sclerite; metanotal median setae arising at anterior margin of the sclerite; wings usually fully developed in both sexes, both veins with a complete row of setae, wing-scale usually with 5 veinal and one discal setae; tergite II with three lateral marginal setae, a fourth seta on extreme anterior angle of pleurotergite; tergites V–VIII with paired lateral ctenidia, on VIII anterolateral to spiracles; sternite I with three small anteromedian setae; sternites III–VII without discal setae; the three pairs of marginal setae on sternite VII arising at or close to the margin. Larvae with reduced microtrichia on antennal segment III; tergite IX with a small row of teeth on posterior margin, the distance between the pair of dorsal sensilla about twice the distance between the median dorsal setae, posterior sclerotised band usually extending anteriorly beyond dorsal setae; tergite X with sclerotised band extending at least to dorsal sensilla.

<==Frankliniella Karny 1910 B06 [incl. Bolbothrips Crawford 1945 MM96, Exophthalmothrips Moulton 1933 MM96]
    |--*F. intonsa [=Thrips intonsa] MM96
    |--F. aeschyli Girault 1927 G27
    |--F. akaina Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
    |--F. aliaepennae Berzosa 2006 B06
    |--F. altura Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
    |--F. ameliae Hood 1925 MM96
    |--F. amigoi Berzosa & Maroto 2003 B06
    |--F. annulipes Hood 1915 JR-SM-G05 [incl. F. ingentissima Priesner 1933 MM96]
    |--F. aurea Moulton 1948 MM96
    |--F. aureominuta Johansen 1981 MM96
    |--F. aztecus (Crawford 1945) [=*Bolbothrips aztecus] MM96
    |--F. bagnalliana Hood 1925 B06 [incl. F. inutilis Priesner 1932 MM96, F. varitibia Moulton 1948 MM96]
    |--F. bispinosa MM96
    |--F. bondari Hood 1942 [incl. F. alba Moulton 1948, F. bratleyi Watson 1942] MM96
    |--F. borinquen Hood 1942 MM96
    |--F. brevicaulis Hood 1937 MM96
    |--F. breviseta Moulton 1948 MM96
    |--F. bruneri Watson 1926 B06 [incl. F. inornata Moulton 1936 MM96, F. pseudotritici Priesner 1932 MM96]
    |--F. brunnea Priesner 1932 B06 (see below for synonymy)
    |--F. cassiae Berzosa 2006 B06
    |--F. cephalica Crawford 1910 MM96
    |--F. chamulae Johansen 1981 MM96
    |--F. citripes Hood 1916 B06
    |--F. colombiana Moulton 1948 MM96
    |--F. cotobrusensis Retana & Mound 1995 MM96
    |--F. crotalariae Mound & Marullo 1996 B06
    |--F. cubensis Hood 1925 MM96
    |--F. curiosa Priesner 1932 MM96
    |--F. curta Hood 1942 [incl. Isochaetothrips unicolor Moulton 1933] MM96
    |--F. desertileonidum Watson 1942 [incl. F. oneillae Johansen 1979] MM96
    |--F. desmodii Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
    |--F. difficilis Hood 1925 MM96
    |--F. distinguenda Bagnall 1919 [incl. Isochaetothrips varicornis Moulton 1933, F. verbesinae Sakimura 1967] MM96
    |--F. diversa Hood 1935 MM96
    |--F. espeletiae Berzosa 2006 B06
    |--F. fallaciosa Priesner 1933 MM96
    |--F. floydandrei Sakimura & O’Neill 1979 MM96
    |--F. fulvipennis Moulton 1933 [incl. F. chiapaensis Johansen 1981] MM96
    |--F. fulvipes Bagnall 1919 B06 [incl. F. sulfuripes Hood 1937 MM96]
    |--F. fusca (Hinds 1902) [=Euthrips fusca] MM96
    |--F. gardeniae Moulton 1948 MM96
    |--F. gemina MM96
    |--F. georgiensis Beshear 1982 MM96
    |--‘Euthrips’ gossypii Morgan 1913 [incl. Frankliniella gossypiana Hood 1936] MM96
    |--F. gracilis Berzosa 2006 B06
    |--F. hansoni Retana & Mound 1995 MM96
    |--F. hemerocallis Crawford 1948 MM96
    |--F. incerta Berzosa 2006 B06
    |--F. insularis (Franklin 1908) MM96 (see below for synonymy)
    |--F. invasor Sakimura 1972 MM96
    |--F. jamaicensis Sakimura & O’Neill 1979 MM96
    |--F. kelliae Sakimura 1981 MM96
    |--F. kiesteri Retana & Mound 1995 MM96
    |--F. lichenicola Johansen & Mojica 1989 MM96
    |--*Exophthalmothrips’ longipennis MM96
    |--F. lorena Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
    |--F. mekokara Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
    |--F. melanommata Williams 1913 MM96
    |--F. minuta (Moulton 1907) [=Euthrips minuta] MM96
    |--F. mixteca Johansen 1981 MM96
    |--F. molesta Priesner 1932 MM96
    |--F. montanosa Retana & Mound 1994 B06
    |--F. moultoni MM96
    |--F. musaeperda Hood 1952 MM96
    |--F. nigricauda Hood 1925 MM96
    |--F. occidentalis (Pergande 1895) B06 (see below for synonymy)
    |--F. otites Berzosa & Maroto 2003 B06
    |--F. panamensis Hood 1925 B06
    |--F. paramorum Berzosa 2006 B06
    |--F. parvula Hood 1925 MM96
    |--F. pasta Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
    |--F. peruviana MM96
    |--F. pineticola Hood 1942 B06
    |--F. pintada Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
    |--F. pulchella Hood 1935 B06
    |--F. ramirezi Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
    |--F. regentis Berzosa 2006 B06
    |--F. regia Hood 1942 B06
    |--F. regina Hood 1937 B06
    |--F. rodeos MM96
    |--F. rostrata Priesner 1932 B06
    |--F. salviae Moulton 1948 MM96
    |--F. sanramona Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
    |--F. schultzei Trybom 1910 B06 [incl. F. ipomoeae Moulton 1948 MM96, F. sulphurea MM96]
    |--F. simplex Priesner 1924 B06 [incl. F. inutilis f. adadusta Moulton 1948 MM96]
    |--F. spinosissima Johansen & Mojica 1989 B06
    |--F. standleyana Hood 1935 B06
    |--F. sueoa Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
    |--F. talamanca Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
    |--F. tolucensis Watson 1942 MM96
    |--F. torquis Berzosa 2006 B06
    |--F. trinidadensis Hood 1942 [incl. F. lactea Moulton 1948] MM96
    |--F. trisetosa Hood 1942 B06
    |--F. tritici MM96
    |--F. trybomi Karny 1920 GM79
    |--F. vargasi Retana & Mound 1994 B06
    |--F. varipes Moulton 1933 MM96
    |--F. wedeliae Berzosa 2006 B06
    |--F. williamsi Hood 1915 B06
    |--F. zeteki Hood 1925 MM96
    `--F. zurqui Retana & Mound 1995 MM96

Frankliniella brunnea Priesner 1932 B06 [incl. F. fuscipennis Moulton 1948 MM96, F. inopinata Moulton 1948 MM96, Euthrips cephalica var. reticulata Crawford 1910 non E. insularis var. reticulata Crawford 1909 MM96, F. tridacana Hood 1937 MM96]

Frankliniella insularis (Franklin 1908) MM96 [=Euthrips insularis MM96, Franklinothrips (l. c.) insularis G30; incl. Frankliniella fortissima Priesner 1925 MM96, E. insularis var. reticulata Crawford 1909 MM96]

Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande 1895) B06 [=Euthrips occidentalis MM96; incl. F. dianthi Moulton 1948 MM96, F. syringae Moulton 1948 MM96]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B06] Berzosa, J. 2006. Some new Neotropical species of Frankliniella Karny in the Senckenberg collection, Frankfurt am Main (Germany) (Insecta, Thysanoptera, Thripidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 86 (1): 55-74.

[G27] Girault, A. A. 1927. Some new wild animals. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 208-210).

[G30] Girault, A. A. 1930. New pests from Australia. IX. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 278-279).

[GM79] Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 1-400.

[JR-SM-G05] Johansen, R. M., A. P. Retana-Salazar & A. Mojica-Guzmán. 2005. A review of the New World bryophyte-feeding genus Wegenerithrips Johansen 1983 (Insecta, Thysanoptera, Thripidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (1): 61-83.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1-487.

Neohydatothrips

Marigold thrips Neohydatothrips samyunkur, from CSIRO.


Belongs within: Thripidae.

Neohydatothrips is a genus of thrips found worldwide, distinguished from the closely related Hydatothrips by the absence of a deeply excavated anterior margin to the metasternum (Mound & Marullo 1996).

Characters (from Mound & Marullo 1996): Sense cones on antennal segments III–IV forked. Metasternum anterior border rounded. First vein of forewing with continuous row of setae, second vein with two distal setae. Lateral thirds of abdominal tergites covered with regular rows of fine microtrichia.

<==Neohydatothrips John 1929 MM96
    |--N. portoricensis (Morgan 1925) (see below for synonymy) MM96
    |--N. basilaris (Hood 1941) [=Sericothrips basilaris] MM96
    |--N. flavicollis (Hood 1954) [=Sericothrips flavicollis] MM96
    |--N. gracilipes (Hood 1924) [=Sericothrips gracilipes] MM96
    |--N. hadrosetae Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
    |--N. humberto Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
    |--N. inversus (Hood 1928) [=Sericothrips inversus; incl. S. geminus Hood 1935] MM96
    |--N. luculentus (Moulton 1938) MM96
    |--N. mirandai (Johansen 1981) [=Sericothrips mirandai] MM96
    |--N. pseudoannulipes Johansen 1983 MM96
    |--N. rapoporti Johansen 1983 MM96
    |--N. samyunkur M04
    |--N. signifer (Priesner 1932) (see below for synonymy) MM96
    |--N. tibialis (Priesner 1924) [=Sericothrips tibialis] MM96
    `--N. williamsi (Hood 1928) [=Sericothrips williamsi] MM96

Neohydatothrips portoricensis (Morgan 1925) [=Sericothrips portoricensis; incl. Scirtothrips batatae Bondar 1930, Se. portoricensis extremus Moulton 1941, *Neohydatothrips latereostriatus John 1929] MM96

Neohydatothrips signifer (Priesner 1932) [=Sericothrips signifer; incl. N. aztecus Johansen 1983, S. burungae Hood 1935, S. mimosae Hood 1955] MM96

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Mound, L. A. 2004. Australian Thysanoptera—biological diversity and a diversity of studies. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 248-257.

Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1-487.

Scirtothrips

Citrus thrips Scirtothrips citri, photographed by Joseph Morse.


Belongs within: Thripidae.

Scirtothrips is a genus of leaf-feeding thrips, several of which are important economic pests causing scarring on fruit. These include the citrus thrips S. citri and S. aurantii, the latter of which is also a pest on crops such as bananas and mangoes.

Characters (from Mound & Marullo 1996): Antennae 8-segmented, sense cones forked; head transversely striate; ocellar setae I present, III varying in position between species; usually two pairs of postocular setae behind ocellae; pronotum transversely striate, with four pairs of posteromarginal setae which vary in spize (pm I is median pair, pm II frequently elongate); median pair of mesonotal setae arising well in front of posterior margin; forewing first vein usually with irregular series of setae, two to four (rarely up to ten) setae on second vein; fringe cilia wavy or straight, particularly distally; abdominal tergites with regular microtrichial field on lateral thirds, median pair of setae varying in size and position; VIII with well-developed posteromarginal comb; male sometimes with paired long processes (drepanae) laterally on tergite IX, sternal glandular areas not developed.

<==Scirtothrips Shull 1909 R-SN07
    |--*S. ruthveni Shull 1909 MM96
    |--S. abditus Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
    |--S. albomaculatus MM09
    |--S. astrictus Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
    |--S. aurantii M04
    |--S. bisbravoae Johansen 1983 MM96
    |--S. bondari Moulton 1933 MM96
    |--S. bounites Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
    |--S. citri MM96
    |--S. dobroskyi M04
    |--S. euthyntus Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
    |--S. gladiiseta Girault 1933 G33
    |--S. ikelus Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
    |--S. longipennis (Bagnall 1909) [=Euthrips longipennis] MM96
    |--S. lumarius Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
    |--S. manihoti (Bondar 1924) [=Euthrips manihoti] MM96
    |--S. multistriatus Hood 1954 MM96
    |--S. oligochaetus (Karny 1927) [=Anaphothrips oligochaetus] MM96
    |--S. panamensis Hood 1935 MM96
    `--S. pteridis Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[G33] Girault, A. A. 1933. Some beauties inhabitant not of commercial boudoirs but of Nature’s bosom, notably new insects. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 299-303).

[M04] Mound, L. A. 2004. Australian Thysanoptera—biological diversity and a diversity of studies. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 248-257.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1-487.

[MM09] Mound, L. A. & M. Masumoto. 2009. Australian Thripinae of the Anaphothrips genus-group (Thysanoptera), with three new genera and thirty-three new species. Zootaxa 2042: 1-76.

[R-SN07] Retana-Salazar, A. P., & K. Nishida. 2007. First gall-inducing thrips on Elaphoglossum ferns: a new genus and species of thrips, Jersonithrips galligenus from Costa Rica (Insecta, Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 87 (2): 143-148.