Proviverrinae

Mounted skeleton of Sinopa grangeri in the Smithsonian Institution, photographed by Daderot.


Belongs within: Creodonta.

The Proviverrinae are a generalised group of creodonts, probably paraphyletic with regard to more derived hyaenodontids.

Characters (from Gunnell 1998): M1-3 tritubercular; m1-3 tuberculo-sectorial; m1-3 usually with distinct metaconids and moderate shearing specialisations; premolars elongate, often laterally compressed; feet and limbs may be specialised for climbing or cursoriality.

<==Proviverrinae [Proviverrini, Stypolophinae]
    |--Cynohyaenodon Filhol 1873 V66
    |--Paracynohyaenodon Martin 1906 V66
    |--Proviverra Rütimeyer 1862 V66
    |    |--P. americana V66
    |    |--P. eisenmanni Godinot 1981 GI06
    |    `--P. typica V66
    |--Quercitherium Filhol 1882 V66
    |--Prodissopsalis Matthes 1952 [incl. Imperatoria Matthes 1952 non de Gregorio 1930] V66
    |--Prototomus Cope 1874 S78, V66
    |    |--*P. viverrinus Cope 1874 V66, C76 [=Stypolophus viverrinus C76]
    |    `--P. minimus Smith & Smith 2001 GI06
    |--Dissopsalis Pilgrim 1910 V66
    |    `--D. pyroclasticus S78
    |--Anasinopa leakeyi S78
    |--Propterodon Martin 1906 S78, V66
    |    |--*P. irdinensis Matthew & Granger 1925 V66
    |    `--P. minutus [=Hyaenodon minutus] V66
    |--Tritemnodon Matthew 1906 V66
    |    `--T. agilis V66
    |--Arfia S78
    |--Masrasector aegypticum Simon & Gingerich 1974 S78
    |--Metasinopa Osborn 1909 V66
    |    |--M. aethiopica (Andrews 1906) [=Sinopa aethiopica] V66
    |    |--M. fraasi Osborn 1909 S68
    |    `--M. napaki S78
    |--Protoproviverra Lemoine 1891 V66
    |    `--P. palaeonictides (Lemoine 1880) [=Proviverra palaeonictides, Prov. pomeli Lemoine 1891] V66
    |--Galethylax Gervais 1850 V66
    |    `--G. blainvillei V66
    |--Pseudosinopa Depéret 1917 V66
    |--Prorhyzaena Rütimeyer 1891 V66
    |    `--*P. egerkingiae Rütimeyer 1891 V66
    |--Geiselotherium Matthes 1952 V66
    |--Sinopa Leidy 1871 [incl. Stypolophus Cope 1872] V66
    |    |--‘Triacodon’ aculeatus Cope 1872 [=Stypolophus aculeatus] C76
    |    |--S. grangeri V66
    |    |--‘Stypolophus’ hians Cope 1876 C76
    |    |--S. major V66
    |    |--S. minor V66
    |    |--S. mordax V66
    |    |--‘Prototomus’ multicuspis Cope 1875 [=Stypolophus multicuspis] C76
    |    |--S. opisthotoma V66
    |    |--S. rapax V66
    |    |--S. secundaria (Cope 1875) V66, C76 [=Prototomus secundarius C76, Stypolophus secundarius C76]
    |    |--S. shoshoeniensis V66
    |    |--‘Prototomus’ strenuus Cope 1875 [=Stypolophus strenuus] C76
    |    `--S. vulpecula V66
    |--Boualitomus Gheerbrant, Iarochene et al. 2006 GI06
    |    `--*B. marocanensis Gheerbrant, Iarochene et al. 2006 GI06
    |--Tinerhodon disputatum Gheerbrant 1995 GI06
    |--Acarictis ryani Gingerich & Deutsch 1989 GI06
    |--Galecyon GI06
    |--Gazinocyon GI06
    |--Proviverroides GI06
    |--Pyrocyon GI06
    |--Paratritemnodon GI06
    `--Parvagula palulae GI06

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C76] Cope, E. D. 1876. Report upon the extinct Vertebrata obtained in New Mexico by parties of the expedition of 1874. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4(2): i-iv, 1-370.

[GI06] Gheerbrant, E., M. Iarochene, M. Amaghzaz & B. Bouya. 2006. Early African hyaenodontid mammals and their bearing on the origin of the Creodonta. Geological Magazine 143 (4): 475-489.

Gunnell, G. F. 1998. Creodonta. In: Janis, C. M., K. M. Scott & L. L. Jacobs (eds) Evolution of Tertiary Mammals of North America vol. 1. Terrestrial Carnivores, Ungulates, and Ungulatelike Mammals pp. 91-109. Cambridge University Press.

[S78] Savage, R. J. G. 1978. Carnivora. In Evolution of African Mammals (V. J. Maglio & H. B. S. Cooke, eds) pp. 249-267. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[S68] Simons, E. L. 1968. African Oligocene mammals: introduction, history of study, and faunal succession. Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University, Bulletin 28: 1-21.

[V66] Van Valen, L. 1966. Deltatheridia, a new order of mammals. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 132 (1): 1-126.

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