Normal (left) and scalarid (right) individuals of Cepaea nemoralis, photographed by Gudrun Ruf.

Belongs within: Helicoidea.

The Helicinae is a group of snails native to the western Palaearctic, though several species have become distributed around the world through human transportation.

<==Helicinae [Belogona, Paurotaeniae, Siphonadenia]
    |--Murellini [Murelleae, Murellinae] BR05
    |    |--Murella Pfeiffer 1877 BR05
    |    `--Tacheocampylaea Pfeiffer 1877 [Tacheocampylaeinae, Tacheocampylinae] BR05
    |--Thebini BR05
    |    |--‘Euparypha’ Hartmann 1843 (nom. rej.) [Euparyphinae] BR05
    |    |--‘Xerophila’ Held 1837 (nom. rej.) [Xerophilidae] BR05
    |    `--Theba Risso 1826 [incl. Leucochroa Beck 1837; Leucochroea, Leucochroidae, Leucochroinae, Thebinae] BR05
    |         |--‘Helix’ albella Linnaeus 1758 (see below for synonymy) BR05
    |         |--‘Helix’ candidissima Draparnaud 1801 [=Leucochroa candidissima] BR05
    |         `--T. cartusiana [=Helix cartusiana] BR05
    `--Helicini BR05
         |--Allognathus Pilsbry 1888 [Allognathidae] BR05
         |--Otala Schumacher 1817 [Otalini] BR05
         |--‘Crenea’ Albers 1850 non Risso 1826 [=Crena (l. c.); Crenae, Creneini] BR05
         |--Metachloraea Pfeffer 1930 [Metachloraeae, Metachloraeini] BR05
         |--Cepaea Held 1837 [Cepaeae, Cepaeini] BR05
         |    |--C. hortensis (Müller 1774) HM07
         |    |--C. nemoralis (Linnaeus 1758) HM07
         |    `--C. vindobonensis (Férussac 1821) HM07
         `--Helix Linnaeus 1758 BR05
              |  i. s.: H. aperta MHG04
              |         H. aspersa (Müller 1774) S88
              |         H. brevipila C66
              |         H. capitium TC89
              |         H. conscendens Cox 1866 C66
              |         H. corticicola Cox 1866 C66
              |         H. diversicolor Cox 1866 C66
              |         H. harpa Say 1844 [incl. Pupa costulata Mighels 1844] J49
              |         H. hystrix Mighels in Pfeiffer 1846 J49
              |         H. jugosa Mighels 1845 J49
              |         H. laomontana TC89
              |         H. lucorum PV06
              |         H. mansueta C66
              |         H. peguensis TC89
              |         H. pomatia Linnaeus 1758 HM07
              |         H. porteri Cox 1866 C66
              |         H. setipila TC89
              |         H. subplicatus CC06
              |         H. subrutila Mighels 1845 J49
              |         H. tiara Mighels 1845 J49
              |         H. urarensis C66
              |         H. varians [incl. H. submeris Mighels 1844] J49
              |--H. (Camoena) piliodon Benson 1860 TC89
              |--H. (Genesella) hariola TC89
              |--H. (Plectotropis) TC89
              |    |--H. (P.) fulvicans Adams 1866 A66
              |    |--H. (P.) huttoni [incl. H. orbicula] TC89
              |    |--H. (P.) tapeina Benson 1836 TC89
              |    `--H. (P.) theobaldiana Tapparone Canefri 1889 [=H. rotatoria Theobal 1859 (preoc.)] TC89
              `--H. (Trachia) TC89
                   |--H. (T.) delibrata Benson 1836 [incl. H. procumbens Gould 1844] TC89
                   `--H. (T.) gabata [incl. H. merguiensis Philippi 1846] TC89

‘Helix’ albella Linnaeus 1758 [=*Leucochroa albella; incl. Helix pisana Müller 1774, *Theba pisana] BR05

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A66] Adams, H. 1866. Descriptions of fifteen new species of land and freshwater shells from Formosa, collected by Robert Swinhoe, Esq., consul at Taiwan in that island. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 316-319.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, J. Frýda, B. Hausdorf, W. Ponder, Á. Valdés & A. Warén. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1-2): 1-397.

[CC06] Cameron, R. A. D., L. M. Cook, G. A. Goodfriend & M. B. Seddon. 2006. Fossil land snails of Porto Santo, Madeiran archipelago: change and stasis in Pleistocene to Recent times. Malacologia 49 (1): 25-59.

[C66] Cox, J. C. 1866. Characters of six new Australian land-shells. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 373-375.

[HM07] Honek, A., & Z. Martinkova. 2007. A field method for quantifying the grazing activity of slugs, with particular reference to Arion lusitanicus (Mollusca). Malacologia 49 (2): 273-281.

[J49] Johnson, R. I. 1949. Jesse Wedgwood Mighels with a bibliography and a catalogue of his species. Occasional Papers on Mollusks 1 (14): 213-231.

[MHG04] Maynard, G. V., J. G. Hamilton & J. F. Grimshaw. 2004. Quarantine - phytosanitary, sanitary and incursion management: an Australian entomological perspective. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 318-328.

[PV06] Pimenova, E. A., & A. A. Varaksin. 2006. Putative nitroxidergic cells in the digestive system of some mytilids (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Mytilidae) revealed by NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry. Malacologia 49 (1): 61-77.

[S85] Slatkin, M. 1985. Gene flow in natural populations. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 16: 393-430.

[S88] Solem, A. 1988. Non-camaenid land snails of the Kimberley and Northern Territory, Australia. I. Systematics, affinities and ranges. Invertebrate Taxonomy 4: 455-604.

[TC89] Tapparone Canefri, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XVIII. – Molluschi terrestri e d'acqua dolce. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 295-359.

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