Normal (left) and scalarid (right) individuals of Cepaea nemoralis, photographed by Gudrun Ruf.

Belongs within: Helicoidei.
Contains: Helix.

The Helicinae is a group of snails native to the western Palaearctic, though several species have become distributed around the world through human transportation. Perhaps the best known such species is the garden snail Cornu aspersum, a large species with a globose brown shell patterned with lighter speckles and spiral bands.

<==Helicinae [Belogona, Paurotaenia, Paurotaeniae, Siphonadenia]
    |  i. s.: Cornu Born 1788 [incl. Cantareus Risso 1826, Cryptomphalus de Charpentier 1837] SS10
    |           `--*C. aspersum (Müller 1774) SS10 (see below for synonymy)
    |         Eobania Hesse 1913 C84, BP90
    |           `--*E. vermiculata (Müller 1774) [=Helix vermiculata] SS10
    |         Pseudotachea splendida C84
    |         Alabastrina alabastrites C84
    |         Levantina C84
    |           |--L. caesareana C84
    |           `--L. hierosolyma H84
    |--Otala Schumacher 1817 BR05 [Otalini BR17]
    |    |--*O. lactea (Müller 1774) [=Helix lactea] BR17
    |    `--O. punctata C84
    |--Allognathini [Allognathidae] BR17
    |    |--Allognathus Pilsbry 1888 BR05
    |    |    `--*A. grateloupi (Graëlls 1846) [=Helix grateloupi] BR17
    |    `--Lampadia Albers 1854 [=Mitra Albers 1850 non Lamarck 1798; Lampadiini] BR17
    |         `--*L. webbiana (Lowe 1831) [=Helix webbiana, *Mitra webbiana] BR17
    |--Thebini BR05
    |    |--‘Euparypha’ Hartmann 1843 (nom. rej.) [Euparyphinae, Euparyphini] BR05
    |    |    `--*E. rhodostoma (Draparnaud 1801) [=Helix rhodostoma] BR17
    |    `--Theba Risso 1826 SS10 (see below for synonymy)
    |         |--*T. pisana (Müller 1774) SS10 [=Helix pisana SS10, *Xerophila pisana BR17]
    |         `--‘Helix’ albella Linnaeus 1758 BR05 [=*Jacosta albella BR17, *Leucochroa albella BR17]
    `--Helicini BR05
         |--Helix BR05
         |--Creneatachea Zilch 1960 [incl. Crenea Albers 1850 non Risso 1826, Crena (l. c.); Crenae, Creneini] BR17
         |    `--*C. obtusecarinata (Sandberger 1858) [=Helix obtusecarinata] BR17
         |--Metachloraea Pfeffer 1930 [Metachloraeae, Metachloraeini] BR05
         |    `--*M. oxystoma (Thomä 1845) [=Helix oxystoma] BR17
         `--Cepaea Held 1837 [Cepaeae, Cepaeini] BR05
              |--*C. nemoralis (Linnaeus 1758) [=Helix nemoralis] BR17
              |    |--C. n. nemoralis S84
              |    `--C. n. apennina S84
              |--C. concudensis E99
              |--C. hortensis (Müller 1774) HM07
              |--C. moroguesi E99
              |--C. silvana E99
              |--C. subsulcosa E99
              `--C. vindobonensis (Férussac 1821) HM07

*Cornu aspersum (Müller 1774) SS10 [=Helix aspersa C84, Cantareus aspersus WFS04, Cryptomphalus aspersus S84]

Theba Risso 1826 SS10 [=Xerophila Held 1837 (nom. rej.) BR05; incl. Jacosta Gray 1821 (nom. rej.) BR05, Leucochroa Beck 1837 BR05; Jacostidae, Leucochroea, Leucochroidae, Leucochroinae, Thebinae, Xerophilidae, Xerophilinae]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BP90] Burch, J. B., & T. A. Pearce. 1990. Terrestrial Gastropoda. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 201–309. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[C84] Cain, A. J. 1984. Heterosematism in snails. Malacologia 25 (1): 161–172.

[E99] Esu, D. 1999. Contribution to the knowledge of Neogene climate changes in western and central Europe by means of non-marine molluscs. In: J. Agustí, L. Rook & P. Andrews (eds) The Evolution of Neogene Terrestrial Ecosystems in Europe pp. 328–354. Cambridge University Press.

[H84] Heller, J. 1984. Shell colours of desert landsnails. Malacologia 25 (2): 355–359.

[HM07] Honek, A., & Z. Martinkova. 2007. A field method for quantifying the grazing activity of slugs, with particular reference to Arion lusitanicus (Mollusca). Malacologia 49 (2): 273–281.

[S84] Sacchi, C. F. 1984. Population ecology of Cepaea nemoralis and C. vindobonensis along the north Adriatic coasts of Italy. Malacologia 25 (2): 315–323.

[SS10] Stanisic, J., M. Shea, D. Potter & O. Griffiths. 2010. Australian Land Snails vol. 1. A. field guide to eastern Australian species. Bioculture Press: Mauritius.

[WFS04] Winks, C. J., S. V. Fowler & L. A. Smith. 2004. Invertebrate fauna of boneseed, Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera (L.) T. Norl. (Asteraceae: Calenduleae), an invasive weed in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 27: 61–72.

Last updated: 12 January 2020.

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