Flame of the woods Ixora coccinea, from here.

Belongs within: Rubiaceae.
Contains: Gardenieae.

The Ixoroideae as recognised herein represent a clade supported by molecular analyses but for which morphological synapomorphies have not yet been identified. A more restricted subclade, containing the genera Ixora and Gardenia, is characterised by contorted aestivation and a stylar pollen presentation (Bremer et al. 1999). Members include the genus Coffea, shrubs and small trees native to tropical regions of Africa and Asia, of which some species are cultivated for their seeds which are used to make coffee.

    |  i. s.: Virectaria [Virectarieae] BM00
    |           `--V. major BM00
    |         Mussaendopsis beccariana RB01
    |         Diocodendron dioicum SK02
    |--+--Calycophyllum candidissimum RB01
    |  |--Alseis BJ99
    |  |--Emmenopterys henryi BJ99
    |  |--Pentagonia BJ99
    |  |    |--P. donnell-smithii OV97
    |  |    `--P. macrophylla BJ99
    |  |--Rustia splendens BJ99
    |  |--Simira viridiflora BJ99
    |  |--Capirona decorticans BJ99
    |  |--Condamineeae BJ99
    |  |    |--Condaminea corymbosa BJ99
    |  |    |--Pinckneya pubens B96, BJ99
    |  |    `--Pogonopus speciosus B96, BJ99
    |  `--+--Warszewiczia cordata BJ99
    |     `--Chimarrhis BJ99
    |          |--C. cymosa SWK87
    |          `--C. hookeri BJ99
    `--+--+--Pseudomussaenda flava BJ99
       |  `--Isertieae BJ99
       |       |--Isertia BJ99
       |       |    |--I. laevis BJ99
       |       |    `--I. pittieri BJ99
       |       `--Mussaenda BJ99
       |            |--M. arcuata BJ99
       |            |--M. erythrophylla BJ99
       |            |--M. flava P88
       |            |--M. frondosa P88
       |            |    |--M. f. var. frondosa P88
       |            |    `--M. f. var. glabra P88
       |            |--M. mutabilis P88
       |            `--M. philippica P88
       `--+--+--Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea BJ99
          |  `--+--Vangueria [Vanguerieae] RB01
          |     |    `--V. madagascariensis RB01
          |     `--Pavetteae B96
          |          |--Paracephaelis RB01
          |          |--Pavetta BJ99
          |          |    |--P. abyssinica BJ99
          |          |    |--P. indica P03
          |          |    |--P. kimberleyana VT13
          |          |    `--P. lanceolata BJ99
          |          `--Ixora BJ99
          |               |--I. arborea P03
          |               |--I. biflora BJ99
          |               |--I. capillaries K03
          |               |--I. coccinea BJ99
          |               |--I. grandifolia CMT07
          |               |--I. hookeri BJ99
          |               |--I. javanica P88
          |               `--I. lobbii P88
          |                    |--I. l. var. lobbii P88
          |                    `--I. l. var. stenophylla P88
          `--+--Crossopteryx febrifuga RB01
             |--Alberta magna BJ99
             |--Enterospermum coriaceum B96
             `--+--Coffea [Coffeeae] B96
                |    |--C. arabica BJ99
                |    |--C. canephora P88
                |    |    |--C. c. var. canephora BMM99
                |    |    `--C. c. var. robusta BMM99
                |    `--C. liberica P88
                `--Gardenieae B96

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BMM99] Braun, U., J. Mouchacca & E. H. C. McKenzie. 1999. Cercosporoid hyphomycetes from New Caledonia and some other South Pacific islands. New Zealand Journal of Botany 37: 297–327.

[B96] Bremer, B. 1996. Combined and separate analyses of morphological and molecular data in the plant family Rubiaceae. Cladistics 12: 21–40.

[BJ99] Bremer, B., R. K. Jansen, B. Oxelman, M. Backlund, H. Lantz & K.-J. Kim. 1999. More characters or more taxa for a robust phylogeny—case study from the coffee family (Rubiaceae). Systematic Biology 48 (3): 413–435.

[BM00] Bremer, B., & J.-F. Manen. 2000. Phylogeny and classification of the subfamily Rubioideae (Rubiaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 225: 43–72.

[CMT07] Chakrabarty, T., V. Maina & M. Tigga. 2007. Some unrecorded medicinal plants of the Jarawa tribe of Andaman Islands. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 233–234.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81–98.

[OV97] Ochoa, R., C. Vargas, D. E. Walter & B. M. OConnor. 1997. Two new species of the genus Ceratotarsonemus (Acari: Tarsonemidae). International Journal of Acarology 23 (3): 177–183.

[P03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45: 121–142.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[RB01] Razafimandimbison, S. G., & B. Bremer. 2001. Tribal delimitation of Naucleeae (Cinchonoideae, Rubiaceae): inference from molecular and morphological data. Systematics and Geography of Plants 71: 515–538.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[SK02] Struwe, L., J. W. Kadereit, J. Klackenberg, S. Nilsson, M. Thiv, K. B. von Hagen & V. A. Albert. 2002. Systematics, character evolution, and biogeography of Gentianaceae, including a new tribal and subtribal classification. In: Struwe, L., & V. A. Albert (eds) Gentianaceae: Systematics and Natural History pp. 21–309. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

[VT13] Vigilante, T., J. Toohey, A. Gorring, V. Blundell, T. Saunders, S. Mangolamara, K. George, J. Oobagooma, M. Waina, K. Morgan & K. Doohan. 2013. Island country: aboriginal connections, values and knowledge of the Western Australian Kimberley islands in the context of an island biological survey. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 145–182.

Last updated: 4 January 2019.

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