Trichogrammatidae

Ovipositing Trichogrammatoidea bactrae, copyright ICAR-National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources.


Belongs within: Diaprioidea.
Contains: Trichogramma, Oligosita.

The Trichogrammatidae are a group of minute chalcidoid egg parasites characterised by the possession of three-segmented leg tarsi.

Characters (from Naumann 1991): Length 0.15–1 mm; not strongly sclerotised, mostly smooth; non-metallic, often pale coloured; genae not posteriorly carinate; antennae shorter than head and thorax, 4—9-segmented, often with a very short funicle and large club; pronotum not conspicuous in dorsal view; mesosoma dorsally sparsely setose; notauli distinct; axillae advanced; mesopleuron not enlarged; fore wing often with long marginal cilia and often with setae of disc arranged in radiating lines; postmarginal vein absent; stigmal vein often short or absent; legs slender; tarsi 3-segmented; fore tibial spur short and straight; fore basitarsus without a strigil comb; cerci not advanced; ovipositor rarely exserted.

Trichogrammatidae [Trichogrammatinae] HB13
    |--+--Haeckeliania sperata HB13
    |  `--+--Mirufens MH11
    |     `--Trichogrammatini MH11
    |          |--Trichogramma HB13
    |          `--Trichogrammatoidea MH11
    |               |--T. bactrae MH11
    |               |--T. eldanae H91
    |               |--T. nana (Zehntner 1896) GM79
    |               `--T. rara Girault 1925 G25
    `--+--Ceratogramma HB13
       |    |--C. etiennei HB13
       |    |--C. magnificum MH11
       |    `--C. masneri MH11
       `--Oligositinae HB13
            |  i. s.: Prestwichia aquatica N91, A71
            |--+--Paracentrobiini MH11
            |  `--Chaeotostrichini MH11
            |       |--Zagella Girault 1918 MH11, G18
            |       |    |--*Z. flavipes (Girault 1905) G18, GM79 [=Paracentrobia flavipes G18]
            |       |    `--Z. spirita MH11
            |       `--Lathromeroides Girault 1913 MH11, GM79
            |            |--L. fasciativentris Girault 1913 GM79
            |            |--L. longicorpus Girault 1913 GM79
            |            |--L. neomexicanus Girault 1916 GM79
            |            `--L. redini Girault 1929 G29
            `--+--+--Chaetogramma occidentalis MH11
               |  `--Aphelinoidea Girault 1911 MH11, GM79
               |       |--A. plutella Girault 1911 GM79
               |       |--A. semifuscipennis Girault 1911 GM79
               |       `--A. totinigra Girault 1930 G30
               `--+--Oligosita MH11
                  `--Ufens Girault 1911 MH11, GM79
                       |--U. ceratus MH11
                       |--U. niger (Ashmead 1888) GM79
                       |--U. principalis MH11
                       `--U. spiritus Girault 1918 G18
                            |--U. s. spiritus G18
                            `--U. s. americanus Girault 1918 G18

Trichogrammatidae incertae sedis:
  Hydrophylita A71
  Megaphragma MM96
  Brachygramma Girault 1912 G18, GM79
  Neobrachistella Girault 1918 G18
    `--*N. livii Girault 1918 G18
  Trichogrammatomyia Girault 1916 G18, GM79
    `--T. tortricis Girault 1916 GM79
  Poropoea Forster 1851 G18, GM79
    `--P. attelaborum Girault 1911 GM79
  Xenufens Girault 1916 G18, GM79
    `--X. ruskini Girault 1916 GM79
  Zaga Girault 1911 G18, GM79
   `-Z. latipennis Girault 1911 GM79
  Tumidiclava Girault 1911 G18, GM79
    `--T. pulchrinotum Girault 1911 GM79
  Lathromeris Forester 1856 G18, GM79
    `--L. fidiae (Ashmead 1894) GM79 [incl. L. cicadae Howard 1898 G18, GM79]
  Centrobiopsis Girault 1918 G18
    `--*C. odonatae (Ashmead 1900) G18, GM79 [=Centrobia odonatae G18]
  Mooa Girault 1930 G30
    `--*M. nigrivena Girault 1930 G30
  Ittys Girault 1911 G18, GM79
    |--I. ceresarum (Ashmead 1888) GM79
    `--I. nympha (Girault 1911) GM79 [=Abbella nympha G18]
  Uscana Girault 1911 HB13, GM79
    |--U. marilandica Girault 1918 G18
    `--U. semifumipennis Girault 1911 GM79
  Lathromerella B88
    |--L. atripes Girault 1929 G29
    `--L. oviducta Girault 1929 G29
  Abbella Girault 1911 G18, GM79
    |--A. acuminata (Ashmead 1888) G18, GM79 [incl. A. pallida (Ashmead 1900) G18, GM79]
    |--A. americana Girault 1917 GM79
    |--A. prima (Perkins 1912) G18, GM79 [incl. A. auriscutellum Girault 1916 G18, GM79]
    `--A. subflava Girault 1911 GM79
  Neolathromera Ishii 1934 TYM08
    `--N. kishidai Ishii 1934 TYM08
  Adryas HB13
  Pachamama speciosa HB13
  Brachista F09
    |--B. efferiae F09
    |--B. fidiae F09
    `--B. fisheri F09

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[F09] Fisher, E. M. 2009. Asilidae (robber flies, assassin flies, moscas cazadoras, moscas ladronas). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 585–632. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[G18] Girault, A. A. 1918. North American Hymenoptera Trichogrammatidae. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 142–152).

[G25] Girault, A. A. 1925. An essay on when a fly is lovable, the ceremony of baptizing some and unlovely hate. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 187–190).

[G29] Girault, A. A. 1929. New pests from Australia. VI. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 266–269).

[G30] Girault, A. A. 1930. New pests from Australia. VII. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 270–272).

[GM79] Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 1–400.

[HB13] Heraty, J. M., R. A. Burks, A. Cruaud, G. A. P. Gibson, J. Liljeblad, J. Munro, J.-Y. Rasplus, G. Delvare, P. Janšta, A. Gumovsky, J. Huber, J. B. Woolley, L. Krogmann, S. Heydon, A. Polaszek, S. Schmidt, D. C. Darling, M. W. Gates, J. Mottern, E. Murray, A. D. Molin, S. Triapitsyn, H. Baur, J. D. Pinto, S. van Noort, J. George & M. Yoder. 2013. A phylogenetic analysis of the megadiverse Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). Cladistics 29: 466–542.

[H91] Hokkanen, H. M. T. 1991. Trap cropping in pest management. Annual Review of Entomology 36: 119–138.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1–487.

[MH11] Munro, J. B., J. M. Heraty, R. A. Burks, D. Hawks, J. Mottern, A. Cruaud, J.-Y. Rasplus & P. Jansta. 2011. A molecular phylogeny of the Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). PloS One 6 (11): e27023.

[N91] Naumann, I. D. 1991. Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants, sawflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 916–1000. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[TYM08] Tennent, W. J., M. Yasuda & K. Morimoto. 2008. Lansania Journal of arachnology and zoology—a rare and obscure Japanese natural history journal. Archives of Natural History 35 (2): 252–280.

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