Holotype of Bethylonymellus cervicalis, from Penney & Jepson (2014).

Belongs within: Apocrita.
Contains: Chrysidoidea, Vespoidea, Apoidea.

The Aculeata include the stinging wasps, the clade of Hymenoptera in which the ovipositor has been modified into a venomous sting formed from a pair of sharpened, stiffened gonapophyses, with the egg deposited through an opening at the base of the sting. The fossil Bethylonymidae are included on the basis of their overall resemblance with aculeates, though it is uncertain whether they yet possessed a true sting or not. Bethylonymids are known as compression fossils from the latest Jurassic of central Asia (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). Within the Aculeata, the Vespoidea and Apoidea are grouped into a clade Euaculeata on the basis of their having differing antennal segment numbers in males and females (13 in males, 12 in females; both sexes having identical antennomere numbers in Chrysidoidea), and having the seventh metasomal tergum largely desclerotised and hidden in females (Grimaldi & Engel 2005).

<==Aculeata [Vespomorpha]
    |--Bethylonymellus R02 [Bethylonymidae GE05]
    |    `--B. cervicalis R02
    `--+--Chrysidoidea GE05
       `--Euaculeata GE05
            |--Vespoidea GE05
            `--Apoidea GE05

Aculeata incertae sedis:
  Chartergus H79
    |--C. apicalis G74
    `--C. chartarius H79
  Synoeca surinama H79
  Polybia H79
    |--P. dimidiata H79
    |--P. occidentalis I92
    |    |--P. o. occidentalis I92
    |    `--P. o. cinctus I92
    `--P. scutellaris H79
  Stelopolybia H79
    |--S. angulata H79
    |--S. areata H79
    |--S. falvipennis H79
    |--S. multipicta H79
    |--S. myrmecophila H79
    `--S. testacea H79
  Paravespula germanica H79, CM07
  Lithoserix williamsi GE05

*Type species of generic name indicated


[CM07] Cokendolpher, J. C., & P. G. Mitov. 2007. Natural enemies. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 339–373. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[G74] Günther, K. K. 1974. Staubläuse, Psocoptera. Die Tierwelt Deutschlands 61: 1–315.

[H79] Howse, P. E. 1979. The uniqueness of insect societies: Aspects of defense and integration. In: Larwood, G. & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 345–374. Academic Press: London.

[I92] Imes, R. 1992. The Practical Entomologist. Aurum Press: London.

Penney, D., & J. E. Jepson. 2014. Fossil Insects: An introduction to palaeoentomology. Siri Scientific Press: Manchester.

[R02] Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2002. Superorder Vespidea Laicharting, 1781. Order Hymenoptera Linné, 1758 (=Vespida Laicharting, 1781). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P. & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 242–254. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

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