Aculeata

Holotype of Bethylonymellus cervicalis, from Penney & Jepson (2014).


Belongs within: Vespina.
Contains: Chrysididae, Bethylidae, Euaculeata.

The Aculeata include the stinging wasps, the clade of Hymenoptera in which the ovipositor has been modified into a venomous sting formed from a pair of sharpened, stiffened gonapophyses, with the egg deposited through an opening at the base of the sting. The fossil Bethylonymidae are included on the basis of their overall resemblance with aculeates, though it is uncertain whether they yet possessed a true sting or not. Bethylonymids are known as compression fossils from the latest Jurassic of central Asia (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). Living aculeates may be divided between two clades, the Euaculeata and Chrysidoidea. Chrysidoidea are parasitoids united by the possession of inflated femora and an exposed and evenly sclerotised seventh metasomal tergite in the females (the latter being a retained plesiomorphy), as well as an anteriorly narrowed first metasomal tergite that is fused to the corresponding sternite, and reduction of the vein Cu2 in the forewing (Grimaldi & Engel 2005).

Within the Chrysidoidea, members of the families Dryinidae and Embolemidae develop attached to leafhoppers of the Auchenorrhyncha, protruding from the host's abdomen in a bulging sac (thylacium). Females of Dryinidae are often wingless and strongly divergent in appearance from males; they also often have the tarsus of the forelegs modified into a chela used for grasping oviposition hosts. The Sclerogibbidae are a widespread but not diverse group of small wasps attacking webspinners (Embioptera). The Plumariidae, another small group found in drier regions of South America and southern Africa, are of unknown natural history.

<==Aculeata [Vespomorpha]
    |  i. s.: Stelopolybia H79
    |           |--S. angulata H79
    |           |--S. areata H79
    |           |--S. falvipennis H79
    |           |--S. multipicta H79
    |           |--S. myrmecophila H79
    |           `--S. testacea H79
    |         Lithoserix williamsi GE05
    |--Bethylonymellus R02 [Bethylonymidae GE05]
    |    `--B. cervicalis R02
    `--+--Chrysidoidea [Bethyloidea, Cleptiosa] GE05
       |    |  i. s.: Sparasion Latreille 1802 L02
       |    |           `--*S. cephalotes L02
       |    |         0--Sclerogibbidae GE05
       |    |         |    |--Probethylus schwarzi R00
       |    |         |    `--Sclerogibba N91
       |    |         `--+--Embolemus N91 [Embolemidae GE05]
       |    |            `--Dryinidae GE05
       |    |                 |  i. s.: Dicondylus bicolor K91
       |    |                 |         Paradryinus nigricorpus Girault 1925 R70, G25
       |    |                 |--Transdryininae N91
       |    |                 |--Thaumatodryinus [Thaumatodryininae] N91
       |    |                 |--Bocchus [Bocchinae] N91
       |    |                 |--Biaphelopinae N91
       |    |                 |--Conganteoninae N91
       |    |                 |--Apodryininae N91
       |    |                 |--Aphelopus [Aphelopinae] GE05
       |    |                 |    |--A. melaleucus MS01
       |    |                 |    `--A. theliae A71
       |    |                 |--Anteoninae N91
       |    |                 |    |--Anteon flavicorne A71
       |    |                 |    |--Chelogynus R70
       |    |                 |    `--Anteonella R70
       |    |                 |--Mesodryinus [Dryininae] N91
       |    |                 |    |--M. alatus K62
       |    |                 |    |--M. americanus K62
       |    |                 |    `--M. crawfordi Krombein 1962 K62
       |    |                 `--Gonatopodinae N91
       |    |                      |--Echthrodelphax N91
       |    |                      |--Pseudogonatopus R70
       |    |                      |--Chalcogonatopus R70
       |    |                      |--Haplogonatopus R70
       |    |                      |--Neodryinus N91
       |    |                      |    |--N. koebelei Perkins 1905 GM79
       |    |                      |    `--N. semipolita Girault 1925 G25
       |    |                      `--Gonatopus K62
       |    |                           |--G. ashmeadi K62
       |    |                           |--G. curriei Krombein 1962 K62
       |    |                           `--G. sepsoides K91
       |    |         Lancepyris opertus PK17
       |    |--Chrysididae PK17
       |    `--+--Plumariidae HR11
       |       |    |--Plumarius gradifrons PK17
       |       |    `--Myrmecopterina HR11
       |       `--Bethylidae HR11
       `--Euaculeata GE05

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[G25] Girault, A. A. 1925. Some gem-like or marvellous inhabitants of the woodlands heretofore unknown and by most never seen or dreamt of. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 191–193).

[GM79] Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 1–400.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HR11] Heraty, J., F. Ronquist, J. M. Carpenter, D. Hawks, S. Schulmeister, A. P. Dowling, D. Murray, J. Munro, W. C. Wheeler, N. Schiff & M. Sharkey. 2011. Evolution of the hymenopteran megaradiation. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 60: 73–88.

[H79] Howse, P. E. 1979. The uniqueness of insect societies: Aspects of defense and integration. In: Larwood, G., & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 345–374. Academic Press: London.

[K91] Kathirithamby, J. 1991. Strepsiptera. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 684–695. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[K62] Krombein, K. V. 1962. Natural history of Plummers Island, Maryland. XIII. Descriptions of new wasps from Plummers Island, Maryland, (Hymenoptera: Aculeata). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 75: 1–18.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[MS01] Mocsáry, A., & V. Szépligeti. 1901. Hymenopterák [Hymenopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 121–169. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[N91] Naumann, I. D. 1991. Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants, sawflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 916–1000. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[PK17] Peters, R. S., L. Krogmann, C. Mayer, A. Donath, S. Gunkel, K. Meusemann, A. Kozlov, L. Podsiadlowski, M. Petersen, R. Lanfear, P. A. Diez, J. Heraty, K. M. Kjer, S. Klopfstein, R. Meier, C. Polidori, T. Schmitt, S. Liu, X. Zhou, T. Wappler, J. Rust, B. Misof & O. Niehuis. 2017. Evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera. Current Biology 27 (7): 1013–1018.

[R02] Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2002. Superorder Vespidea Laicharting, 1781. Order Hymenoptera Linné, 1758 (=Vespida Laicharting, 1781). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 242–254. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[R70] Riek, E. F. 1970. Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 867–959. Melbourne University Press.

[R00] Ross, E. S. 2000. Embia. Contributions to the biosystematics of the insect order Embiidina. Occasional Papers of the California Academy of Sciences 149: 1–53, 1–36.

Last updated: 29 September 2017.

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