Cyclophoroidea

Palaina waterhousei, from Stanisic et al. (2010).


Belongs within: Conchifera.
Contains: Neocyclotinae, Farcimen, Cyclophorinae, Signepupina, Liareinae, Pupinellinae.

The Cyclophoroidea is a group of operculate snails found terrestrially or in fresh water. Members include the Diplommatinidae, a group of terrestrial snails found in southeast Asia and Australasia with minute shells (less than five millimetres in height) with a sculpture of fine to coarse axial ribs and fine spiral ribs. The Pupinidae are another terrestrial group in which the aperture of the generally ovately pupiform shell usually bears anterior and posterior breathing canals (Stanisic et al. 2010).

Characters (from Knight et al. 1960, as Cyclophoracea): Prevailing conispiral but varying in shape; pedal ganglia ladder-like; pallial cavity commonly transformed into a lung, without ctenidium; operculum corneous, typically multispiral.

<==Cyclophoroidea
    |--Aciculidae [Aciculadae, Aciculoidea, Acmeidae, Acmidae, Acmeinae, Opisophthalma] BR05
    |    |--Pseudotruncatella microceras (Braun 1843) TTE93
    |    `--Acicula Hartmann 1821 [=Acme Hartmann 1821] BR05
    |         |--*A. lineata (Draparnaud 1801) [=Bulimus lineatus, *Acme lineata] BR17
    |         `--‘Acme’ fusca G78
    |--Maizaniidae BR05
    |    |--Maizaniella (Spiruloziana) lilliputiana (Morelet 1873) FGN07
    |    `--Maizania Bourguignat 1889 BR05
    |         |--*M. olivacea Bourguignat 1889 BR17
    |         `--M. preussi G78
    |--Ferussinidae [Ferussinae, Ferussininae, Strophostomatidae, Strophostomatinae] BR05
    |    |--Ferussina Grateloup 1827 BR05
    |    |    `--*F. anostomaeformis Grateloup 1827 BR17
    |    `--Strophostoma Deshayes 1828 BR05
    |         `--*S. laevigata Deshayes 1828 BR17
    |--Craspedopomatidae [Craspedopomatoidea] BR05
    |    |--Bolania Wenz 1914 [Bolaniidae] BR05
    |    |    `--*B. utriculosa (Sandberger 1858) [=Cyclostoma utriculosum] BR17
    |    `--Craspedopoma Pfeiffer 1847 [Craspedopomatinae] BR05
    |         |--*C. lucidum (Lowe 1831) [=Cyclostoma lucidum] BR17
    |         |--C. conoideum (Boissy 1848) TTE93
    |         |--C. insuetum (Deshayes 1863) TTE93
    |         `--C. mucronatum CC06
    |--Neocyclotidae [Neocyclotoidea] BR17
    |    |--Neocyclotinae S11
    |    `--Amphicyclotinae [Amphicyclotidae] BR17
    |         |--Amphicyclotus Crosse & Fischer 1879 [Amphicycloteae] BR05
    |         |    `--*A. boucardi (Pfeiffer 1857) [=Cyclostoma boucardi] BR17
    |         `--Aperostoma Troschel 1847 BR05 (see below for synonymy)
    |              |--*A. mexicanum (Menke 1830) [=Cyclostoma mexicanum] BR17
    |              |--A. blanchetiana (Moricand 1826) S11
    |              |--A. connivens Adams 1866 A66b
    |              |--A. palmeri GO06
    |              `--A. perdistinctum A66b
    |--Megalomastomatidae [Neopupidae] BR05
    |    |  i. s.: Farcimen BC01
    |    |         Acroptychia Crosse & Fischer 1877 TTE93
    |    |--Cochlostoma Jan 1830 BR05 [Cochlostomatidae, Cochlostomatinae BR17]
    |    |    `--*C. maculatum (Draparnaud 1805) [=Cyclostoma maculatum] BR17
    |    `--Megalomastomatinae [Megalomastominae] BR17
    |         |--Neopupina Kobelt 1902 BR17, BR05 [Neopupinae, Neopupininae]
    |         |    `--*N. flavula (Lamarck 1822) [=Cyclostoma flavulum] BR17
    |         |--Hainesia Pfeiffer 1856 BR17, BR05 [Hainesiidae, Hainesiinae]
    |         |    `--*H. crocea (Sowerby 1843) [=Cyclostoma croceum] BR17
    |         `--Megalomastoma Swainson 1840 [Megalomastomateae] BR05
    |              |--*M. brunnea Swainson 1840 BR17
    |              `--M. myersii (Haines 1855) [=Cyclostoma (Megalomastoma) myersii] BC01
    |--Cyclophoridae [Holopelmata] SS10
    |    |  i. s.: Hybocystis gravida (Benson 1856) (see below for synonymy) TC89
    |    |         ‘Calliostoma’ pollex Gould 1836 TC89
    |    |         Rhaphaulus chrysalis (Pfeiffer 1852) (see below for synonymy) TC89
    |    |         Leptopoma Pfeiffer 1847 [incl. Dermatocera Adams & Adams 1855] SS10
    |    |           |--*L. vitreum (Lesson 1830) [=Cyclostoma vitreum] SS10
    |    |           |--L. minus von Martens 1867 (see below for synonymy) S88
    |    |           `--L. perlucida (Grateloup 1840) (see below for synonymy) SS10
    |    |         Montanopoma Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
    |    |           |--*M. bellendenker Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
    |    |           |--M. agniceps Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
    |    |           |--M. carbine Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
    |    |           |--M. monteithi Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010
    |    |           `--M. walterhill Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
    |    |         Incidostoma tupy Simone 2004 S11
    |    |         Pseudarinia TTE93
    |    |         Chondrocyclus PB27
    |    |--Cyclophorinae BR05
    |    |--Spirostoma Heude 1885 [Spirostomatidae, Spirostomatinae] BR05
    |    |    `--*S. frinianum Heude 1885 BR17
    |    `--Alycaeus Baird 1850 [Alycaeidae, Alycaeinae] BR05
    |         |--*A. (Alycaeus) ‘gibbus’ (Eydoux 1838) [=Cyclostoma gibbum non Drapanarnaud 1805] BR17
    |         `--A. (Dioryx) swinhoei Adams 1866 A66a
    |--Diplommatinidae [Diplommatinacea, Diplommatininae] SS10
    |    |--Clostophis B66
    |    |--Diplommatoptychia conulus Maillard 1885 TTE93
    |    |--Eclogarinia Iredale 1933 SS10
    |    |    `--*E. gowllandi (Brazier 1875) [=Diplommatina gowllandi] SS10
    |    |--Palmatina Iredale 1944 SS10
    |    |    |--*P. coxi (Adams 1868) (see below for synonymy) SS10
    |    |    `--P. quintali Iredale 1945 [incl. P. addenda Iredale 1945] SS10
    |    |--Opisthostoma Blanford 1860 B66
    |    |    |--*O. nilgiricum Blanford 1860 B66
    |    |    |--O. decrespignii A66c
    |    |    |--O. fairbanki Blanford 1866 B66
    |    |    `--O. retrovertens Tomlin 1938 AA88
    |    |--Velepalaina Iredale 1937 SS10
    |    |    |--V. beddomei (Möllendorff 1897) [incl. Diplommatina oreadis Hedley 1900. *V. oreadis] SS10
    |    |    |--V. dunkensis Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
    |    |    |--V. kirrama Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
    |    |    |--V. ravenshoe Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
    |    |    `--V. strangei (Benson 1853) [incl. Diplommatina australiae Benson 1855, D. bensoni Adams 1854] SS10
    |    |--Diplommatina Benson 1849 SS10
    |    |    |  i. s.: D. angulata Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
    |    |    |         D. hypipamee Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
    |    |    |         D. kingiana [=Arinia kingiana] B66
    |    |    |         D. nilgirica [=Arinia nilgirica] B66
    |    |    |         D. pachycheilus B66
    |    |    |--*D. (Diplommatina) folliculus (Pfeiffer 1846) [=Bulimus folliculus] SS10
    |    |    `--D. (Diancta) martensi Adams 1866 A66c
    |    `--Palaina Semper 1865 SS10
    |         |--*P. macgillivrayi (Pfeiffer 1855) (see below for synonymy) SS10
    |         |--P. arborfumosa Shea & Griffiths in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
    |         |--P. capillacea (Pfeiffer 1855) (see below for synonymy) SS10
    |         |--P. deliciosa Iredale 1944 [incl. P. padda Iredale 1944] SS10
    |         |--P. intercollis Shea & Griffiths in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
    |         |--P. levicostulata Iredale 1944 SS10
    |         `--P. waterhousei Iredale 1944 [incl. P. reta Iredale 1944] SS10
    `--Pupinidae SS10
         |  i. s.: Signepupina SS10
         |         Hildapina Iredale 1940 SS10
         |           |--*H. subpolita (Fulton 1906) [=Pupina subpolita] SS10
         |           `--H. kenilworth Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |         Necopupina Iredale 1937 [incl. Ambipupina Iredale 1937, Estopupina Iredale 1937] SS10
         |           |--*N. densecostata (Fulton 1906) [=Pupinella densecostata; incl. Pupina coxi Morelet 1864] SS10
         |           |--N. costata (Hedley & Musson 1892) SS10
         |           |--N. jonesae Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           |--N. monticula Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           |--N. patcouperi Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           |--N. percyensis Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           |--N. pettardi (Crosse 1874) [incl. Pupina macleayi Brazier 1875] SS10
         |           |--N. planilabris (Pfeiffer 1864) [incl. Pupinella whartoni Cox 1864] SS10
         |           `--N. simplex (Fulton 1906) SS10
         |         Cordillerapina Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           `--*C. aguatropica Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |         Hedleya Cox 1892 SS10
         |           |--*H. macleayi Cox 1892 [incl. H. shafferyi Iredale 1940] SS10
         |           |--H. agnimontana Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           |--H. cylindrica Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           |--H. montlewis Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           |--H. multivolva Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           |--H. tribula Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           `--H. umbilicata Odhner 1917 SS10
         |         Alpinipupina Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           `--*A. griffithsi Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |         Suavocallia Iredale 1933 SS10
         |           |--*S. splendens (Dohrn 1862) [=Callia splendens] SS10
         |           |--S. finnegan Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           |--S. minuta Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |           `--S. thorntoniana Stanisic in Stanisic, Shea et al. 2010 SS10
         |         Cyclomastoma pachygaster Hrubesch 1965 TTE93
         |         Rognacia abbreviata (Matheron 1842) TTE93
         |--Liareinae BR05
         |--Pupinellinae BR05
         `--Pupininae BR05
              |--*Arinia minor [=Cyclostoma minus] B66
              `--Pupina Vignard 1829 [Operculaceae, Pupiniana, Pupinini] BR05
                   |--*P. keradrini Vignard 1829 BR17
                   |--P. artata B66
                   `--P. pineticola Cox 1866 C66

Aperostoma Troschel 1847 BR05 [incl. Cyrtotoma Mörch 1852 G78; Aperostomatidae, Aperostomatinae, Aperostomidae]

Hybocystis gravida (Benson 1856) [=Megalostoma gravidum, Pollicaria gravida; incl. Otopoma blennus] TC89

Leptopoma minus von Martens 1867 [=L. vitreum minus, L. pellucidum minor (l. c.), L. perlucidum minus; incl. L. bicolor Tapparone-Canefri 1883 non Pfeiffer 1852] S88

Leptopoma perlucida (Grateloup 1840) [incl. Cyclostoma nitidum Sowerby 1843, L. nitidum ultra Iredale 1937] SS10

Palaina capillacea (Pfeiffer 1855) [incl. P. capillacea definita Iredale 1944, P. howeinsulae Iredale 1944, P. nicholsae Iredale 1944] SS10

*Palaina macgillivrayi (Pfeiffer 1855) [=Diplommatina macgillivrayi; incl. P. macgillivrayi pusillior Iredale 1944, P. macgillivrayi semilevis Iredale 1944] SS10

*Palmatina coxi (Adams 1868) [=Palaina coxi; incl. Palm. norfolkensis Preston 1913, Diplommatina wisemani Brazier 1870] SS10

Rhaphaulus chrysalis (Pfeiffer 1852) [=Cyclostoma chrysalis, Anaulus chrysalis, Megalostoma chrysalis, Pollicaria chrysalis, Raphaulus chrysalis] TC89

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A66a] Adams, H. 1866a. Descriptions of fifteen new species of land and freshwater shells from Formosa, collected by Robert Swinhoe, Esq., consul at Taiwan in that island. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 316–319.

[A66b] Adams, H. 1866b. List of land and freshwater shells collected by Mr. E. Bartlett on the Upper Amazons, and on the River Ucayali, eastern Peru, with descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 440–445.

[A66c] Adams, H. 1866c. Descriptions of six new species of shells, and note on Opisthostoma de-Crespignii. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 445–447.

[AA88] Auffenberg, K., & T. Auffenberg. 1988. Density, spatial distribution, activity patterns, and biomass of the land snail, Geophorus bothropoma Moellendorff (Prosobranchia: Helicinidae). Nautilus 102 (1): 40–45.

[B66] Blanford, W. T. 1866. On Opisthostoma, H. Blanford, with the description of a new species from the neighbourhood of Bombay, and of the animal and operculum. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 447–450.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[CC06] Cameron, R. A. D., L. M. Cook, G. A. Goodfriend & M. B. Seddon. 2006. Fossil land snails of Porto Santo, Madeiran archipelago: change and stasis in Pleistocene to Recent times. Malacologia 49 (1): 25–59.

[C66] Cox, J. C. 1866. Characters of six new Australian land-shells. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 373–375.

[FGN07] Fontaine, B., O. Gargominy & E. Neubert. 2007. Land snail diversity of the savanna/forest mosaic in Lopé National Park, Gabon. Malacologia 49 (2): 313–338.

[G78] Girardi, E.-L. 1978. The Samoan land snail genus Ostodes (Mollusca: Prosobranchia: Poteriidae). Veliger 20 (3): 191–250.

[GO06] Giribet, G., A. Okusu, A. R. Lindgren, S. W. Huff, M. Schrödl & M. K. Nishiguchi. 2006. Evidence for a clade composed of molluscs with serially repeated structures: monoplacophorans are related to chitons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103 (20): 7723–7728.

Knight, J. B., R. L. Batten, E. L. Yochelson & L. R. Cox. 1960. Paleozoic and some Mesozoic Caenogastropoda and Opisthobranchia. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt I. Mollusca 1 pp I310-I331. Geological Society of America, Inc. and University of Kansas Press.

[PB27] Pilsbry, H. A., & J. Bequaert. 1927. The aquatic mollusks of the Belgian Congo, with a geographical and ecological account of Congo malacology. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 53 (2): 69–602, pls 10–77.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[S88] Solem, A. 1988. Non-camaenid land snails of the Kimberley and Northern Territory, Australia. I. Systematics, affinities and ranges. Invertebrate Taxonomy 4: 455–604.

[SS10] Stanisic, J., M. Shea, D. Potter & O. Griffiths. 2010. Australian Land Snails vol. 1. A. field guide to eastern Australian species. Bioculture Press: Mauritius.

[TC89] Tapparone Canefri, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XVIII.—Molluschi terrestri e d’acqua dolce. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 295–359.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

Last updated: 26 January 2020.

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