Pupinella (Pupinopsis) swinhoei, from here.

Belongs within: Caenogastropoda.
Contains: Farcimen, Cyclophorinae.

The Cyclophoroidea is a group of operculate snails found terrestrially or in fresh water.

Characters (from Knight et al. 1960, as Cyclophoracea): Prevailing conispiral but varying in shape; pedal ganglia ladder-like; pallial cavity commonly transformed into a lung, without ctenidium; operculum corneous, typically multispiral.

<==Cyclophoroidea [Cyclophoracea]
    |--Maizaniidae BR05
    |    |--Maizania Bourguignat 1889 BR05
    |    `--Maizaniella (Spiruloziana) lilliputiana (Morelet 1873) FGN07
    |--Aciculidae [Aciculadae, Aciculoidea] BR05
    |    |--Acicula Hartmann 1821 BR05
    |    `--Acme Hartmann 1821 [Acmeidae, Acmidae, Acmeinae] BR05
    |--Ferussinidae [Ferussinae, Ferussininae, Strophostomatidae, Strophostomatinae] BR05
    |    |--Ferussina Grateloup 1827 BR05
    |    `--Strophostoma Deshayes 1828 BR05
    |--Craspedopomatidae [Craspedopomatoidea] BR05
    |    |--Bolania Wenz 1914 [Bolaniidae] BR05
    |    `--Craspedopoma Pfeiffer 1847 [Craspedopomatinae] BR05
    |         `--C. mucronatum CC06
    |--Megalomastomatidae BR05
    |    |--Neopupina Kobelt 1902 [Neopupinae, Neopupininae] BR05
    |    |--Hainesia Pfeiffer 1856 [Hainesiidae, Hainesiinae] BR05
    |    |--Farcimen BC01
    |    `--Megalomastoma Swainson 1840 [Megalomastomateae, Megalomastomatinae, Megalomastominae] BR05
    |         `--M. myersii (Haines 1855) [=Cyclostoma (Megalomastoma) myersii] BC01
    |--Cyclophoridae [Geophila, Holopelmata] BR05
    |    |  i. s.: Hybocystis gravida (Benson 1856) (see below for synonymy) TC89
    |    |         ‘Calliostoma’ pollex Gould 1836 TC89
    |    |         Rhaphaulus chrysalis (Pfeiffer 1852) (see below for synonymy) TC89
    |    |         Leptopoma Pfeiffer 1847 S88
    |    |           `--L. minus von Martens 1867 (see below for synonymy) S88
    |    |--Spirostoma Heude 1885 [Spirostomatidae, Spirostomatinae] BR05
    |    |--Cyclophorinae BR05
    |    `--Alycaeus Baird 1850 [Alycaeidae, Alycaeinae] BR05
    |         `--A. (Dioryx) swinhoei Adams 1866 A66a
    |--Diplommatinidae [Diplommatinacea] BR05
    |    |--Cochlostoma Jan 1830 [Cochlostomatinae] BR05
    |    |--Clostophis B66
    |    |--Opisthostoma Blanford 1860 B66
    |    |    |--*O. nilgiricum Blanford 1860 B66
    |    |    |--O. decrespignii A66c
    |    |    |--O. fairbanki Blanford 1866 B66
    |    |    `--O. retrovertens Tomlin 1938 AA88
    |    `--Diplommatina Benson 1849 [Diplommatininae] BR05
    |         |  i. s.: D. folliculus B66
    |         |         D. kingiana [=Arinia kingiana] B66
    |         |         D. nilgirica [=Arinia nilgirica] B66
    |         |         D. pachycheilus B66
    |         `--D. (Diancta) martensi Adams 1866 A66c
    |--Pupinidae BR05
    |    |--Liareinae [Liareidae] BR05
    |    |    |--Liarea Pfeiffer 1853 BR05
    |    |    `--Cytora Kobelt & Möllendorff 1897 [Cytoridae] BR05
    |    |--Pupininae BR05
    |    |    |--*Arinia minor [=Cyclostoma minus] B6
    |    |    `--Pupina Vignard 1829 [Operculaceae, Pupiniana, Pupinini] BR05
    |    |         |--P. artata B66
    |    |         `--P. pineticola Cox 1866 C66
    |    `--Pupinellinae [Pupinellidae] BR05
    |         |--Ventriculus Wenz 1914 [Ventriculidae] BR05
    |         |--Pollicaria Gould 1856 [Pollicarieae, Pollicariini] BR05
    |         `--Pupinella Gray in Baird 1850 [Pupinelleae, Pupinellini] BR05
    |              `--P. (Pupinopsis Adams 1866) A66a
    |                   |--P. (P.) humilis A66a
    |                   |--P. (P.) mindorensis A66a
    |                   `--P. (P.) swinhoei Adams 1866 A66a
    `--Neocyclotidae [Neocyclotoidea] BR05
         |--Amphicyclotinae [Amphicyclotidae] BR05
         |    |--Amphicyclotus Crosse & Fischer 1879 [Amphicycloteae] BR05
         |    `--Aperostoma Troschel 1847 [Aperostomatidae, Aperostomatinae] BR05
         |         |--A. blanchetianum A66b
         |         |--A. connivens Adams 1866 A66b
         |         |--A. palmeri GO06
         |         `--A. perdistinctum A66b
         `--Neocyclotinae [Poteriidae] BR05
              |--Neocyclotus Fischer & Crosse 1886 [Neocycloteae] BR05
              |--Poteria Gray 1850 [Poterieae, Poteriinae] BR05
              |--Dicrista Thompson 1969 [Dicristidae] BR05
              |--Amphicyclotulus (Amphicyclotulus) BC01
              |    |--A. (A.) dominicensis Bartsch 1942 BC01
              |    `--A. (A.) mineri Bartsch 1942 BC01
              `--Crocidopoma Shuttleworth 1856 [Crocidopomatinae] BR05
                   |--C. (Crocidopoma) AJ59
                   |    |--C. (C.) abbotti AJ59
                   |    `--C. (C.) zayasi Alcalde & Jacobson 1959 AJ59
                   `--C. (Cyclocubana Bartsch 1942) AJ59

Hybocystis gravida (Benson 1856) [=Megalostoma gravidum, Pollicaria gravida; incl. Otopoma blennus] TC89
Leptopoma minus von Martens 1867 [=L. vitreum minus, L. pellucidum minor (l. c.), L. perlucidum minus; incl. L. bicolor Tapparone-Canefri 1883 non Pfeiffer 1852] S88
Rhaphaulus chrysalis (Pfeiffer 1852) [=Cyclostoma chrysalis, Anaulus chrysalis, Megalostoma chrysalis, Pollicaria chrysalis, Raphaulus chrysalis] TC89

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A66a] Adams, H. 1866a. Descriptions of fifteen new species of land and freshwater shells from Formosa, collected by Robert Swinhoe, Esq., consul at Taiwan in that island. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 316-319.

[A66b] Adams, H. 1866b. List of land and freshwater shells collected by Mr. E. Bartlett on the Upper Amazons, and on the River Ucayali, eastern Peru, with descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 440-445.

[A66c] Adams, H. 1866c. Descriptions of six new species of shells, and note on Opisthostoma de-Crespignii. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 445-447.

[AJ59] Alcalde, O. & M. K. Jacobson. 1959. A new operculate land snail from Haiti. Nautilus 72 (4): 111-115.

[AA88] Auffenberg, K. & T. Auffenberg. 1988. Density, spatial distribution, activity patterns, and biomass of the land snail, Geophorus bothropoma Moellendorff (Prosobranchia: Helicinidae). Nautilus 102 (1): 40-45.

[B66] Blanford, W. T. 1866. On Opisthostoma, H. Blanford, with the description of a new species from the neighbourhood of Bombay, and of the animal and operculum. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 447-450.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, J. Frýda, B. Hausdorf, W. Ponder, Á. Valdés & A. Warén. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1-2): 1-397.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B. & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1-170.

[CC06] Cameron, R. A. D., L. M. Cook, G. A. Goodfriend & M. B. Seddon. 2006. Fossil land snails of Porto Santo, Madeiran archipelago: change and stasis in Pleistocene to Recent times. Malacologia 49 (1): 25-59.

[C66] Cox, J. C. 1866. Characters of six new Australian land-shells. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 373-375.

[FGN07] Fontaine, B., O. Gargominy & E. Neubert. 2007. Land snail diversity of the savanna/forest mosaic in Lopé National Park, Gabon. Malacologia 49 (2): 313-338.

[GO06] Giribet, G., A. Okusu, A. R. Lindgren, S. W. Huff, M. Schrödl & M. K. Nishiguchi. 2006. Evidence for a clade composed of molluscs with serially repeated structures: Monoplacophorans are related to chitons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103 (20): 7723-7728.

Knight, J. B., R. L. Batten, E. L. Yochelson & L. R. Cox. 1960. Paleozoic and some Mesozoic Caenogastropoda and Opisthobranchia. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt I. Mollusca 1 pp I310-I331. Geological Society of America, Inc. and University of Kansas Press.

[S88] Solem, A. 1988. Non-camaenid land snails of the Kimberley and Northern Territory, Australia. I. Systematics, affinities and ranges. Invertebrate Taxonomy 4: 455-604.

[TC89] Tapparone Canefri, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XVIII. – Molluschi terrestri e d'acqua dolce. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 295-359.

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