Hymenoptera

Larva of horned hickory sawfly Macroxyela, photographed by Charley Eiseman.


Belongs within: Holometabola.
Contains: Tenthredinoidea, Siricomorpha.

The Hymenoptera include the wasps and their derivative taxa such as bees and ants. Members of the group are primitively characterised by the presence of hamuli, small hooks on the anterior margin of the hind wing that hook onto the fore wing and hold the wings locked together. The Xyelidae are both the earliest-divergent and the oldest known members of the Hymenoptera, with putative representatives in the Late Triassic, though it is uncertain whether all members of the fossil subfamily Archexuelinae form a clade with modern xyelids (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). Larvae of the Xyelidae are herbivorous, with Xyelinae feeding on developing cones or shoots of conifers, and Macroxyela on leaves of elms or walnuts. The remaining Hymenoptera form a clade Neohymenoptera, characterised by the fusion of the forewing subcosta with the radial vein, with Rs not branched apically, hind wings with the subcosta absent and M and Cu stems fused proximally, postspiracular sclerites present in the mesothorax, well-developed cervical apodemes, and loss of metapleuro-mesosternal musculature (Grimaldi & Engel 2005).

Synapomorphies (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005): Hamuli present; protibial spur with velum; haplodiploid sex determination.

Hymenoptera [Siricina, Symphyta, Vespida, Vespidea]
    |--Neohymenoptera GE05
    |    |--Tenthredinoidea GE05
    |    `--Siricomorpha GE05
    `--Xyelidae [Archihymenoptera, Xyeloidea] GE05
         |  i. s.: Spathoxyela pinicola R02b
         |         Angaridyela vitimica GE05
         |         Eoxyela atra R02a
         |         Megaxyela gigantea Mocsary 1909 Z02b, I92
         |--Xyela [Xyelinae, Xyelini] R02a
         |--Macroxyela [Macroxyelinae] NPH04
         `--Archexyelinae GE05
              |--Archexyela GE05
              `--Madygenius GE05

Hymenoptera incertae sedis:
  Stenopolybia Z02a
  Orisema uchancoi H03
  Rielia manticida A71
  Euryxyela Hong 1984 [=Xaxexis Pagliano & Scaramozzino 1990] NPH04
  Ophrynopus schauinslandi G27
  Salius G27
    |--S. conformis G27
    `--S. fujax G27
  Amalthea Rafinesque 1815 BR05
  Giraudia Foerster 1868 BR05
  Janus Stephens 1835 BR05
  Dineura virididorsata (Retzius 1783) HP-W05
  Lionotus delphinalis A-B91
  Schizonotus Ratzeburg 1852 H11
  Mesoleptus flavovariegatus Lucas 1849 E12
  Myzina E12
    |--M. guerinii Lucas 1849 E12
    `--M. oraniensis Lucas 1849 E12
  Tarpa levaillantii Lucas 1849 E12
  Epyris pulchellus Lucas 1849 E12
  Scleroderma ruficornis Lucas 1849 E12
  Hartigia Schioedte 1838 L59
  ‘Promachus’ Cresson 1887 nec Loew 1848 nec Stål 1875 Z01
  Myzinum quinquecinctum (Fabricius 1775) [=Tiphia quinquecincta, Sphex quinquecinctus] BM76

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[A-B91] Athias-Binche, F. 1991. Ecology and evolution of phoresy in mites. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 27-41. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[BM76] Bohart, R. M. & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, J. Frýda, B. Hausdorf, W. Ponder, Á. Valdés & A. Warén. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1-2): 1-397.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[G27] Gourlay, E. S. 1927. Notes on the New Zealand wood-wasp Ophrynopus schauinslandi Ashmead. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 691-693.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H11] Harvey, M. S. 2011. Notes on some Old World schizomids of the genera Ovozomus and Schizomus (Schizomida: Hubbardiidae). Records of the Western Australian Museum 26 (2): 202-208.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: Vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311-449.

[HP-W05] Heitland, W., & H. Pschorn-Walcher. 2005. Biology and parasitoids of the peculiar alder sawfly, Platycampus luridiventris (Fallen) (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (2): 215-231.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[L59] Lopes, H. de S. 1959. A revision of Australian Sarcophagidae (Diptera). Studia Ent. 2 (1-4): 33-67.

[NPH04] Nel, A., J. F. Petrulevicius & M. Henrotay. 2004. New Early Jurassic sawflies from Luxembourg: The oldest record of Tenthredinoidea (Hymenoptera: “Symphyta”). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 49 (2): 283-288.

[R02a] Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2002a. Subclass Scarabaeona Laicharting, 1781. The winged insects (=Pterygota Lang, 1888). In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 75-83. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[R02b] Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2002b. Superorder Vespidea Laicharting, 1781. Order Hymenoptera Linné, 1758 (=Vespida Laicharting, 1781). In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 242-254. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[Z02a] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002a. Insect trace fossils. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 303-324. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[Z02b] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002b. Ecological history of the terrestrial insects. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 331-388. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[Z01] Zompro, O. 2001. A review of Eurycanthinae: Eurycanthini, with a key to genera, notes on the subfamily and designation of type species. Phasmid Studies 10 (1): 19-23.

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