Limothrips angulicornis, from OzThrips.

Belongs within: Thripida.
Contains: Wegenerithrips, Plesiothrips, Aptinothripina, Dendrothripinae, Frankliniella, Sericothripinae, Scirtothrips, Anaphothrips, Taeniothrips, Thrips, Panchaetothripinae, Chirothrips.

The Thripidae are a diverse and cosmopolitan family of thrips including, amongst others, the great majority of the pest thrips species. Recent authors have recognised four subfamilies within the Thripidae though the largest of these, the Thripinae, is defined only by the absence of derived characters and is undoubtedly paraphyletic. Molecular phylogenetic analysis has suggested division of the family between two major lineages, one including the subfamilies Dendrothripinae and Sericothripinae and thripine genera related to Frankliniella, and the other including the subfamily Panchaetothripinae and genera related to Thrips (Buckman et al. 2013). The latter of these clades also includes the distinctive genus Scolothrips, species of which are predators on leaf-feeding mites. The Chirothripini have been recognised as a tribe of grass-living 'Thripinae' but, again, the characters defining this assemblage are probably related to their habitat and the tribe is probably not monophyletic (Mound & Marullo 1996).

Characters (from Mound & Marullo 1996): Small to medium in body size (0.5–2.5 mm in length). Antenna with six to eight (rarely nine) segments, terminal segments forming short style at apex of segment VI if present; segments III and IV each with one (occasionally two) emergent, forked or simple, sensory trichomes, each of which is more than twice as long as wide. Tentorium not developed. Wings, if present, slender and usually more or less pointed, with two longitudinal veins each usually bearing a row of setae. Females with serrated ovipositor (rarely reduced) that is downturned at apex. Males commonly smaller and paler than females with a more slender body, often bearing one or more glandular areas on median sternites.

Thripidae [Thripinae, Thripini]
    |--+--Ayyaria chaetophora BMW13
    |  |--+--Aptinothripina BMW13
    |  |  `--Dendrothripinae BMW13
    |  |--+--Frankliniella BMW13
    |  |  `--Pseudanaphothrips Karny 1921 BMW13, GM79
    |  |       |--P. achaetus BMW13
    |  |       `--P. araucariae BMW13
    |  `--+--Sericothripinae BMW13
    |     `--+--+--Anascirtothrips arorai BMW13
    |        |  `--Scirtothrips BMW13
    |        `--+--Parabaliothrips newmani BMW13, M04
    |           `--Echinothrips Moulton 1911 BMW13, MM96
    |                |--*E. mexicanus Moulton 1911 MM96
    |                |--E. americanus Morgan 1913 [incl. Dictyothrips floridensis Watson 1919] MM96
    |                |--E. asperatus Hood 1957 MM96
    |                |--E. caribbeanus Hood 1955 MM96
    |                |--E. pinnatus Hood 1960 MM96
    |                |--E. selaginellae Mound 1994 MM96
    |                `--E. subflavus Hood 1927 MM96
    `--+--+--Anaphothrips BMW13
       |  `--+--Taeniothrips BMW13
       |     `--Thrips BMW13
       `--+--+--Panchaetothripinae BMW13
          |  `--Scolothrips Hinds 1902 BMW13, MM96
          |       |--*S. sexmaculatus (Pergande 1894) [=Thrips sexmaculata] MM96
          |       |--S. indicus HC01
          |       |--S. longicornis HC01
          |       `--S. rhagebianus BMW13
          `--+--Caprithrips Faure 1933 BMW13, MM96
             |    |--*C. analis Faure 1933 MM96
             |    |--C. insularis Beshear 1975 MM96
             |    `--C. moundi BMW13
             `--+--Pezothrips Karny 1907 BMW13, JR-SM-G05
                |    |--P. aureus Girault 1929 G29
                |    `--P. kellyanus BMW13
                `--+--Tenothrips Bhatti 1967 BMW13, JR-SM-G05
                   |    |--*T. alis [=Taeniothrips (*Tenothrips) alis] MM96
                   |    `--T. frici (Uzel 1895) [=Physopus frici] MM96
                   `--+--Chirothripini MM96
                      |    |--Chirothrips BMW13
                      |    `--Limothrips Haliday 1836 MM96
                      |         |--*L. cerealium (Haliday 1836) [=Thrips (*Limothrips) cerealium] MM96
                      |         |--L. angulicornis MM96
                      |         |--L. australiensis Girault 1928 G28b
                      |         `--L. formosus Girault 1929 G29
                      `--Arorathrips Bhatti 1990 BMW13, MM96
                           |--*A. mexicanus (Crawford 1909) [=Chirothrips mexicanus] MM96
                           |--A. crassiscelis (Zur Strassen 1967) [=Chirothrips crassiscelis] MM96
                           |--A. fulvus (Moulton 1936) [=Chirothrips fulvus; incl. C. dolosus De Santis 1967] MM96
                           |--A. nigriceps (Hood 1952) [=Chirothrips nigriceps] MM96
                           |--A. spiniceps (Hood 1915) [=Chirothrips spiniceps] MM96
                           `--A. xanthius (Hood 1934) [=Chirothrips xanthius; incl. C. oryzae De Santis 1967] MM96

Thripidae incertae sedis:
  Ceratothrips Reuter 1899 M83, GM79
    |--C. frici M83
    `--C. quadratus (Hood 1918) G28a, GM79 [=Pterothrips quadratus G28a]
  Sorgothrips Priesner 1936 JR-SM-G05
  Anomothrips Bhatti 1978 JR-SM-G05
  Odontothripiella Bagnall 1929 JR-SM-G05
    `--O. biloba TM13
  Odontothrips Amyot & Serville 1843 JR-SM-G05
  Projectothrips Moulton 1929 JR-SM-G05
  Dichromothrips MM09
  Trichromothrips MM09
  Tethysthrips PL12
    |--T. hispanicus PL12
    `--T. libanicus PL12
  Adelphithrips cassiniae Mound & Palmer 1981 MM04
  Dikrothrips diphyes Mound & Walker 1981 MM04
  Lomatothrips paryphis Mound & Walker 1982 MM04
  Lefroyothrips Priesner 1938 MM96, JR-SM-G05
  Megalurothrips Bagnall 1915 MM96, JR-SM-G05
  Cricothrips MM96
  Moundiella MM96
  Bournierothrips Bhatti 1979 MM96
  Wegenerithrips MM96
  Plesiothrips MM96
  Graphidothrips stuardoi MM96
  Exothrips MM96
  Organothrips bianchii MM96
  Muscithrips Bournier 1990 MM96, JR-SM-G05
  Xenothrips MM09
  Monothrips flavus MM09
  Gabanithrips Bhatti & Mound 1992 MM96
    `--*G. bantus Bhatti & Mound 1992 MM96
  Craspedothrips zur Strassen 1966 MM96, JR-SM-G05
    `--C. inconstantis (Johansen & Mojica 1986) (see below for synonymy) JR-SM-G05
  Scirtidothrips Hood 1954 MM96
    `--*S. torquatus Hood 1954 MM96
  Rhabdothrips Hood 1933 MM96
    `--*R. albus Hood 1933 MM96
  Fulmekiola Karny 1925 MM96
    `--F. serrata (Kobus 1893) [=Thrips serrata; incl. *F. interrupta Karny 1925] MM96
  Paraleucothrips Johansen 1983 MM96
    `--*P. minusculus Johansen 1983 MM96
  Plesiopsothrips Hood 1956 MM96
    `--*P. trinidadensis Hood 1956 MM96
  Prionotothrips Hood 1954 MM96
    `--*P. procerus Hood 1954 MM96
  Sciothrips Bhatti 1970 MM96
    `--*S. cardamomi (Ramakrishna 1935) [=Taeniothrips cardamomi] MM96
  Systenothrips Hood 1956 MM96
    `--*S. latens Hood 1956 MM96
  Aneristothrips De Santis 1957 MM96
    |--*A. rostratus De Santis 1957 MM96
    `--A. claripennis (Moulton 1933) [=Mycertothrips claripennis] MM96
  Arpediothrips Hood 1927 MM96
    |--*A. mojave Hood 1927 MM96
    `--A. mexicanus Watson 1939 MM96
  Bradinothrips Hood 1954 [incl. Palleucothrips Hood 1956] MM96
    |--*B. williamsi Hood 1954 MM96
    `--B. musae (Hood 1956) [=*Palleucothrips musae] MM96
  Cercyothrips Morgan 1925 MM96
    |--*C. striatus Morgan 1925 MM96
    `--C. galbinus Hood 1957 MM96
  Coremothrips Hood 1925 MM96
    |--*C. pallidus Hood 1925 MM96
    `--C. nubilicus Hood 1954 MM96
  Danothrips Bhatti 1971 MM96
    |--*D. setifer Bhatti 1971 MM96
    |--D. theivorus A78
    `--D. trifasciatus Sakimura 1975 MM96
  Dendrothripoides Bagnall 1923 MM96
    |--D. innoxius (Karny 1914) [=Euthrips innoxius; incl. *D. ipomeae Bagnall 1923] MM96
    `--D. microchaetus MM96
  Rhamphothrips Karny 1913 MM96
    |--*R. tenuirostris [=Rhynchothrips tenuirostris] MM96
    `--R. pandens Sakimura 1983 MM96
  Salpingothrips Hood 1935 MM96
    |--*S. minimus Hood 1935 MM96
    `--S. aimotofus MM96
  Bregmatothrips Hood 1912 MM96
    |--*B. venustus Hood 1912 MM96
    |--B. difficilis Johansen 1977 MM96
    `--B. gracilis Hood & Williams 1915 MM96
  Chaetanaphothrips Priesner 1925 MM96
    |--*C. orchidii (Moulton 1907) [=Euthrips orchidii] MM96
    |--C. bilongilineatus R70
    |--C. deformans A78
    |--C. leeuweni (Karny 1914) [=Euthrips leeuweni; incl. Scirtothrips clarus Moulton 1942] MM96
    `--C. signipennis (Bagnall 1914) [=Scirtothrips signipennis, Anaphothrips signipennis] MM96
  Corynothrips Williams 1913 MM96
    |--*C. stenopterus Williams 1913 MM96
    |--C. cruentatus Hood 1934 MM96
    `--C. flavus Moulton 1941 MM96
  Dorcadothrips Priesner 1932 MM96
    |--*D. caespitis Priesner 1932 MM96
    |--D. cyperaceae MM96
    `--D. xanthius MM96
  Kurtomathrips Moulton 1927 MM96
    |--*K. morrilli Moulton 1927 MM96
    |--K. anahuacensis Johansen 1976 MM96
    `--K. brunneus (Watson 1931) [=Prosopothrips brunneus; incl. K. unicolor Bailey 1961] MM96
  Leucothrips Reuter 1904 MM96
    |--*L. nigripennis Reuter 1904 MM96
    |--L. furcatus MM96
    |--L. pictus MM96
    `--L. theobromae MM96
  Bravothrips Johansen 1986 MM96, JR-SM-G05
    |--*B. daturae Johansen 1986 MM96
    |--B. halffteri Johansen 1986 MM96
    |--B. kraussi (Crawford 1948) [=Taeniothrips kraussi] MM96
    |--B. mexicanus (Priesner 1933) [=Taeniothrips mexicanus] MM96
    `--B. tibialis (Crawford 1948) JR-SM-G05 [=Taeniothrips tibialis MM96]
  Ceratothripoides Bagnall 1918 MM96, JR-SM-G05
    |--*C. brunneus Bagnall 1918 MM96
    |--C. chilticus Johansen 1986 MM96
    |--C. claratris WJM13
    |--C. funestus (Hood 1915) (see below for synonymy) MM96
    |--C. lagoenacollus (Moulton 1933) [=Taeniothrips lagoenacollus] MM96
    `--C. silvestris (Hood 1935) [=Taeniothrips silvestris] MM96
  Halmathrips Hood 1936 MM96
    |--*H. citricinctus Hood 1936 MM96
    |--H. beckeri Stannard 1953 [=H. (Phaosothrips) beckeri] MM96
    |--H. debilis Stannard 1953 MM96
    |--H. ferruginus Johansen 1974 [=H. (Demetriothrips) ferruginus] MM96
    `--H. tricinctus Stannard 1953 MM96
  Chaetisothrips Priesner 1957 MM96
    |--*C. striatus (Hood 1935) (see below for synonymy) MM96
    |--C. chavesi Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
    |--C. garciamirandai Johansen 1982 MM96
    |--C. gardeniae (Crawford 1945) [=Isochaetothrips gardeniae] MM96
    |--C. mecocephalus Sakimura 1969 [incl. Isochaetothrips garciaamarae Johansen 1978] MM96
    |--C. medinai Sakimura 1969 MM96
    `--C. reticulatus (Crawford 1910) (see below for synonymy) MM96
  Psectrothrips Hood 1937 [incl. Lacandonithrips Johansen 1981] MM96
    |--*P. delostomae Hood 1937 MM96
    |--P. beckeri Stannard 1951 MM96
    |--P. elegantis (Johansen 1981) [=*Lacandonithrips elegantis] MM96
    |--P. interruptus (Hood 1957) [=Pseudothrips interruptus] MM96
    |--P. longiceps (Hood 1954) [=Pseudothrips longiceps] MM96
    |--P. palmerae Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
    `--P. spadix (Hood 1916) [=Pseudothrips spadix] MM96
  Xerothrips Nakahara 1996 N96
    `--*X. dissimilis Nakahara 1996 N96
  Diarthrothrips RD77
    |--D. coffeae RD77
    `--D. obscuriceps Girault 1931 G31
  Kakothrips robustus RD77
  Amphithrips argutus A78
  Pteridothrips pteridicola A78
  Smeringothrips salaciae A78
  Tmetothrips subapterus A78

Ceratothripoides funestus (Hood 1915) [=Physothrips funestus; incl. Taeniothrips martorellorum Medina Gaud 1961] MM96

Chaetisothrips reticulatus (Crawford 1910) [=Dictyothrips reticulatus; incl. Isochaetothrips dampfi Priesner 1933] MM96

*Chaetisothrips striatus (Hood 1935) [=Isochaetothrips striatus; incl. C. striatus caribbeanus Sakimura 1969] MM96

Craspedothrips inconstantis (Johansen & Mojica 1986) [=Wegenerithrips inconstantis, Ceratothripoides inconstantis] JR-SM-G05

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A78] Ananthakrishnan, T. N. 1978. Thrips galls and gall thrips. Zoological Survey of India, Technical Monograph 1: 1–69, 26 pls.

[BMW13] Buckman, R. S., L. A. Mound & M. F. Whiting. 2013. Phylogeny of thrips (Insecta: Thysanoptera) based on five molecular loci. Systematic Entomology 38: 123–133.

[G28a] Girault, A. A. 1928a. A prodigeous discourse on wild animals. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 218–220).

[G28b] Girault, A. A. 1928b. Some Insecta and a new All Highness. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 225–228).

[G29] Girault, A. A. 1929. Description of a case of lunacy in Homo and of six-legged articulates. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 262–265).

[G31] Girault, A. A. 1931. Hymenoptera, Thysanoptera nova Australiensis. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 284–285).

[GM79] Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 1–400.

[HC01] Ho, C.-C., & W.-H. Chen. 2001. Life cycle, food consumption, and seasonal occurrence of Scolothrips indicus (Thysanoptera: Aeolothripidae) on eggplant. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 409–412. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[JR-SM-G05] Johansen, R. M., A. P. Retana-Salazar & A. Mojica-Guzmán. 2005. A review of the New World bryophyte-feeding genus Wegenerithrips Johansen 1983 (Insecta, Thysanoptera, Thripidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (1): 61–83.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[MM04] Martin, N. A., & L. A. Mound. 2004. Host plants for some New Zealand thrips (Thysanoptera: Terebrantia). New Zealand Entomologist 27: 119–123.

[M04] Mound, L. A. 2004. Australian Thysanoptera—biological diversity and a diversity of studies. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 248–257.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1–487.

[MM09] Mound, L. A., & M. Masumoto. 2009. Australian Thripinae of the Anaphothrips genus-group (Thysanoptera), with three new genera and thirty-three new species. Zootaxa 2042: 1–76.

[N96] Nakahara, S. 1996. Xerothrips dissimilis new genus and species (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) from California and Nevada. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (2): 208–214.

[PL12] Peñalver, E., C. C. Labandeira, E. Barrón, X. Delclòs, P. Nel, A. Nel, P. Tafforeau & C. Soriano. 2012. Thrips pollination of Mesozoic gymnosperms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (22): 8623–8628.

[R70] Reed, E. M. 1970. Thysanoptera (thrips). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 458–464. Melbourne University Press.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[TM13] Tree, D. J., & L. A. Mound. 2013. Leichhardt's vanishing thrips: a remarkable new genus and species of Insecta, Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripinae. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum—Nature 58: 375–379.

[WJM13] Whittle, P., F. Jarrad & K. Mengersen. 2013. Design of the quarantine surveillance for non-indigenous species of invertebrates on Barrow Island. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 113–130.

Last updated: 26 April 2022.


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