Field of Science

Thripidae

Limothrips angulicornis, from OzThrips.


Belongs within: Thysanoptera.
Contains: Caliothrips, Frankliniella, Scirtothrips, Neohydatothrips, Wegenerithrips, Plesiothrips, Chirothrips, Thripini.

The Thripidae are a diverse and cosmopolitan family of thrips including, amongst others, the great majority of the pest thrips species. Recent authors have recognised four subfamilies within the Thripidae. The Panchaetothripinae have the body covered with strong, reticulate sculpture; the remaining subfamilies have the sculpture reduced. The Dendrothripinae possess a characteristic lyre-shaped metathoracic furca.

Characters (from Mound & Marullo 1996): Small to medium in body size (0.5–2.5 mm in length). Antenna with six to eight (rarely nine) segments, terminal segments forming short style at apex of segment VI if present; segments III and IV each with one (occasionally two) emergent, forked or simple, sensory trichomes, each of which is more than twice as long as wide. Tentorium not developed. Wings, if present, slender and usually more or less pointed, with two longitudinal veins each usually bearing a row of setae. Females with serrated ovipositor (rarely reduced) that is downturned at apex. Males commonly smaller and paler than females with a more slender body, often bearing one or more glandular areas on median sternites.

<==Thripidae
    |--Dendrothripinae [Dendrothripini] GE05
    |--Sericothrips Haliday 1836 GM79 [Sericothripinae MM09, Sericothripini]
    |    |--S. diana Girault 1929 G29a
    |    |--S. haydni Girault 1932 G32
    |    `--S. quadrifasciatus Girault 1927 G27b
    |--Panchaetothripinae [Heliothripinae] MM96
    |    |--Sigmothrips aotearoana (Ward 1970) MM04
    |    |--Caliothrips MM96
    |    |--Xestothrips glabratus [=Selenothrips glabratus] MM96
    |    |--Panchaetothrips indicus B88
    |    |--Anisopilothrips Stannard & Mitri 1962 MM96
    |    |    `--*A. venustulus (Priesner 1923) [=Heliothrips venustulus; incl. Astrothrips angulatus Hood 1925] MM96
    |    |--Elixothrips Stannard & Mitri 1962 MM96
    |    |    `--*E. brevisetis (Bagnall 1921) [=Tryphactothrips brevisetis] MM96
    |    |--Brachyurothrips Bagnall 1921 MM96
    |    |    `--*B. anomalus Bagnall 1921 [incl. B. walteri Costa Lima 1956] MM96
    |    |--Oneilliella Wilson 1975 MM96
    |    |    `--*O. williamsi (Hood 1928) [=Hercothrips williamsi] MM96
    |    |--Parthenothrips Uzel 1895 MM96
    |    |    `--*P. dracaenae (Heeger 1854) [=Heliothrips dracaenae] MM96
    |    |--Selenothrips Karny 1911 MM96
    |    |    `--*S. rubrocinctus (Giard 1901) [=Physopus rubrocinctus] MM96
    |    |--Hercinothrips Bagnall 1932 MM96
    |    |    |--*H. bicinctus (Bagnall 1919) MM96, MM04 [=Heliothrips bicinctus MM96]
    |    |    `--H. femoralis (Reuter 1891) [=Heliothrips femoralis; incl. Hel. apicalis Bondar 1931] MM96
    |    |--Dinurothrips Hood 1913 MM96
    |    |    |--*D. hookeri Hood 1913 MM96
    |    |    `--D. vezenyii Bagnall 1919 MM96
    |    |--Helionothrips Bagnall 1932 MM96
    |    |    |--*H. brunneipennis [=Heliothrips brunneipennis] MM96
    |    |    `--H. funebris (Hood 1928) [=Hercothrips funebris] MM96
    |    |--Retithrips Marchal 1910 MM96
    |    |    |--R. syriacus (Mayet 1890) (see below for synonymy) MM96
    |    |    `--R. javanicus MM96
    |    |--Hoodothrips Bondar 1931 [incl. Hoodothripoides Mound 1970] MM96
    |    |    |--H. constrictus (Hood 1925) (see below for synonymy) MM96
    |    |    |--H. brevipilus (Hood 1928) [=Tryphactothrips brevipilus] MM96
    |    |    `--H. lineatus (Hood 1928) (see below for synonymy) MM96
    |    |--Arachisothrips Stannard 1952 MM96
    |    |    |--*A. millsi Stannard 1952 [incl. A. boneti Stannard 1952] MM96
    |    |    |--A. latipennis MM96
    |    |    `--A. seticornis Hood 1955 MM96
    |    `--Heliothrips Haliday 1836 MM96
    |         |--H. haemorrhoidalis (Bouché 1833) (see below for synonymy) MM96
    |         |--H. bifasciipennis Girault 1926 G26a
    |         |--H. semiaureus Girault 1928 G28a [incl. Dinurothrips rufiventris Girault 1929 G30b, G29b]
    |         `--H. sylvanus MM96
    `--Thripinae MM96
         |  i. s.: Adelphithrips cassiniae Mound & Palmer 1981 MM04
         |         Dikrothrips diphyes Mound & Walker 1981 MM04
         |         Lomatothrips paryphis Mound & Walker 1982 MM04
         |         Frankliniella MM96
         |         Scirtothrips MM96
         |         Lefroyothrips Priesner 1938 MM96, JR-SM-G05
         |         Megalurothrips Bagnall 1915 MM96, JR-SM-G05
         |         Aneurothrips MM96
         |         Neohydatothrips MM96
         |         Cricothrips MM96
         |         Moundiella MM96
         |         Bournierothrips Bhatti 1979 MM96
         |         Wegenerithrips MM96
         |         Plesiothrips MM96
         |         Graphidothrips stuardoi MM96
         |         Exothrips MM96
         |         Organothrips bianchii MM96
         |         Muscithrips Bournier 1990 MM96, JR-SM-G05
         |         Xenothrips MM09
         |         Monothrips flavus MM09
         |         Gabanithrips Bhatti & Mound 1992 MM96
         |           `--*G. bantus Bhatti & Mound 1992 MM96
         |         Asprothrips Crawford 1938 MM96
         |           `--A. seminigricornis (Girault 1926) MM96 (see below for synonymy)
         |         Craspedothrips zur Strassen 1966 MM96, JR-SM-G05
         |           `--C. inconstantis (Johansen & Mojica 1986) (see below for synonymy) JR-SM-G05
         |         Scirtidothrips Hood 1954 MM96
         |           `--*S. torquatus Hood 1954 MM96
         |         Rhabdothrips Hood 1933 MM96
         |           `--*R. albus Hood 1933 MM96
         |         Fulmekiola Karny 1925 MM96
         |           `--F. serrata (Kobus 1893) [=Thrips serrata; incl. *F. interrupta Karny 1925] MM96
         |         Microcephalothrips Bagnall 1926 MM96
         |           `--*M. abdominalis (Crawford 1910) [=Thrips abdominalis] MM96
         |         Paraleucothrips Johansen 1983 MM96
         |           `--*P. minusculus Johansen 1983 MM96
         |         Plesiopsothrips Hood 1956 MM96
         |           `--*P. trinidadensis Hood 1956 MM96
         |         Prionotothrips Hood 1954 MM96
         |           `--*P. procerus Hood 1954 MM96
         |         Sciothrips Bhatti 1970 MM96
         |           `--*S. cardamomi (Ramakrishna 1935) [=Taeniothrips cardamomi] MM96
         |         Systenothrips Hood 1956 MM96
         |           `--*S. latens Hood 1956 MM96
         |         Pseudanaphothrips Karny 1921 AY04, GM79
         |           |--P. achaetus M83
         |           `--P. araucariae M04
         |         Aneristothrips De Santis 1957 MM96
         |           |--*A. rostratus De Santis 1957 MM96
         |           `--A. claripennis (Moulton 1933) [=Mycertothrips claripennis] MM96
         |         Arpediothrips Hood 1927 MM96
         |           |--*A. mojave Hood 1927 MM96
         |           `--A. mexicanus Watson 1939 MM96
         |         Bradinothrips Hood 1954 [incl. Palleucothrips Hood 1956] MM96
         |           |--*B. williamsi Hood 1954 MM96
         |           `--B. musae (Hood 1956) [=*Palleucothrips musae] MM96
         |         Cercyothrips Morgan 1925 MM96
         |           |--*C. striatus Morgan 1925 MM96
         |           `--C. galbinus Hood 1957 MM96
         |         Coremothrips Hood 1925 MM96
         |           |--*C. pallidus Hood 1925 MM96
         |           `--C. nubilicus Hood 1954 MM96
         |         Danothrips Bhatti 1971 MM96
         |           |--*D. setifer Bhatti 1971 MM96
         |           `--D. trifasciatus Sakimura 1975 MM96
         |         Dendrothripoides Bagnall 1923 MM96
         |           |--D. innoxius (Karny 1914) [=Euthrips innoxius; incl. *D. ipomeae Bagnall 1923] MM96
         |           `--D. microchaetus MM96
         |         Rhamphothrips Karny 1913 MM96
         |           |--*R. tenuirostris [=Rhynchothrips tenuirostris] MM96
         |           `--R. pandens Sakimura 1983 MM96
         |         Salpingothrips Hood 1935 MM96
         |           |--*S. minimus Hood 1935 MM96
         |           `--S. aimotofus MM96
         |         Tenothrips Bhatti 1967 MM96, JR-SM-G05
         |           |--*T. alis [=Taeniothrips (*Tenothrips) alis] MM96
         |           `--T. frici (Uzel 1895) [=Physopus frici] MM96
         |         Bregmatothrips Hood 1912 MM96
         |           |--*B. venustus Hood 1912 MM96
         |           |--B. difficilis Johansen 1977 MM96
         |           `--B. gracilis Hood & Williams 1915 MM96
         |         Chaetanaphothrips Priesner 1925 MM96
         |           |--*C. orchidii (Moulton 1907) [=Euthrips orchidii] MM96
         |           |--C. leeuweni (Karny 1914) [=Euthrips leeuweni; incl. Scirtothrips clarus Moulton 1942] MM96
         |           `--C. signipennis (Bagnall 1914) MM96 (see below for synonymy)
         |         Corynothrips Williams 1913 MM96
         |           |--*C. stenopterus Williams 1913 MM96
         |           |--C. cruentatus Hood 1934 MM96
         |           `--C. flavus Moulton 1941 MM96
         |         Dorcadothrips Priesner 1932 MM96
         |           |--*D. caespitis Priesner 1932 MM96
         |           |--D. cyperaceae MM96
         |           `--D. xanthius MM96
         |         Kurtomathrips Moulton 1927 MM96
         |           |--*K. morrilli Moulton 1927 MM96
         |           |--K. anahuacensis Johansen 1976 MM96
         |           `--K. brunneus (Watson 1931) [=Prosopothrips brunneus; incl. K. unicolor Bailey 1961] MM96
         |         Scolothrips Hinds 1902 MM96
         |           |--*S. sexmaculatus (Pergande 1894) [=Thrips sexmaculata] MM96
         |           |--S. indicus HC01
         |           `--S. longicornis HC01
         |         Leucothrips Reuter 1904 MM96
         |           |--*L. nigripennis Reuter 1904 MM96
         |           |--L. furcatus MM96
         |           |--L. pictus MM96
         |           `--L. theobromae MM96
         |         Pseudodendrothrips Schmutz 1913 MM96
         |           |--*P. ornatissima Schmutz 1913 MM96
         |           |--P. alboniger Hood 1952 MM96
         |           |--P. fulvus Hood 1952 MM96
         |           `--P. mori M04
         |         Stenchaetothrips Bagnall 1926 [incl. Anaphidothrips Hood 1954] MM96
         |           |--*S. melanurus Bagnall 1926 MM96
         |           |--S. biformis (Bagnall 1913) [=Bagnallia biformis; incl. Chloethrips oryzae] MM96
         |           |--S. brasiliensis (Hood 1954) [=*Anaphidothrips brasiliensis] MM96
         |           `--S. minutus (Deventer 1906) (see below for synonymy) MM96
         |         Bravothrips Johansen 1986 MM96, JR-SM-G05
         |           |--*B. daturae Johansen 1986 MM96
         |           |--B. halffteri Johansen 1986 MM96
         |           |--B. kraussi (Crawford 1948) [=Taeniothrips kraussi] MM96
         |           |--B. mexicanus (Priesner 1933) [=Taeniothrips mexicanus] MM96
         |           `--B. tibialis (Crawford 1948) JR-SM-G05 [=Taeniothrips tibialis MM96]
         |         Ceratothripoides Bagnall 1918 MM96, JR-SM-G05
         |           |--*C. brunneus Bagnall 1918 MM96
         |           |--C. chilticus Johansen 1986 MM96
         |           |--C. funestus (Hood 1915) (see below for synonymy) MM96
         |           |--C. lagoenacollus (Moulton 1933) [=Taeniothrips lagoenacollus] MM96
         |           `--C. silvestris (Hood 1935) [=Taeniothrips silvestris] MM96
         |         Halmathrips Hood 1936 MM96
         |           |--*H. citricinctus Hood 1936 MM96
         |           |--H. beckeri Stannard 1953 [=H. (Phaosothrips) beckeri] MM96
         |           |--H. debilis Stannard 1953
         |           |--H. ferruginus Johansen 1974 [=H. (Demetriothrips) ferruginus] MM96
         |           `--H. tricinctus Stannard 1953 MM96
         |         Arorathrips Bhatti 1990 MM96
         |           |--*A. mexicanus (Crawford 1909) [=Chirothrips mexicanus] MM96
         |           |--A. crassiscelis (Zur Strassen 1967) [=Chirothrips crassiscelis] MM96
         |           |--A. fulvus (Moulton 1936) [=Chirothrips fulvus; incl. C. dolosus De Santis 1967] MM96
         |           |--A. nigriceps (Hood 1952) [=Chirothrips nigriceps] MM96
         |           |--A. spiniceps (Hood 1915) [=Chirothrips spiniceps] MM96
         |           `--A. xanthius (Hood 1934) [=Chirothrips xanthius; incl. C. oryzae De Santis 1967] MM96
         |         Chaetisothrips Priesner 1957 MM96
         |           |--*C. striatus (Hood 1935) (see below for synonymy) MM96
         |           |--C. chavesi Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
         |           |--C. garciamirandai Johansen 1982 MM96
         |           |--C. gardeniae (Crawford 1945) [=Isochaetothrips gardeniae] MM96
         |           |--C. mecocephalus Sakimura 1969 [incl. Isochaetothrips garciaamarae Johansen 1978] MM96
         |           |--C. medinai Sakimura 1969 MM96
         |           `--C. reticulatus (Crawford 1910) (see below for synonymy) MM96
         |         Echinothrips Moulton 1911 MM96
         |           |--*E. mexicanus Moulton 1911 MM96
         |           |--E. americanus Morgan 1913 [incl. Dictyothrips floridensis Watson 1919] MM96
         |           |--E. asperatus Hood 1957 MM96
         |           |--E. caribbeanus Hood 1955 MM96
         |           |--E. pinnatus Hood 1960 MM96
         |           |--E. selaginellae Mound 1994 MM96
         |           `--E. subflavus Hood 1927 MM96
         |         Psectrothrips Hood 1937 [incl. Lacandonithrips Johansen 1981] MM96
         |           |--*P. delostomae Hood 1937 MM96
         |           |--P. beckeri Stannard 1951 MM96
         |           |--P. elegantis (Johansen 1981) [=*Lacandonithrips elegantis] MM96
         |           |--P. interruptus (Hood 1957) [=Pseudothrips interruptus] MM96
         |           |--P. longiceps (Hood 1954) [=Pseudothrips longiceps] MM96
         |           |--P. palmerae Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
         |           `--P. spadix (Hood 1916) [=Pseudothrips spadix] MM96
         |         Hydatothrips Karny 1913 MM96
         |           |--*H. adolfifriderici Karny 1913 MM96
         |           |--H. argenticinctus Girault 1927 G27a
         |           |--H. gliricidiae Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
         |           |--H. guanacastei Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
         |           |--H. haschemi Girault 1930 G30a
         |           |--H. poeta Girault 1926 G26b
         |           |--H. sternalis (Hood 1935) [=Sericothrips sternalis] MM96
         |           |--H. tricinctus (Hood 1928) [=Sericothrips tricinctus] MM96
         |           `--H. volcano Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
         |--Chirothripini MM96
         |    |--Chirothrips MM96
         |    `--Limothrips Haliday 1836 MM96
         |         |--*L. cerealium (Haliday 1836) [=Thrips (*Limothrips) cerealium] MM96
         |         |--L. angulicornis MM96
         |         |--L. australiensis Girault 1928 G28b
         |         `--L. formosus Girault 1929 G29a
         `--Thripini MM09

Thripidae incertae sedis:
  Ceratothrips Reuter 1899 M83, GM79
    |--C. frici M83
    `--C. quadratus (Hood 1918) G28a, GM79 [=Pterothrips quadratus G28a]
  Sorgothrips Priesner 1936 JR-SM-G05
  Anomothrips Bhatti 1978 JR-SM-G05
  Odontothripiella Bagnall 1929 JR-SM-G05
  Odontothrips Amyot & Serville 1843 JR-SM-G05
  Pezothrips Karny 1907 JR-SM-G05
    |--P. aureus Girault 1929 G29a
    `--P. kellyanus M04
  Projectothrips Moulton 1929 JR-SM-G05
  Australothrips bicolor Bagnall 1916 G28a, GM79 [incl. Ceratothrips rufiventris Girault 1926 G28a, G26b]
  Dichromothrips MM09
  Trichromothrips MM09

Asprothrips seminigricornis (Girault 1926) MM96 [=Euthrips seminigricornis MM96, Pseudanaphothrips seminigricornis G26b; incl. Scitothrips antennatus MM96, *Asprothrips raui Crawford 1938 MM96]

Ceratothripoides funestus (Hood 1915) [=Physothrips funestus; incl. Taeniothrips martorellorum Medina Gaud 1961] MM96

Chaetanaphothrips signipennis (Bagnall 1914) MM96 [=Scirtothrips signipennis MM96, Anaphothrips signipennis G26b]

Chaetisothrips reticulatus (Crawford 1910) [=Dictyothrips reticulatus; incl. Isochaetothrips dampfi Priesner 1933] MM96

*Chaetisothrips striatus (Hood 1935) [=Isochaetothrips striatus; incl. C. striatus caribbeanus Sakimura 1969] MM96

Craspedothrips inconstantis (Johansen & Mojica 1986) [=Wegenerithrips inconstantis MM96, Ceratothripoides inconstantis] JR-SM-G05

Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouché 1833) [=Thrips haemorrhoidalis; incl. *H. adonidum Halliday 1836, H. ceylonicus] MM96

Hoodothrips constrictus (Hood 1925) [=Astrothrips constrictus; incl. Tryphactothrips ipomoeae Moulton 1933, *Hoodothrips neivai Bondar 1931, H. nigriflavus Medina Gaud 1961] MM96

Hoodothrips lineatus (Hood 1928) [=Tryphactothrips lineatus; incl. *Hoodothripoides braziliensis Mound 1970] MM96

Retithrips syriacus (Mayet 1890) [=Thrips (Heliothrips) syriacus; incl. *R. aegyptiacus Marchal 1910, Stylothrips bondari Bondar 1924] MM96

Stenchaetothrips minutus (Deventer 1906) [=Thrips minutus; incl. T. minutus var. puttemansi Costa Lima 1926, Stenchaetothrips saccharoni] MM96

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AY04] Austin, A. D., D. K. Yeates, G. Cassis, M. J. Fletcher, J. La Salle, J. F. Lawrence, P. B. McQuillan, L. A. Mound, D. J. Bickel, P. J. Gullan, D. F. Hales & G. S. Taylor. 2004. Insects 'Down Under' - diversity, endemism and evolution of the Australian insect fauna: examples from select orders. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 216-234.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[G26a] Girault, A. A. 1926a. Characteristics of new Australian insects. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 197-198).

[G26b] Girault, A. A. 1926b. New pests from Australia. III. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 203-204).

[G27a] Girault, A. A. 1927a. Thysanoptera nova Australiensis from Queensland. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 213).

[G27b] Girault, A. A. 1927b. Thysanoptera nova Australiensis. II. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 214-215).

[G28a] Girault, A. A. 1928a. A prodigeous discourse on wild animals. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 218-220).

[G28b] Girault, A. A. 1928b. Some Insecta and a new All Highness. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 225-228).

[G29a] Girault, A. A. 1929a. Description of a case of lunacy in Homo and of six-legged articulates. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 262-265).

[G29b] Girault, A. A. 1929b. New pests from Australia. VI. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 266-269).

[G30a] Girault, A. A. 1930a. New pests from Australia. VII. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 270-272).

[G30b] Girault, A. A. 1930b. New pests from Australia. VIII. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 273-277).

[G32] Girault, A. A. 1932. Hymenoptera, Thysanoptera nova Australiensis. II. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 292).

[GM79] Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 1-400.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HC01] Ho, C.-C., & W.-H. Chen. 2001. Life cycle, food consumption, and seasonal occurrence of Scolothrips indicus (Thysanoptera: Aeolothripidae) on eggplant. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 409-412. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[JR-SM-G05] Johansen, R. M., A. P. Retana-Salazar & A. Mojica-Guzmán. 2005. A review of the New World bryophyte-feeding genus Wegenerithrips Johansen 1983 (Insecta, Thysanoptera, Thripidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (1): 61-83.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: An annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1-98.

[MM04] Martin, N. A., & L. A. Mound. 2004. Host plants for some New Zealand thrips (Thysanoptera: Terebrantia). New Zealand Entomologist 27: 119-123.

[M04] Mound, L. A. 2004. Australian Thysanoptera—biological diversity and a diversity of studies. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 248-257.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1-487.

[MM09] Mound, L. A. & M. Masumoto. 2009. Australian Thripinae of the Anaphothrips genus-group (Thysanoptera), with three new genera and thirty-three new species. Zootaxa 2042: 1-76.

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