Creodonta

Reconstructed skeleton of Oxyaena lupina, by Jacob Lawson Wortman.


Belongs within: Cetferungulata.
Contains: Proviverrinae, Hyaenodontinae.

The Creodonta is a Palaeocene to Miocene group of carnivorous mammals, though the monophyly of the group is uncertain.

Characters (from Gunnell 1998): Small brains placed low in skull; large sagittal crest and broad temporal fossae in most taxa; auditory bullae primitively unossified; mastoid processes normally enlarged and broad; postorbital constriction distinct, separating skull into well-defined splanchnocranium and neurocranium. Upper and lower canines enlarged and pointed; lateral incisors large, medial incisors small in most species; premolars usually small and pointed; P4/p4 often more complex, even submolariform; lower molars with high trigonids and long, relatively narrow talonids; trigonids dominated by high, well-developed protoconid, with paraconid and metaconid (if present) lower, but often distinct; more derived forms with open trigonids forming long, tall cutting blades; metaconid primitively same size or smaller than paraconid, often completely lost; talonids reduced or lost in derived species; upper molars (and P4) with extended postmetacristae forming elongate cutting surfaces. Generalised postcranial skeleton; limbs mesaxonic, ranging from plantigrade to digitigrade; terminal phalanges are fissured claws; unfused scaphoid, lunate and centrale; astragalar trochlea smooth to grooved; astragalar head flattened and often obliquely angled from body; femur with distinct third trochanter; fumerus with shallow olecranon fossa and deep supratrochlear fossa.

<==Creodonta [Hyaenodontoidea, Oxyaenoidea, Pseudocreodi]
    |--Hyaenodontidae [Hyaenodontia] S78
    |    |  i. s.: Koholia [Koholiinae] GI06
    |    |           `--K. atlasense GI06
    |    |--+--+--Proviverrinae V66
    |    |  |  `--Teratodon S78 [Teratodontinae GI06]
    |    |  |       |--T. enigmae S78
    |    |  |       `--T. spekei S78
    |    |  `--+--Hyaenodontinae V66
    |    |     |--Apterodon Fischer 1880 S78, V66 [incl. Dasyurodon Andreae 1887 V66; Apterodontinae GI06]
    |    |     |    |--*A. gaudryi Fischer 1880 V66
    |    |     |    |--A. altidens Schlosser 1911 V66
    |    |     |    |--A. flonheimensis (Andreae 1887) [=*Dasyurodon flonheimensis] V66
    |    |     |    |--A. macrognathus (Andrews 1904) S68
    |    |     |    |--A. minutus Schlosser 1911 V66
    |    |     |    `--A. saghensis Simons & Gingerich 1976 S78
    |    |     `--Hyainailourinae [Pterodontinae] GI06
    |    |          |--Hyainailouros Biedermann 1863 S78, V66 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |          |    |--H. fourtaui V66
    |    |          |    |--H. nyanzae V66
    |    |          |    `--H. sulzeri V66
    |    |          `--Pterodon Blainville 1839 V66 [incl. Metapterodon Stromer 1926 S78, V66]
    |    |               |--*P. dasyuroides S78
    |    |               |--P. africanus Andrews 1903 S68
    |    |               |--P. biincisivus [=Metapterodon biincisivus] S78
    |    |               |--P. kaiseri [=*Metapterodon kaiseri] S78
    |    |               |--P. leptognathus Osborn 1909 S68
    |    |               |--P. phiomensis Osborn 1909 S68
    |    |               `--P. zadoki S78
    |    `--+--Machaeroidinae [Machaeroidini] V66
    |       |    |--Machaeroides Matthew 1909 V66
    |       |    `--Apataelurus Scott 1937 V66
    |       `--Limnocyoninae [Limnocyonini] V66
    |            |--Thereutherium Filhol 1877 V66
    |            |--Limnocyon Marsh 1872 [incl. Telmatocyon Marsh 1899] V66
    |            |--Oxyaenodon Wortman 1899 V66
    |            |    |--*O. dysodus Wortman 1899 [=O. dysclerus Hay 1902] V66
    |            |    `--O. wortmani Van Valen 1966 V66
    |            |--Thinocyon Marsh 1872 [incl. Entomodon Marsh 1872] V66
    |            |    |--‘Entomodon’ comptus Marsh 1872 V66
    |            |    |--T. medius V66
    |            |    `--T. velox V66
    |            `--Prolimnocyon Matthew 1915 V66
    |                 |--P. antiquus V66
    |                 |--P. atavus V66
    |                 |--P. elisabethae V66
    |                 `--P. robustus V66
    `--Oxyaenidae V66
         |  i. s.: Tytthaena GI06
         |--Palaeonictinae [Ambloctonidae, Amblyctonidae] V66
         |    |--Paroxyaena Martin 1906 V66
         |    |--Palaeonictis Blainville 1842 V66
         |    |--Ambloctonus Cope 1875 [=Amblyctonus (l. c.)] V66
         |    |    `--A. sinosus Cope 1875 C76
         |    `--Dipsalodon Jepsen 1930 V66
         |         `--D. matthewi V66
         `--Oxyaeninae V66
              |--Sarkastodon Granger 1938 V66
              |--Dipsalidictides Denison 1938 V66
              |--Protopsalis Cope 1880 V66
              |--Patriofelis Leidy 1870 (see below for synonymy) V66
              |--Argillotherium Davies 1884 V66
              |    `--*A. toliapicum Daview 1884 V66
              `--Oxyaena Cope 1874 [incl. Dipsalidictis Matthew 1915] V66
                   |--O. aequidens V66
                   |--O. forcipata Cope 1874 C76
                   |--O. gulo V66
                   |    |--O. g. gulo V66
                   |    `--O. g. transiens V66
                   |--O. intermedia V66
                   |--O. lupina Cope 1874 C76
                   |--O. morsitans Cope 1874 C76
                   |--O. platypus V66
                   `--O. simpsoni Van Valen 1966 V66

Hyainailouros Biedermann 1863 S78, V66 [=Hyaenaelurus Stehlin 1907 V66, Hyaenailurus Rütimeyer 1867 V66]

Patriofelis Leidy 1870 [incl. Aelurotherium Adams 1896, Limnofelis Marsh 1872, Oreocyon Marsh 1872] V66

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C76] Cope, E. D. 1876. Report upon the extinct Vertebrata obtained in New Mexico by parties of the expedition of 1874. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4(2): i-iv, 1-370.

[GI06] Gheerbrant, E., M. Iarochene, M. Amaghzaz & B. Bouya. 2006. Early African hyaenodontid mammals and their bearing on the origin of the Creodonta. Geological Magazine 143 (4): 475-489.

Gunnell, G. F. 1998. Creodonta. In: Janis, C. M., K. M. Scott & L. L. Jacobs (eds) Evolution of Tertiary Mammals of North America vol. 1. Terrestrial Carnivores, Ungulates, and Ungulatelike Mammals pp. 91-109. Cambridge University Press.

[S78] Savage, R. J. G. 1978. Carnivora. In Evolution of African Mammals (V. J. Maglio & H. B. S. Cooke, eds) pp. 249-267. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[S68] Simons, E. L. 1968. African Oligocene mammals: introduction, history of study, and faunal succession. Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University, Bulletin 28: 1-21.

[V66] Van Valen, L. 1966. Deltatheridia, a new order of mammals. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 132 (1): 1-126.

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