Specimen of Orthonychia on calyx of the crinoid Melocrinites micmac, from Breimer & Lane (1978).

Belongs within: Gastropoda.
Contains: Craspedostomatoidea, Oreostomatoidea, Palaeotrochacea, Platyceratidae, Helicinoidea, Hydrocenidae, Neritidae, Phenacolepadidae, Neritopsidae.

The Neritimorpha is a somewhat phylogenetically isolated group of gastropods, including marine, freshwater and terrestrial forms. Modern neritimorphs belong to the Cycloneritimorpha; it remains uncertain whether the Palaeozoic Cyrtoneritimorpha are properly placed here. The Cycloneritimorpha are characterised by a strongly convolute protoconch, while that of the Cyrtoneritimorpha is open-coiled and hook-like. The teleoconch of cyrtoneritimorphs may be limpet-like (Orthonychia), naticiform (Vltaviellinae) or turbiniform (Krameriellinae) (Frýda & Heidelberger 2003).

Characters (from Knight et al. 1960, as Neritopsina): Shell commonly coiled and ovoid or globular, more rarely capuliform or patelliform; whorls few; spire, if protruding at all, relatively low; outer shell layers calcitic, unusually stable in fossils, commonly preserving color pattern; inner layers thick, aragonitic, lamellar but not nacreous; operculum (not developed in a few genera) commonly calcareous, in many post-Paleozoic genera with processes projecting from inner face and gripping inner lip; living forms with left kidney only; single, hipectinate ctenidium present on left except in terrestrial forms, attached at its base only; single hypobranchial gland also present; heart with 2 auricles, right one in some reduced or with single auricle; pallial genital organs developed and complex, fertilization internal; retractor muscles paired; radula rhipidoglossate, with outermost admedians large, capituliform.

<==Neritimorpha [Neritopsina]
    |  i. s.: Magnicapitatus PE94
    |         Craspedostomatoidea BR05
    |         Pragoscutula Frýda 1998 [Pragoscutulidae] BR05
    |           `--P. wareni Frýda 1998 FB01
    |         Nerrhena Heidelberger & Bandel 1999 [Nerrhenidae, Nerrhenoidea] BR05
    |         Oriostomatoidea BR05
    |         Palaeotrochacea BR05
    |         Platyceratidae BR05
    |--Cyrtoneritimorpha BR05
    |    |--Orthonychia Hall 1843 BR05 [incl. Geronticeras Grabau 1936 KC60, Igoceras Hall 1860 KC60; Orthonychiidae]
    |    |    |--*O. subrecta (Hall 1859) [=Platyceras (*Orthonychia) subrectum] KC60
    |    |    |--O. infundibulum [=Platyceras (Orthonychia) infundibulum] BL78
    |    |    `--O. ungula (Etheridge 1898) [=Platyceras (Orthonychia) ungula, Rhabdocantha ungula] W63
    |    `--Vltaviellidae FH03
    |         |--Krameriellinae FH03
    |         |    |--Krameriella Frýda & Heidelberger 2003 FH03
    |         |    |    `--*K. hornyi Frýda & Heidelberger 2003 FH03
    |         |    `--Soetenichia Heidelberger & Bandel 1999 FH03
    |         |         `--S. girzenbergense (Kirchner 1915) FH03
    |         `--Vltaviellinae FH03
    |              |--Vltaviella Frýda & Manda 1997 FH03
    |              |    `--*V. reticulata Frýda & Manda 1997 FH03
    |              `--Eifelcyrtus Frýda & Heidelberger 2003 FH03
    |                   `--*E. blodgetti Frýda & Heidelberger 2003 FH03
    `--Cycloneritimorpha [Azygobranchia, Neritacea] BR05
         |  i. s.: Schwardtina Bandel & Riedel 1994 B01
         |           `--*S. cretacea (Tausch 1886) [=Helix cretacea] B01
         |         Hypodema de Koninck 1853 KC60
         |           `--*H. dumontianum (de Koninck 1843) [=Calceola dumontiana] KC60
         |         Platyostomella Etheridge 1880 [=Platystomella Lindström 1884] KC60
         |           `--*P. scotoburdigalensis (Etheridge 1878) [=Littorina scotoburdigalensis] KC60
         |         ‘Catinella’ Stache 1877 non Pease 1870 (n. d.) KC60
         |           `--*C. depressa Stache 1877 (n. d.) KC60
         |         Neritomopsis Waagen 1880 (n. d.) KC60
         |           `--*N. minuta Waagen 1880 (n. d.) KC60
         |         Catubrina Caneva 1906 (n. d.) KC60
         |           `--*C. solitaria (Caneva 1906) (n. d.) [=Neritomopsis (*Catubrina) solitaria] KC60
         |         Proboscidia Merla 1931 (n. d.) KC60
         |           `--*P. elongata (Merla 1931) (n. d.) [=Neritomopsis (*Proboscidia) elongata] KC60
         |--Helicinoidea BR05
         |--Hydrocenidae BR05
         |--Symmetrocapulidae [Symetrocapulinae, Symmetrocapulinae, Symmetrocapuloidea] BR05
         |    |--Symmetrocapulus Dacqué 1934 [=Symetrocapulus (l. c.)] BR05
         |    |    `--S. tessoni (Eudes-Deslongchamps 1843) (see below for synonymy) KC60
         |    `--Phryx Blaschke 1905 KC60
         |         `--*P. bilateralis (Blaschke 1905) [=Capulus (*Phryx) bilateralis] KC60
         |--Neritoidea BR05
         |    |  i. s.: Turbinitella de Koninck 1881 B79
         |    |--Neritidae BR05
         |    |--Phenacolepadidae BR05
         |    `--Pileolus Sowerby 1823 [Pileolidae] BR05
         |         |--*P. (Pileolus) plicatus Sowerby 1823 KC60
         |         |--P. (Gargania Guiscvardi 1857) KC60
         |         |    `--P. (*G.) brocchii (Guiscardi 1857) [=*Gargania brocchii] KC60
         |         `--P. (Velatella Meek 1873) KC60
         |              |--P. (*V.) bellatula (Meek 1873) [=Neritina bellatula] KC60
         |              `--‘Neritina’ (V.) carditoides Meek 1872 [=N. (Dostia) carditoides] W77
         `--Neritopsoidea BR05
              |--Neritopsidae BR05
              |--Cortinella Bandel 1988 [Cortinellidae, Cortinelloidea] BR05
              |--Pseudorthonychia Bandel & Frýda 1999 [Pseudorthonychiidae] BR05
              |--Titiscania Bergh 1890 [Titiscaniidae, Titiscanioidea] BR05
              |    `--*T. limacina Bergh 1890 KC60
              |--Delphinulopsis Laube 1868 [Delphinulopsidae] BR05
              |    `--D. binodosa (Münster 1841) [=Pleurotomaria binodosa; incl. *D. arietina Laube 1868] KC60
              `--Plagiothyridae BR05
                   |--Plagiothyra Whidborne 1892 BR05
                   |    `--*P. purpurea (d’Archiac & deVerneuil 1842) [=Monodonta purpurea] KC60
                   |--Dirachis Whidborne 1891 KC60
                   |    `--*D. atavus Whidborne 1891 KC60
                   `--Littorinides Knight 1937 [=Rhabdopleura de Koninck 1881 nec Allman 1869 nec Dawson 1870] KC60
                        `--*L. solida (de Koninck 1843) [=Littorina solida] KC60

Symmetrocapulus tessoni (Eudes-Deslongchamps 1843) [=Patella tessoni; incl. P. rugosa Sowerby 1816 non Röding 1798, *Symmetrocapulus rugosus] KC60

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B01] Bandel, K. 2001. The history of Theodoxus and Neritina connected with description and systematic evaluation of related Neritimorpha (Gastropoda). Mitteilungen des Geologisch-Paläontologischen Institutes der Universität Hamburg 85: 65-164.

[B79] Batten, R. L. 1979. Gastropods from Perak, Malaysia. Part 2. The trochids, patellids and neritids. American Museum Novitates 2685: 1-26.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, J. Frýda, B. Hausdorf, W. Ponder, Á. Valdés & A. Warén. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1-2): 1-397.

[BL78] Breimer, A., & N. G. Lane. 1978. Ecology and paleoecology. In Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt. T. Echinodermata 2. Crinoidea (R. C. Moore & C. Teichert, eds) vol. 1 pp. T316-T347. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[FB01] Frýda, J., & R. B. Blodgett. 2001. The oldest known heterobranch gastropod, Kuskokwimia gen. nov., from the Early Devonian of west-central Alaska, with notes on the early phylogeny of higher gastropods. Vĕstnik Českého Geologického Ústavu 76 (1): 39-53.

[FH03] Frýda, J., & D. Heidelberger. 2003. Systematic position of Cyrtoneritimorpha within the class Gastropoda with description of two new genera from Siluro-Devonian strata of central Europe. Bulletin of the Czech Geological Survey 78 (1): 35-39.

[KC60] Knight, J. B., L. R. Cox, A. M. Keen, R. L. Batten, E. L. Yochelson & R. Robertson. 1960. Gastropoda: systematic descriptions. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt I. Mollusca 1: Mollusca—General Features, Scaphopoda, Amphineura, Monoplacophora, Gastropoda—General Features, Archaeogastropoda and some (mainly Paleozoic) Caenogastropoda and Opisthobranchia, pp. I169-I331. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[PE94] Pan H.-Z. & D. H. Erwin. 1994. Gastropod diversity patterns in south China during the Chihsia-Ladinian and their mass extinction. Palaeoworld 4: 249-262.

[W63] Waterhouse, J. B. 1963. Permian gastropods of New Zealand. Part 4—Platyceratacea, Anomphalacea, Neritacea, and correlations. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics 6 (5): 817-842.

[W77] White, C. A. 1877. Report upon the invertebrate fossils collected in portions of Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, by parties of the expeditions of 1871, 1872, 1873, and 1874. U.S. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (1): 1-219, pls 211-221.

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