Specimen of Orthonychia on calyx of the crinoid Melocrinites micmac, from Breimer & Lane (1978).

Belongs within: Conchifera.
Contains: Craspedostomatoidea, Oreostomatoidea, Paraturbinoidea, Vltaviellidae, Platyceratidae, Naticopsoidea, Helicinoidea, Neritoidea, Neritopsidae.

The Neritimorpha is a somewhat phylogenetically isolated group of gastropods, including marine, freshwater and terrestrial forms. Modern neritimorphs belong to the Cycloneritimorpha; it remains uncertain whether the Palaeozoic Cyrtoneritimorpha are properly placed here. The Cycloneritimorpha are characterised by a strongly convolute protoconch, while that of the Cyrtoneritimorpha is open-coiled and hook-like. The teleoconch of cyrtoneritimorphs may be limpet-like (Orthonychia), naticiform (Vltaviellinae) or turbiniform (Krameriellinae) (Frýda & Heidelberger 2003). Members of the Cycloneritimorpha include the Symmetrocapulidae, a Mesozoic group of limpet-like shells with a submedian downcurved summit leading to an anteriorly placed and directed beak (Knight et al. 1960).

Characters (from Knight et al. 1960, as Neritopsina): Shell commonly coiled and ovoid or globular, more rarely capuliform or patelliform; whorls few; spire, if protruding at all, relatively low; outer shell layers calcitic, unusually stable in fossils, commonly preserving color pattern; inner layers thick, aragonitic, lamellar but not nacreous; operculum (not developed in a few genera) commonly calcareous, in many post-Paleozoic genera with processes projecting from inner face and gripping inner lip; living forms with left kidney only; single, hipectinate ctenidium present on left except in terrestrial forms, attached at its base only; single hypobranchial gland also present; heart with 2 auricles, right one in some reduced or with single auricle; pallial genital organs developed and complex, fertilization internal; retractor muscles paired; radula rhipidoglossate, with outermost admedians large, capituliform.

<==Neritimorpha [Neritaemorpha, Neritomorpha, Neritopsina]
    |  i. s.: Magnicapitatus PE94
    |         Craspedostomatoidea BR05
    |         Nerrhena Heidelberger & Bandel 1999 [Nerrhenidae, Nerrhenoidea] BR05
    |           `--*N. aequistriata (Kirchner 1915) [=Turbo aequistriatus] BR17
    |         Oriostomatoidea BR05
    |         Paraturbinoidea BR05
    |         Paffrathopsis subcostata F12
    |         Bandelopsis oregonensis F12
    |         Weitschatopsis pulchra F12
    |--Cyrtoneritida [Cyrtoneritimorpha] BR17
    |    |--Vltaviellidae FH03
    |    |--Platyceratidae F12
    |    `--Orthonychia Hall 1843 FH03 [incl. Geronticeras Grabau 1936 KC60, Igoceras Hall 1860 KC60; Orthonychiidae]
    |         |--*O. subrecta (Hall 1859) [=Platyceras (*Orthonychia) subrectum] KC60
    |         |--O. bowsheri (Yochelson 1956) [=Platyceras (Orthonychia) bowsheri] TTE93
    |         |--O. infundibulum [=Platyceras (Orthonychia) infundibulum] BL78
    |         |--O. parva F12
    |         |--O. protei F12
    |         `--O. ungula (Etheridge 1898) [=Platyceras (Orthonychia) ungula, Rhabdocantha ungula] W63
    `--Cycloneritida [Azeugobranchia, Azygobranchia, Cycloneritimorpha, Neritacea, Neritoina, Planilabiata] BR17
         |  i. s.: Hypodema de Koninck 1853 KC60
         |           `--*H. dumontianum (de Koninck 1843) [=Calceola dumontiana] KC60
         |         Platyostomella Etheridge 1880 [=Platystomella Lindström 1884] KC60
         |           `--*P. scotoburdigalensis (Etheridge 1878) [=Littorina scotoburdigalensis] KC60
         |         ‘Catinella’ Stache 1877 non Pease 1870 (n. d.) KC60
         |           `--*C. depressa Stache 1877 (n. d.) KC60
         |         Neritomopsis Waagen 1880 (n. d.) KC60
         |           `--*N. minuta Waagen 1880 (n. d.) KC60
         |         Catubrina Caneva 1906 (n. d.) KC60
         |           `--*C. solitaria (Caneva 1906) (n. d.) [=Neritomopsis (*Catubrina) solitaria] KC60
         |         Proboscidia Merla 1931 (n. d.) KC60
         |           `--*P. elongata (Merla 1931) (n. d.) [=Neritomopsis (*Proboscidia) elongata] KC60
         |         Symmetrocapulidae [Symetrocapulinae, Symmetrocapulinae, Symmetrocapuloidea] BR05
         |           |--Phryx Blaschke 1905 KC60
         |           |    `--*P. bilateralis (Blaschke 1905) [=Capulus (*Phryx) bilateralis] KC60
         |           `--Symmetrocapulus Dacqué 1934 [=Symetrocapulus (l. c.)] BR05
         |                |--S. tessoni (Eudes-Deslongchamps 1843) (see below for synonymy) KC60
         |                `--S. hanaii Kase 1984 TTE93
         |         Naticopsoidea BR17
         |--Plagiothyridae B00
         |    |--Plagiothyra Whidborne 1892 BR05
         |    |    `--*P. purpurea (d’Archiac & de Verneuil 1842) [=Monodonta purpurea] BR17
         |    |--Dirachis Whidborne 1891 KC60
         |    |    `--*D. atavus Whidborne 1891 KC60
         |    `--Littorinides Knight 1937 [=Rhabdopleura de Koninck 1881 nec Allman 1869 nec Dawson 1870] KC60
         |         `--*L. solida (de Koninck 1843) [=Littorina solida] KC60
         `--+--+--Helicinoidea B00
            |  `--Neritoidea B00
            `--Neritopsoidea B00
                 |--Neritopsidae BR05
                 |--Pseudorthonychia Bandel & Frýda 1999 [Pseudorthonychiidae] BR05
                 |    `--*P. alata (Laube 1869) [=Capulus alatus] BR17
                 |--Fedaiella Kittl 1894 TE01 [Fedaiellidae BR17]
                 |    `--*F. cuccensis (Mojsisovics 1873) BR17 (see below for synonymy)
                 |--Palaeonarica Kittl 1892 [Palaeonaricidae] BR17
                 |    `--*P. pyrulaeformis (Klipstein 1843) [=Naticella pyrulaeformis] BR17
                 `--Delphinulopsidae BR17
                      |--Delphinulopsis Laube 1868 [Delphinulopsinae] BR05
                      |    `--D. binodosa (Münster 1841) [=Pleurotomaria binodosa; incl. *D. arietina Laube 1868] KC60
                      `--Platychilina Koken 1892 B01 [=Platychelyne Tomlin 1931 KC60; Platychilininae BR17]
                           |--*P. woehrmanni Koken 1892 TE01
                           |--P. obliqua Tong & Erwin 2001 TE01
                           |--P. sinensis Tong & Erwin 2001 TE01
                           `--P. tuberculata TE01

*Fedaiella cuccensis (Mojsisovics 1873) BR17 [=Natica cuccensis TE01, Naticopsis (Fedaiella) cuccensis TE01]

Symmetrocapulus tessoni (Eudes-Deslongchamps 1843) [=Patella tessoni; incl. P. rugosa Sowerby 1816 non Röding 1798, *Symmetrocapulus rugosus] KC60

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B00] Bandel, K. 2000. The new family Cortinellidae (Gastropoda, Mollusca) connected to a review of the evolutionary history of the subclass Neritimorpha. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie—Abhandlungen 217 (1): 111–129.

[B01] Bandel, K. 2001. The history of Theodoxus and Neritina connected with description and systematic evaluation of related Neritimorpha (Gastropoda). Mitteilungen des Geologisch-Paläontologischen Institutes der Universität Hamburg 85: 65–164.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BL78] Breimer, A., & N. G. Lane. 1978. Ecology and paleoecology. In: Moore, R. C., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt T. Echinodermata 2. Crinoidea vol. 1 pp. T316–T347. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[F12] Frýda, J. 2012. Phylogeny of Palaeozoic gastropods inferred from their ontogeny. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 395–435. Springer.

[FH03] Frýda, J., & D. Heidelberger. 2003. Systematic position of Cyrtoneritimorpha within the class Gastropoda with description of two new genera from Siluro-Devonian strata of central Europe. Bulletin of the Czech Geological Survey 78 (1): 35–39.

[KC60] Knight, J. B., L. R. Cox, A. M. Keen, R. L. Batten, E. L. Yochelson & R. Robertson. 1960. Gastropoda: systematic descriptions. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt I. Mollusca 1: Mollusca—General Features, Scaphopoda, Amphineura, Monoplacophora, Gastropoda—General Features, Archaeogastropoda and some (mainly Paleozoic) Caenogastropoda and Opisthobranchia pp. I169–I331. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[PE94] Pan H.-Z. & D. H. Erwin. 1994. Gastropod diversity patterns in south China during the Chihsia-Ladinian and their mass extinction. Palaeoworld 4: 249–262.

[TE01] Tong, J., & D. H. Erwin. 2001. Triassic gastropods of the southern Qinling Mountains, China. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 92: 1–47.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

[W63] Waterhouse, J. B. 1963. Permian gastropods of New Zealand. Part 4—Platyceratacea, Anomphalacea, Neritacea, and correlations. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics 6 (5): 817–842.

Last updated: 26 January 2020.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="">FoS</a> = FoS