Female common pine sawfly Diprion pini, copyright Entomart.

Belongs within: Eusymphyta.
Contains: Pergidae, Argidae, Tenthredinidae.

The Tenthredinoidea are the most diverse living lineage of sawflies with larvae feeding on a wide variety of plant species, including ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). Notable subgroups of the Tenthredinoidea include the Diprionidae, conifer-feeding sawflies with more than thirteen antennal segments, the antennae being serrate in females and pectinate or bipectinate in males. The Cimbicidae have clubbed antennae and a laterally carinate abdomen (Richards & Davies 1977); their larvae feed externally on woody flowering plants.

Characters (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005): Pronotum deeply curved, with lateral concavities for reception of prothoracic spiracle; forewing with crossvein 2r-rs distad of 2rs-m.

Tenthredinoidea [Strophandria]
    |  i. s.: Aproceros leucopoda PK17
    |--Xyelotomidae NPH04
    |    |--Pseudoxyelocerus Nel, Petrulevicius & Henrotay 2004 NPH04
    |    |    `--*P. bascharagensis Nel, Petrulevicius & Henrotay 2004 NPH04
    |    |--Xyelotoma Rasnitsyn 1968 NPH04
    |    |    `--*X. nigricornis Rasnitsyn 1968 NPH04
    |    |--Xyelocerus Rasnitsyn 1968 NPH04
    |    |    `--*X. admirandus Rasnitsyn 1968 NPH04
    |    |--Pseudoxyela Rasnitsyn 1968 NPH04
    |    |    `--*P. heteroclita Rasnitsyn 1968 NPH04
    |    |--Dahurotoma Rasnitsyn 1990 NPH04
    |    |    `--*D. robusta Rasnitsyn 1990 NPH04
    |    |--Vitimilarva Rasnitsyn 1969 NPH04
    |    |    `--*V. paradoxa Rasnitsyn 1969 NPH04
    |    `--Kuengilarva Rasnitsyn 1990 NPH04
    |         `--*K. inexpectata Rasnitsyn 1990 NPH04
    `--+--Liaotoma Ren et al. 1995 NPH04
       |    `--*L. linearis Ren et al. 1995 NPH04
       |--Leridatoma Rasnitsyn & Ansorge 2000 NPH04
       |    `--*L. pulcherrima Rasnitsyn & Ansorge 2000 NPH04
       |--Davidsmithia Pagliano & Scaramozzino 1990 (see below for synonymy) NPH04
       |    `--*D. suni (Hong 1982) [=*Protenthredo suni, *Thomasia suni] NPH04
       |--Undatoma Rasnitsyn 1977 NPH04
       |    |--*U. dahurica Rasnitsyn 1977 NPH04
       |    |--U. bicolor Rasnitsyn & Jarzembowski 1998 NPH04
       |    |--U. rudwickensis Rasnitsyn & Jarzembowski 1998 NPH04
       |    |--U. taksha Rasnitsyn 1990 NPH04
       |    |--U. stigmatica Rasnitsyn & Jarzembowski 1998 NPH04
       |    `--U. undurgensis Rasnitsyn 1990 NPH04
       `--+--Blasticotomidae HR11
          |    |--Blasticotoma filiceti PK17
          |    `--Runaria reducta HR11
          `--+--+--Electrotoma Z02 [Electrotomidae GE05]
             |  |    `--E. succini Rasnitsyn 1977 P92
             |  `--+--Pergidae GE05
             |     `--Argidae GE05
             `--+--Tenthredinidae HR11
                `--+--Cimbicidae HR11
                   |    |--Corynis crassicornis HR11
                   |    |--Cimbex PK17
                   |    |    |--C. lutea (Linnaeus 1758) L02, L58 [=Tenthredo lutea L02]
                   |    |    |--C. rubida PK17
                   |    |    `--C. variabilis A83
                   |    `--Abia Leach 1817 BD17, M99
                   |         |--A. aenea (Klug 1829) M99
                   |         |--A. fasciata MS01
                   |         |--A. lonicerae BD17
                   |         |--A. nigricornis MS01
                   |         `--A. sericea (Linné 1758) M99
                   `--Diprionidae HR11
                        |--Monoctenus juniperi HR11
                        |--Gilpinia Benson 1939 RD77, M99
                        |    |--G. hercyniae F92
                        |    `--G. polytoma (Hartig 1837) M99
                        |--Neodiprion TW05
                        |    |--N. abietis FM80
                        |    |--N. banksiana G38
                        |    |--N. lecontei BD17
                        |    |--N. serti TM96
                        |    `--N. tsugae G38
                        `--Diprion PK17 [incl. Lophyrus Latreille 1802 non Poli 1791 RD77, L02]
                             |--D. frutetorum F92
                             |--D. hercyniae C81
                             |--D. laricis F92
                             |--D. pallidus F92
                             |--D. pini (Linnaeus 1758) A71, L58 [=Tenthredo pini L02, *Lophyrus pini L02]
                             |--D. polytomum F92
                             `--D. rufus F92

Davidsmithia Pagliano & Scaramozzino 1990 [=Protenthredo Hong 1982 non Pongracz 1928, Thomasia Pagliano & Scaramozzino 1990 nec Poche 1908 nec Lambert 1918 nec Frederiks 1929; Protenthredinidae] NPH04

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A83] Adolph, E. 1883. Zur Morphologie der Hymenopterenflügel. Zugleich ein Beitrag zu den Fragen der Speciesbildung und des Atavismus. Verhandlungen der Kaiserlichen Leopoldinisch-Carolinischen Deutschen Akademie der Naturforscher [Nova Acta Academiae Caesareae Leopoldino-Carolinae Germanicae Naturae Curiosorum] 46 (2): 41–132, pls 1–6.

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BD17] Branstetter, M. G., B. N. Danforth, J. P. Pitts, B. C. Faircloth, P. S. Ward, M. L. Buffington, M. W. Gates, R. R. Kula & S. G. Brady. 2017. Phylogenomic insights into the evolution of stinging wasps and the origins of ants and bees. Current Biology 27: 1019–1025.

[C81] Caltagirone, L. E. 1981. Landmark examples in classical biological control. Annual Review of Entomology 26: 213–232.

[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[FM80] Futuyma, D. J., & G. C. Mayer. 1980. Non-allopatric speciation in animals. Systematic Zoology 29 (3): 254–271.

[G38] Gahan, A. B. 1938. Notes on some genera and species of Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 40 (8): 209–227.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HR11] Heraty, J., F. Ronquist, J. M. Carpenter, D. Hawks, S. Schulmeister, A. P. Dowling, D. Murray, J. Munro, W. C. Wheeler, N. Schiff & M. Sharkey. 2011. Evolution of the hymenopteran megaradiation. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 60: 73–88.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M99] Magis, N. 1999. Répertoire des mouches à scie reconnues en Belgique et au Grand-Duché de Luxembourg (Hymenoptera: Symphyta). Additions et corrections. Notes Fauniques de Gembloux 36: 85–93.

[MS01] Mocsáry, A., & V. Szépligeti. 1901. Hymenopterák [Hymenopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 121–169. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[NPH04] Nel, A., J. F. Petrulevicius & M. Henrotay. 2004. New Early Jurassic sawflies from Luxembourg: the oldest record of Tenthredinoidea (Hymenoptera: “Symphyta”). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 49 (2): 283–288.

[PK17] Peters, R. S., L. Krogmann, C. Mayer, A. Donath, S. Gunkel, K. Meusemann, A. Kozlov, L. Podsiadlowski, M. Petersen, R. Lanfear, P. A. Diez, J. Heraty, K. M. Kjer, S. Klopfstein, R. Meier, C. Polidori, T. Schmitt, S. Liu, X. Zhou, T. Wappler, J. Rust, B. Misof & O. Niehuis. 2017. Evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera. Current Biology 27 (7): 1013–1018.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[TW05] Terry, M. D., & M. F. Whiting. 2005. Mantophasmatodea and phylogeny of the lower neopterous insects. Cladistics 21: 240–257.

[TM96] Tsunoda, T., & K. Mori. 1996. Seasonal activity of a few sympatric ticks (Ixodidae) on plants. In: Mitchell, R., D. J. Horn, G. R. Needham & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 1. Proceedings pp. 37–41. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Ecological history of the terrestrial insects. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 331–388. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

Last updated: 21 March 2021.

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