Pair of Paradirphia lasiocampina, photographed by Franz Ziereis.

Belongs within: Bombycoidea.
Contains: Syssphinginae, Antheraea, Saturniinae.

The Saturnioidea are a group of often very large moths, with hairy bodies and often prominent eye-spots on the wings. The proboscis is usually absent in adults which are short-lived and do not feed. Some larger species have distinctive tailed hindwings; such species have previously been associated in the family Syssphingidae but this is regarded as a polyphyletic assemblage by more recent authors. Members of the subfamily Hemileucinae have gregarious larvae bearing tubercles with poisonous spines.

<==Saturnioidea DS73
    |--Syssphingidae S55
    |    |--Syssphinginae S55
    |    `--Rhescyntis [Rhescyntinae] S55
    |         `--R. armida (Cramer 1780) [=Phalaena (Attacus) armida] S55
    `--Saturniidae [Attacidae] S55
         |  i. s.: Aurivillius Packard 1902 C92
         |         Loepa DS73
         |           |--L. damartis DS73
         |           |--L. katinka (Westwood 1848) I92
         |           |    |--L. k. katinka I92
         |           |    `--L. k. sakaei Inoue 1965 I92
         |           |--L. megacore DS73
         |           `--L. newara [=Rhodinia newara] DS73
         |         Loxolomia serpentina DS73
         |         Arsenura NSp07
         |           |--A. armida DS73
         |           |--A. aspasia DS73
         |           |--A. batesii (Felder & Felder 1874) [=Aricia batesii] NSp07
         |           |--A. biundulata DS73
         |           |--A. cassandra DS73
         |           `--A. hercules DS73
         |         Heliconisa pagensteckeri DS73
         |         Ithomisa DS73
         |         Dirphia NSp07
         |           |--D. fraterna (Felder & Felder 1874) [=Ormiscodes fraterna] NSp07
         |           |--D. multicolor DS73
         |           `--D. thliptophana (Felder & Felder 1874) [=Ormiscodes thliptophana] NSp07
         |         Machaerosema DS73
         |           |--M. hippodamia DS73
         |           `--M. mortii [=Rhescyntis martii] DS73
         |         Eudaemonia derceto [=Copiopteryx derceto] DS73
         |         Copiopteryx NSp07
         |           |--C. jehovah DS73
         |           |--C. semiramis NSp07
         |           |    |--C. s. semiramis NSp07
         |           |    `--C. s. phoenix (Deyrolle 1869) [=Aricia phoenix] NSp07
         |           |--C. sonthonnaxi DS73
         |           `--C. virgo DS73
         |         Dysdaemonia NSp07
         |           |--D. boreas (Cramer 1775) [incl. Aricia auster Felder & Felder 1874] NSp07
         |           |--D. kayi DS73
         |           |--D. platydesmia DS73
         |           |    |--D. p. platydesmia DS73
         |           |    `--D. p. castanea DS73
         |           `--D. pluto DS73
         |         Philosamia cynthia DS73
         |         Antheraea DS73
         |         Pseudantheraea arnobia [incl. P. discrepans] DS73
         |         Nudaurelia DS73
         |         Argema NSp07
         |           |--A. mimosa DS73
         |           `--A. mittrei (Guérin-Ménéville 1847) [incl. Actias idea Felder & Felder 1874] NSp07
         |         Graellsia isabelae (Graells 1849) DS73, L-SSY04
         |         Neocarnegia basirei DS73
         |         Bunaea alcinoe DS73
         |         Pseudobunaea DS73
         |           |--P. irius DS73
         |           `--P. tyrrhena DS73
         |         Lobobunaea DS73
         |           |--L. phaedusa DS73
         |           `--L. saturnus DS73
         |         Imbrasia macrothryris DS73
         |         Pseudimbrasia deyrollei DS73
         |         Cricula DS73
         |           |--C. andrei DS73
         |           |--C. drepanoides DS73
         |           `--C. trifenestrata DS73
         |         Hyalophora DS73
         |           |--H. cecropia DS73
         |           |--H. columbia DS73
         |           |--H. euryalus DS73
         |           `--H. gloveri DS73
         |         Dictyoploca DS73
         |           |--D. japonica DS73
         |           `--D. simla DS73
         |         Samia cynthia GE05
         |         Coscinocera hercules NC91
         |         Gonimbrasia zambesina (Walker 1865) [incl. Thyella zambesia Felder & Felder 1874] NSp07
         |         Eochroa Felder & Felder 1874 NSp07
         |           `--*E. trimenii Felder & Felder 1874 [=E. trimeni] NSp07
         |         Dirphiopsis NSp07
         |           |--D. epiolina (Felder & Felder 1874) [=Ormiscodes epiolina] NSp07
         |           |--D. multicolor (Walker 1855) [incl. Ormiscodes ramigera Felder & Felder 1874] NSp07
         |           |--D. pulchricornis (Walker 1865) [incl. Ormiscodes pomona Felder & Felder 1874] NSp07
         |           `--D. trisignata (Felder & Felder 1874) [=Ormiscodes trisignata] NSp07
         |         Bathyphlebia Felder & Felder 1874 NSp07
         |           `--*B. aglia Felder & Felder 1874 NSp07
         |         Polythysana apollina Felder & Felder 1874 NSp07
         |         Tagoropsis Felder & Felder 1874 NSp07
         |           `--T. flavinata (Walker 1865) [incl. *T. natalensis Felder & Felder 1874] NSp07
         |         Ludia hansalii Felder & Felder 1874 [=L. hansali] NSp07
         |         Leucanella NSp07
         |           |--L. aspera (Felder & Felder 1874) [=Hyperchiria aspera] NSp07
         |           `--L. janeira (Westwood 1854) [incl. Hyperchiria fumata Felder & Felder 1874] NSp07
         |         Gamelia anableps (Felder & Felder 1874) [=Hyperchiria anableps] NSp07
         |         Automerella flexuosa (Felder & Felder 1874) [=Hyperchiria flexuosa] NSp07
         |         Automerina caudatula (Felder & Felder 1874) [=Hyperchiria caudatula] NSp07
         |         Cercophana frauenfeldi Felder 1862 NSp07
         |         Protogarce sexta F70
         |         Opodiphthera NC91
         |           |--O. eucalypti NC91
         |           |--O. helena NC91
         |           `--O. loranthi NC91
         |         Tropaea selene P01
         |         Agapema galbina G05
         |           |--A. g. galbina G05
         |           `--A. g. anona G05
         |         Anisota discolor S96
         |         Dryocampa rubicunda RM01
         |         Callosamia promethea W92
         |         Platysamia cecropia RD77
         |--Oxyteninae KP19
         |    |--Oxytenis [incl. Homoeopteryx Felder & Felder 1874] NSp07
         |    |    `--O. syssauroides (Felder & Felder 1874) [=*Homoeopteryx syssauroides] NSp07
         |    `--Therinia KP19
         |         |--T. geometraria (Felder 1862) [=Asthenia geometraria] NSp07
         |         `--T. lactucina KP19
         `--+--Saturniinae KP19
            `--+--Eacles [Ceratocampidae, Ceratocampinae] KP19
               |    `--E. imperialis S55
               |         |--E. i. imperialis S55
               |         `--E. i. decoris Rothschild 1907 S55
               `--Hemileucinae [Hemileucidae] KP19
                    |--Paradirphia NSc07
                    |    |--P. fumosa (Felder & Felder 1874) [=Ormiscodes fumosa] NSp07
                    |    `--P. lasiocampina (Felder & Felder 1874) [=Ormiscodes lasiocampina] NSp07
                    `--Hemileuca NSp07
                         |--H. lucina WD04
                         |--H. magnifica G05
                         |--H. maia WW96
                         |--H. oliviae G05
                         `--H. rubridorsa Felder & Felder 1874 NSp07

*Type species of generic name indicated


[C92] Crawford, R. L. 1992. Catalogue of the genera and type species of the harvestman superfamily Phalangioidea (Arachnida). Burke Museum Contributions in Anthropology and Natural History 8: 1–60.

[DS73] Dickens, M., & E. Storey. 1973. The World of Moths. Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc.: New York.

[F70] Fitch, W. M. 1970. Distinguishing homologous from analogous proteins. Systematic Zoology 19 (2): 99–113.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[G05] Grissell, E. E. 2005. A review of North American species of Microdontomerus Crawford (Torymidae: Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 14 (1): 22–65.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[L-SSY04] López-Sebastián, E., J. Selfa & J. Ylla. 2004. Primeros datos del parasitismo de Ooencyrtus pityocampae (Mercet, 1921) sobre Graellsia isabelae (Graells, 1849) en condiciones de laboratorio. Graellsia 60 (1): 121–123.

[KP19] Kawahara, A. Y., D. Plotkin, M. Espeland, K. Meusemann, E. F. A. Toussaint, A. Donath, F. Gimnich, P. B. Frandsen, A. Zwick, M. dos Reis, J. R. Barber, R. S. Peters, S. Liu, X. Zhou, C. Mayer, L. Podsiadlowski, C. Storer, J. E. Yack, B. Misof & J. W. Breinholt. 2019. Phylogenomics reveals the evolutionary timing and pattern of butterflies and moths. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 116 (45): 22657–22663.

[NSc07] Nässig, W. A., & C. H. Schulze. 2007. A second species with diurnal males of the genus Eupterote from Indonesia: Eupterote (Eupterote) splendens sp. n. from Sulawesi (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Bombycoidea, Eupterotidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 87 (2): 189–194.

[NSp07] Nässig, W. A., & W. Speidel. 2007. On the authorships of the Lepidoptera Atlas of the “Reise der Novara”, with a list of the taxa of Bombycoidea [s. l.] therein described (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Bombycoidea). Senckenbergiana Biologica 87 (1): 63–74.

[NC91] Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 817–915. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[P01] Pável, J. 1901. Lepkék [Lepidopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 171–177. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[RM01] Regier, J. C., C. Mitter, T. P. Friedlander & R. S. Peigler. 2001. Re: phylogenetic relationships in Sphingidae (Insecta: Lepidoptera): initial evidence from two nuclear genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 20 (2): 311–316.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[S55] Schröder, H. 1955. Saturniiden aus El Salvador (Ins. Lep. Heterocera). Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 209–213.

[S96] Smith, D. R. 1996. Trigonalyidae (Hymenoptera) in the eastern United States: seasonal flight activity, distribution, hosts. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (1): 109–118.

[WD04] Wardhaugh, C. W., & R. K. Didham. 2004. The effect of introduced wasp (Vespula vulgaris, Hymenoptera: Vespidae) predation on the dispersive life history stages of beech scale insects (Ultracoelostoma spp., Homoptera: Margarodidae). New Zealand Entomologist 27: 91–101.

[WW96] Wheeler, A. G., Jr, & S. W. Wilson. 1996. Planthoppers of pitch pine and scrub oak in pine barrens communities (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (1): 100–108.

[W92] Wilson, E. O. 1992. The Diversity of Life. Harvard University Press: Belknap (USA).

Last updated: 21 February 2021.

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