California poppy Eschscholzia californica, copyright Kevin Stanchfield.

Belongs within: Ranunculales.
Contains: Meconopsis, Corydalis, Papaver.

The Papaveraceae are a mostly Northern Hemisphere family of flowering plants including the poppies and related taxa. Laticifers, latex-producing secretory cells, are present in the stems of members of the subfamilies Eschscholzioideae and Papaveroideae.

Characters (from M. Zhang et al.): Herbs, annual, biennial, monocarpic perennial, perennial, or shrubby. Laticifers or elongated idioblasts present. Leaves alternate or in a basal rosette, rarely opposite or whorled, usually without stipules; leaf blade entire to compound. Inflorescences racemes, panicles, dichasia, pseudoumbels, or solitary flowers. Flowers actinomorphic, bisymmetric, or zygomorphic, always bisexual, usually 2-merous, rarely 3- or 4-merous. Calyx caducous, green or petaloid. Corolla choripetalous or quasi-sympetalous, very rarely absent. Anthers opening by slits. Ovary superior, syncarpous with 2 to several carpels; placentation parietal.

    |--Hypecoum [Hypecoaceae, Hypecoideae] T00
    |    `--H. leptocarpum O88
    |--Eschscholzioideae T00
    |    |--Hunnemannia fumariifolia T00, H93
    |    |--Dendromecon T00
    |    |    |--D. harfordii (see below for synonymy) H93
    |    |    `--D. rigida H93
    |    `--Eschscholzia T00
    |         |--E. caespitosa H93
    |         |--E. californica H93 (see below for synonymy)
    |         |--E. cristata [=Esholtzia (l. c.) cristata] C55
    |         |--E. glyptosperma H93
    |         |--E. hypecoides H93
    |         |--E. lemmonii H93
    |         |    |--E. l. ssp. lemmonii H93
    |         |    `--E. l. ssp. kernensis [=E. caespitosa ssp. kernensis] H93
    |         |--E. lobbii H93
    |         |--E. minutiflora [incl. E. minutiflora ssp. covillei, E. minutiflora ssp. twisselmannii] H93
    |         |--E. parishii H93
    |         |--E. ramosa H93
    |         `--E. rhombipetala H93
    |--Fumarioideae [Fumariaceae] T00
    |    |--Corydalis NDG98
    |    |--Dicentra NDG98
    |    |    |--D. chrysantha H93
    |    |    |--D. cucullaria HH03
    |    |    |--D. formosa [incl. D. formosa ssp. oregana] H93
    |    |    |--D. nevadensis H93
    |    |    |--D. ochroleuca H93
    |    |    |--D. pauciflora H93
    |    |    |--D. spectabilis H90
    |    |    `--D. uniflora H93
    |    `--Fumaria PP07
    |         |--F. bastardii H90
    |         |--F. capreolata OS04
    |         |--F. densiflora [incl. F. micrantha] H90
    |         |--F. indica [=F. vaillantii var. indica] H90
    |         |--F. macrocarpa PT98
    |         |--F. muralis [=F. caprolata ssp. muralis] C06
    |         |--F. officinalis ACW01
    |         |    |--F. o. ssp. officinalis H90
    |         |    `--F. o. ssp. wirtgenii H90
    |         |--F. pallidiflora R13
    |         `--F. parviflora PT98
    `--Papaveroideae [Platystemonoideae] T00
         |--Papaver H09
         |--Platystemon californicus (see below for synonymy) H93
         |--Canbya candida H93
         |--Stylomecon heterophylla H93
         |--Romneya H93
         |    |--R. coulteri H93
         |    `--R. trichocalyx H93
         |--Arctomecon H93
         |    |--A. californica H93
         |    `--A. merriamii H93
         |--Meconella H93
         |    |--M. californica H93
         |    |--M. denticulata [=M. oregana var. denticulata] H93
         |    `--M. linearis [=Hesperomecon linearis] H93
         |--Glaucium H93
         |    |--G. corniculatum Y98
         |    |--G. flavum V09
         |    |--G. luteum [incl. Chelidonium glaucium] C55
         |    `--G. violaceum C55
         `--Argemone H93
              |--A. alba J23
              |--A. corymbosa H93
              |--A. mexicana PP07
              |--A. munita [incl. A. munita ssp. argentea, A. munita ssp. robusta, A. munita ssp. rotundata] H93
              |--A. ochroleuca [=A. mexicana var. ochroleuca] H90
              `--A. subfusiformis H90

Papaveraceae incertae sedis:
  Sanguinaria canadensis BA03
  Bocconia frutescens BA03
  Stylophorum BA03
  Dicranostigma lactucoides O88
  Meconopsis O88
  Pseudofumaria alba GR98
  Glaucinia flava B88
  Macleaya cordata V09
  Chelidonium majus C06
  Capnites (DC.) Dumort. 1827 KC01

Dendromecon harfordii [=D. rigida ssp. harfordii; incl. D. harfordii var. rhamnoides, D. rigida ssp. rhamnoides] H93

Eschscholzia californica H93 [=Escholtzia (l. c.) californica C55; incl. Eschs. californica ssp. mexicana H93, Eschs. procera H93]

Platystemon californicus [incl. P. californicus var. ciliatus, P. californicus var. crinitus, P. californicus var. horridulus, P. californicus var. nutans, P. californicus var. ornithopus] H93

*Type species of generic name indicated


[ACW01] Aguilar, H., C. C. Childers & W. C. Welbourn. 2001. Relative abundance and seasonal occurrence of mites in the family Tydeidae on citrus in Florida. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 376–380. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[BA03] Bergthorsson, U., K. L. Adams, B. Thomason & J. D. Palmer. 2003. Widespread horizontal transfer of mitochondrial genes in flowering plants. Nature 424: 197–201.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[GR98] Greuter, W., & T. Raus (eds.) 1998. Med-Checklist Notulae, 17. Willdenowia 28: 163–174.

[H90] Harden, G. J. (ed.) 1990. Flora of New South Wales vol. 1. New South Wales University Press.

[H09] Heltmann, H. 2009. Der Königstein (Piatra Craiului), die Perle der Burzenländer Gebirge. Mauritiana 20 (3): 515–527.

[HH03] Hernández, J. R., & J. F. Hennen. 2003. Rust fungi causing galls, witches’ brooms, and other abnormal plant growths in northwestern Argentina. Mycologia 95 (4): 728–755.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[J23] James, E. 1823. Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains, performed in the years 1819 and '20, by order of the Hon. J. C. Calhoun, sec'y of war: under the command of Major Stephen H. Long. From the notes of Major Long, Mr. T. Say, and other gentlemen of the exploring party vol. 1. H. C. Carey & I. Lea: Philadelphia.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby's Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[NDG98] Neal, P. R., A. Dafni & M. Giurfa. 1998. Floral symmetry and its role in plant-pollinator systems: terminology, distribution, and hypotheses. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 345–373.

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19–28.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P., & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 15–78.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95–116.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the wild fauna and flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183–194.

[Y98] Yannitsaros, A. 1998. Additions to the flora of Kithira (Greece) I. Willdenowia 28: 77–94.

Last updated: 8 June 2022.

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