Corn poppy Papaver rhoeas, photographed by Tanja Niggendijker.

Belongs within: Ranunculales.
Contains: Meconopsis, Corydalis.

The Papaveraceae are a mostly Northern Hemisphere family of flowering plants, including the poppies and related taxa.

Characters (from M. Zhang et al.): Herbs, annual, biennial, monocarpic perennial, perennial, or shrubby. Laticifers or elongated idioblasts present. Leaves alternate or in a basal rosette, rarely opposite or whorled, usually without stipules; leaf blade entire to compound. Inflorescences racemes, panicles, dichasia, pseudoumbels, or solitary flowers. Flowers actinomorphic, bisymmetric, or zygomorphic, always bisexual, usually 2-merous, rarely 3- or 4-merous. Calyx caducous, green or petaloid. Corolla choripetalous or quasi-sympetalous, very rarely absent. Anthers opening by slits. Ovary superior, syncarpous with 2 to several carpels; placentation parietal.

    |--Hypecoum [Hypecoaceae, Hypecoideae] T00
    |    `--H. leptocarpum O88
    |--Eschscholzioideae T00
    |    |--Dendromecon T00
    |    |--Hunnemannia T00
    |    `--Eschscholzia T00
    |         |--E. californica [=Escholtzia (l. c.) californica] C55b
    |         `--E. cristata [=Esholtzia (l. c.) cristata] C55b
    |--Fumarioideae [Fumariaceae] T00
    |    |--Dicentra cucullaria NDG98, HH03
    |    |--Corydalis NDG98
    |    `--Fumaria OS04
    |         |--F. capreolata OS04
    |         |--F. densiflora PT98
    |         |--F. indica PP07
    |         |--F. macrocarpa PT98
    |         |--F. officinalis ACW01
    |         `--F. parviflora PT98
    `--Papaver PT01 [Papaveroideae T00, Platystemonoideae]
         |--P. alpinum C55a
         |--P. argemone C55b
         |--P. aurantiacum C55b
         |--P. dubium PT98
         |--P. gracile PT98
         |--P. hybridum PT98
         |--P. nudicaule PT01
         |--P. officinale C55b
         |--P. purpureomarginatum PT98
         |--P. radicatum O88
         |--P. rhoeas PT98
         |--P. setigerum C55b
         |--P. somniferum C55b
         `--P. striatocarpum D37

Papaveraceae incertae sedis:
  Sanguinaria canadensis BA03
  Bocconia frutescens BA03
  Stylophorum BA03
  Argemone H06
    |--A. mexicana H06
    `--A. ochroleuca H06
  Dicranostigma lactucoides O88
  Meconopsis O88
  Glaucium Y98
    |--G. corniculatum Y98
    |--G. flavum Y98
    |--G. luteum [incl. Chelidonium glaucium] C55b
    `--G. violaceum C55b
  Pseudofumaria alba GR98
  Glaucinia flava B88

*Type species of generic name indicated


[ACW01] Aguilar, H., C. C. Childers & W. C. Welbourn. 2001. Relative abundance and seasonal occurrence of mites in the family Tydeidae on citrus in Florida. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 376-380. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[BA03] Bergthorsson, U., K. L. Adams, B. Thomason & J. D. Palmer. 2003. Widespread horizontal transfer of mitochondrial genes in flowering plants. Nature 424: 197-201.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[D37] Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press: New York.

[GR98] Greuter, W., & T. Raus (eds.) 1998. Med-Checklist Notulae, 17. Willdenowia 28: 163-174.

[H06] Henderson, L. 2006. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions. Bothalia 36 (2): 201-222.

[HH03] Hernández, J. R., & J. F. Hennen. 2003. Rust fungi causing galls, witches’ brooms, and other abnormal plant growths in northwestern Argentina. Mycologia 95 (4): 728-755.

[NDG98] Neal, P. R., A. Dafni & M. Giurfa. 1998. Floral symmetry and its role in plant-pollinator systems: terminology, distribution, and hypotheses. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 345-373.

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19-28.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P. & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 15-78.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: Flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95-116.

[PT01] Pemberton, L. M. S., S.-L. Tsai, P. H. Lovell & P. J. Harris. 2001. Epidermal patterning in seedling roots of eudicotyledons. Annals of Botany 87: 649-654.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: Dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441-647.

[Y98] Yannitsaros, A. 1998. Additions to the flora of Kithira (Greece) I. Willdenowia 28: 77-94.

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