Trident leaf-nosed bats Asellia tridens, photographed by Drew Gardner.

Belongs within: Rhinolophoidea.
Contains: Rhinolophus, Hipposideros.

The Rhinolophidae, Old World leaf-nosed bats, get their vernacular name from the well-developed leaf-like structure at the end of their muzzle.

Characters (from Miller 1907, as separate families Rhinolophidae and Hipposideridae): Humerus with trochiter about as large as trochin and definitely articulating with scapula by an articular surface half as large as glenoid fossa, both tubercles rising slightly above level of head, epitrochlea large and with well-developed styloid process, capitellum nearly in line with shaft. Second manal digit consisting of well-developed metacarpal alone; third finger with two phalanges. Shoulder girdle highly abnormal, the seventh cervical vertebra and first dorsal so completely fused that their boundaries cannot be detected; in Rhinolophinae these are fused with first rib, which in turn is fused with presternum and ventral half of second rib, the region between which is completely filled with bone, the presternum appearing to be enlarged to form a broadly crescentic plate; in Hipposiderinae, the fusion of the first and second ribs incorporates the entire bone to and including the corresponding dorsal vertebrae, thus producing a solid ring of bone consisting of the seventh cervical vertebra, first and second dorsals, first and second ribs and entire presternum, the elements of the ring indicated by a slit-like vacuity above, between the ribs and one or two small roundish vacuities below. Foot normal, the hallux with two phalanges, the other toes with two (Hipposiderinae) or three (Rhinolophinae). Fibula complete, threadlike. Pelvis in Rhinolophinae abnormal, the ischium and pubis so reduced in size that dorsal and ventral profiles of innominate bone are nearly parallel, their width at the same time so increased that the thyroid foramen is scarcely more than twice as large as the acetabulum; that in Hipposiderinae like that of Rhinolophinae posteriorly, but anteriorly with a supplemental bridge of bone connecting acicular process with front of ilium and producing a pre-acetabular foramen slightly exceeding the thyroid foramen in size. Lumbar vertebrae in Rhinolophinae showing no tendency to become fused, but centrum of fifth or sixth, often of both, with distinct bifid or double hypophysis; in Hipposiderinae showing a marked tendency to become fused into a solid rod with hypophyses absent. Skull without postorbital processes and with premaxillaries represented by ligulate palatal branches only, the two bones partly cartilaginous, and fused neither with each other nor with maxillaries; palate so deeply emarginate both anteriorly and posteriorly that its median length is less than least distance between tooth rows; teeth normal; ears large, without tragus; muzzle with conspicuous leaflike cutaneous outgrowths consisting of a horizontal anterior horseshoe, a perpendicular median sella, and a posterior erect lancet.

Rhinolophidae [Rhinolophi, Rhinolophineae, Rhinolophini]
    |--Rhinolophinae KJ70
    |    |--Rhinolophus KJ70
    |    |--Paleonycteris KJ70
    |    |--Rhinomegalophus KJ70
    |    |--Anthops Thomas 1888 KJ70, M07
    |    |    `--*A. ornatus M07
    |    `--Asellia Gray 1838 KJ70, M07
    |         |--*A. tridens (see below for synonymy) M07
    |         |--A. murraiana M07
    |         |--A. patrizii IT07
    |         |--A. tricuspidata G66
    |         `--A. vetus Lavocat 1961 B78
    `--Hipposiderinae [Hipposideridae, Phyllorhinae, Phyllorhininae] KJ70
         |  i. s.: Miophyllorhina Hand 1997 LA02
         |           `--*M. riversleighensis Hand 1997 LA02
         |         Riversleigha Hand 1998 LA02
         |           `--*R. williamsi Hand 1998 LA02
         |         Xenorhinos Hand 1998 LA02
         |           `--*X. halli Hand 1998 LA02
         |         Brachipposideros Sigé 1968 LA02
         |           |--*B. collongensis (Depéret 1892) [=Hipposideros (*Brachipposideros) collongensis] LA02
         |           |--B. aguilari Legendre 1982 LA02
         |           |--B. branssatensis (Hugueney 1965) LA02
         |           |--B. dechaseauxi Sigé 1968 LA02
         |           |--B. khengkao Mein & Ginsburg 1997 LA02
         |           |--B. nooraleebus Sigé, Hand & Archer 1982 LA02
         |           |--B. omani Sigé et al. 1994 LA02
         |           `--B. watsoni Hand 1997 LA02
         |--Palaeophyllophorini KJ70
         |    |--Palaeophyllophora KJ70
         |    `--Paraphyllophora KJ70
         |--Coelopsini KJ70
         |    |--Paracoelops megalotis KJ70, IT07
         |    `--Coelops Blyth 1849 KJ70, B88
         |         |--*C. frithi [incl. C. bernsteini] M07
         |         |--C. hirsutus IT07
         |         `--C. robinsoni IT07
         `--Hipposiderini KJ70
              |--Hipposideros KJ70
              |--Cloeotis Thomas 1901 KJ70, M07
              |    `--*C. percivali M07
              |--Rhinonicteris Gray 1847 LA02 [=Rhinonycteris Gray 1866 KJ70, M07; Rhinonycterina]
              |    |--*R. aurantius (Gray 1845) LA02 [=Rhinolophus aurantius M07, *Rhinonycteris aurantius G66]
              |    `--R. tedfordi Hand 1997 LA02
              |--Triaenops Dobson 1871 KJ70, M07
              |    |--*T. persicus Dobson 1871 M07, K92 [incl. T. afer K92]
              |    `--T. furculus IT07
              `--Aselliscus KJ70
                   |--A. stoliczkanus IT07
                   `--A. tricuspidatus IT07
                        |--A. t. tricuspidatus M72
                        `--A. t. novehebridensis M72

*Asellia tridens [=Rhinolophus tridens, Hipposideros (*Asellia) tridens, Phyllorhina (*A.) tridens] M07

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[B78] Butler, P. M. 1978. Insectivora and Chiroptera. In Evolution of African Mammals (V. J. Maglio & H. B. S. Cooke, eds) pp. 56-68. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[G66] Gray, J. E. 1866. A revision of the genera of Rhinolophidae, or horseshoe bats. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 81-83.

[IT07] Isaac, N. J. B., S. T. Turvey, B. Collen, C. Waterman & J. E. M. Baillie. 2007. Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny. PLoS One 2 (3): e296.

[K92] Klompen, J. S. H. 1992. Phylogenetic relationships in the mite family Sarcoptidae (Acari: Astigmata). Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 180: i-vi, 1-154.

[KJ70] Koopman, K. F., & J. K. Jones, Jr. 1970. Classification of bats. In About Bats (Slaughter & Walton, eds) pp. 22-28. Southern Methodist University Press: Dallas.

[LA02] Long, J., M. Archer, T. Flannery & S. Hand. 2002. Prehistoric Mammals of Australia and New Guinea: One Hundred Million Years of Evolution. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[M72] McKean, J. L. 1972. Notes on some collections of bats (order Chiroptera) from Papua-New Guinea and Bougainville Island. CSIRO Division of Wildlife Research Technical Paper 26: 1-35.

[M07] Miller, G. S., Jr. 1907. The families and genera of bats. Smithsonian Institution, United States National Museum, Bulletin 57: i-xvii, 1-282, pl. I-XIV.

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