Moraceae

Fruit of cluster fig Ficus racemosa, photographed by Ethel Aardvark.


Belongs within: Rosales.
Contains: Ficus subgenus Ficus, Ficus section Oreosycea, Ficus section Conosycea, Ficus section Malvanthera.

The Moraceae—mulberries, figs and related taxa—are a mostly tropical family of plants bearing compound fruits and with milky sap. In the genus Ficus, figs, the compound inflorescence has become enclosed within a syconium, and the flowers are pollinated by minute wasps of the Chalcidoidea that enter the syconium through an ostiole to lay their eggs therein. Other noteworthy members of the family include Artocarpus, a southeast Asian genus whose members may produce very large fruits, including the breadfruit A. altilis and jackfruit A. heterophyllus.

Characters (from R. P. Wunderlin): Trees, shrubs, herbs, or vines , deciduous or evergreen, frequently with milky sap. Leaves alternate (rarely opposite or whorled), simple; stipules present, persistent or caducous; petiole adaxially grooved. Leaf blade: margins entire, toothed, or lobed; venation pinnate or with 3-5 basal palmate veins; cystoliths often present in epidermal cells. Inflorescences racemes, cymes, or capitula. Flowers unisexual, staminate and pistillate on same or different plants, small, occasionally on flattened torus, more often enclosed within fleshy, flask-shaped receptacle (syconium); sepals 2-6, distinct or partly connate (vestigial in Brosimum). Staminate flowers: stamens equal in number to sepals or calyx lobes and opposite them, straight or inflexed; anthers 1-2-locular. Pistillate flowers: sepals or calyx lobes 4, ± connate; pistils 1, 1-2-carpellate; ovary 1, superior or inferior, 1(-2)-locular; ovules 1 per locule; styles or style branches 1-2; stigmas 1-2, entire. Fruits multiple (syncarps); individual achenes or drupelets partly or completely enclosed by enlarged common receptacle or by individual calyces.

<==Moraceae
    |--Bosquiea YY22
    |--Bosqueiopsis YY22
    |--Brosimopsis YY22
    |--Cyathanthus YY22
    |--Helicostylis YY22
    |--Lanessania YY22
    |--Mesogyne YY22
    |--Olmedia YY22
    |--Olmediella YY22
    |--Olmediophaena YY22
    |--Perebea YY22
    |--Poulsenia YY22
    |--Prainea YY22
    |--Pseudolmedia YY22
    |--Scyphosyce YY22
    |--Sloetia YY22
    |--Sloetiopsis YY22
    |--Teonangia YY22
    |--Trymatococcus YY22
    |--Acanthotreculia YY22
    |--Allacanthus YY22
    |--Ampalis YY22
    |--Antiariopsis YY22
    |--Bagassa YY22
    |--Balanostreblus YY22
    |--Balansaephytum YY22
    |--Batocarpus YY22
    |--Cardiogyne YY22
    |--Clarisia YY22
    |--Chlorophora tintoria K06
    |--Coussapoa YY22
    |--Cudrania javanensis YY22, C16
    |--Dammaropsis YY22
    |--Gymnartocarpus YY22
    |--Helianthostylis YY22
    |--Hulletia YY22
    |--Maillardia YY22
    |--Musanga smithii YY22, RN72
    |--Myrianthus YY22
    |--Pachytrophe YY22
    |--Parartocarpus YY22
    |--Phyllochlamys YY22
    |--Plecospermum YY22
    |--Pourouma YY22
    |--Pseudotrophis YY22
    |--Sahagunia YY22
    |--Sorocea ilicifolia YY22, RJ11
    |--Sparattosyce YY22
    |--Treculia YY22
    |--Bleekrodia YY22
    |--Fatoua villosa LK14
    |--Pseudomorus YY22
    |--Pseudostreblus YY22
    |--Becktonia hantonensis JD05
    |--Castilla elastica PL12
    |--Trophis scandens LK14
    |--Arthmiocarpus hesperus (Wieland) Delevoryas 1964 CBH93
    |--Combretiphyllum acuminatum Menzel 1909 CBH93
    |--Debeya serrata Miquel 1853 CBH93
    |--Dorstenia HQC03
    |    |--D. embergeri S00
    |    `--D. psilurus HQC03
    |--Maclura B00
    |    |--M. cochinchinensis B00
    |    `--M. pomifera H93
    |--Brosimum YY22
    |    |--B. alicastrum VKC07
    |    `--B. terrabanum F55
    |--Broussonetia JD05
    |    |--B. papyrifera [incl. B. kasinoki] LO98
    |    `--B. rugosa JD05
    |--Malaisia YY22
    |    |--M. scandends P82
    |    `--M. tortuosa H09
    |--Paratrophis Blume 1852 A61
    |    |--P. banksii Cheesem. 1906 [incl. P. heterophylla var. elliptica Kirk 1897] A61
    |    |--P. microphylla (Raoul) Cockayne 1915 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |    `--P. smithii Cheesem. 1888 A61
    |--Morus HQC03
    |    |--M. alba HQC03
    |    |--M. indica C55
    |    |--M. nigra R-CT01
    |    `--M. rubra HQC03
    |--Streblus P03
    |    |--S. asper P03
    |    |--S. banksii G01
    |    |--S. heterophyllus BKS98
    |    |--S. indicus D95
    |    |--S. sandwicensis D95
    |    `--S. smithii D95
    |--Artocarpus K03
    |    |--A. altilis [incl. A. incisa] P88
    |    |--A. chaplasha YZ02
    |    |--A. communis K03
    |    |--A. elasticus K03
    |    |--A. heterophyllus P88
    |    |--A. integer K03
    |    |--A. integrifolia RH01
    |    |--A. odoratissimus K03
    |    `--A. tamaran K03
    `--Ficus URK03
         |  i. s.: F. acamptophylla H03
         |         F. aculeata VT13
         |           |--F. a. var. aculeata VT13
         |           `--F. a. var. indecora VT13
         |         F. americana Aublet 1775 [incl. F. perforata Linnaeus 1775 (nom. rej. prop.)] B03
         |         F. arnottiana SR07
         |         F. aurantiacea K03
         |         F. beccarii K03
         |         F. benghalensis B88
         |         F. bennettii Seem. 1868 URK03
         |         F. bonijesulapensis C-SQ08
         |         F. caatingae S-SR09
         |         F. carica B88
         |         F. chandleri JD05
         |         F. chauvieri Nicholson 1885 URK03
         |         F. citrifolia Miller 1768 [incl. F. caribaea Jacquin 1767 (nom. rej. prop.)] B03
         |         F. clusiifolia F11
         |         F. comosa B88
         |         F. cookii H11
         |         F. cooperi Veitch 1862 URK03
         |         F. coronulata LK14
         |         F. cotinifolia F11
         |         F. craterostoma G02
         |         F. cuspidata B88
         |         F. deltoidea H03
         |           |--F. d. var. deltoidea H03
         |           `--F. d. var. ovoidea H03
         |         F. dottata C55
         |         F. elastica P88
         |         F. fistulosa V25
         |         F. fulva H03
         |         F. glomerata B00
         |         F. hemsleyana W00
         |         F. hillyi WEE70
         |         F. indica C06
         |         F. laevigata SWK87
         |         F. leucocarpa C55
         |         F. lyrata B00
         |         F. macrocarpa Léveillé & Vaniot 1907 R-SN07
         |         F. microsice H03
         |         F. microstoma H03
         |         F. minahassae R02
         |         F. moorei Seem. 1868 URK03
         |         F. natalensis B00
         |         F. obtusiuscula (Miquel) Miquel 1867 (see below for synonymy) B03
         |         F. opposita VT13
         |         F. padifolia F11
         |         F. parietalis H03
         |         F. pertusa Linnaeus 1782 B03
         |         F. podocarpifolia LK14
         |         F. polymorpha C55
         |         F. pretoriae HQC03
         |         F. prolixa [incl. F. forsteriana, F. stipulacea Forster 1786 (n. n.) non Noronha 1790] URK03
         |         F. pseudosycamorus KAA-W00
         |         F. pumila B00
         |         F. religiosa P88
         |         F. scandens YZ02
         |         F. scobina LK14
         |         F. smithii Horne ex Baker 1883 URK03
         |           |--F. s. var. smithii URK03
         |           `--F. s. var. robusta URK03
         |         F. solanderi Ettingshausen 1886 F71
         |         F. sphaerocarpa B88
         |         F. sur B06
         |         F. sycomorus B88
         |         F. thonningii B88
         |         F. uniglandulosa H03
         |         F. virens VT13
         |--F. subg. Ficus B88
         |--F. subg. Pharmacosycea D03
         |    |  i. s.: F. albipida D03
         |    |         F. maxima Miller 1768 (see below for synonymy) B03
         |    `--F. sect. Oreosycea B88
         |--F. (subg. Sycomorus) racemosa D03
         |    |--F. r. var. racemosa K03
         |    `--F. r. var. elongata K03
         `--F. subg. Urostigma D03
              |  i. s.: F. aurea Nuttall 1846 [incl. F. ciliolosa Link 1822 (nom. rej. prop.)] B03
              |--F. sect. Urostigma B88
              |    |--F. caulocarpa B88
              |    |--F. infectoria B88
              |    |--F. prasinicarpa B88
              |    `--F. superba B88
              |         |--F. s. var. superba B88
              |         `--F. s. var. japonica B88
              |--F. sect. Conosycea B88
              `--F. sect. Malvanthera D03

Nomen illegitimum: Ficus planchonellaefolia Guillaumin 1967 URK03

Ficus maxima Miller 1768 [=F. maximus; incl. F. citrifolia Lamarck 1788 non Miller 1768, F. plumieri Urban 1918, F. glaucescens (Liebm.) Miquel 1867, F. radula Willdenow 1806, F. suffocans Grisebach 1859] B03

Ficus obtusiuscula (Miquel) Miquel 1867 [incl. Pharmacosycea perforata Miquel 1848, F. perforata (Miquel) Miquel 1867 non Linnaeus 1775] B03

Paratrophis microphylla (Raoul) Cockayne 1915 [=Epicarpurus microphyllus Raoul 1844, Taxotrophis microphylla (Raoul) Muell. 1868; incl. Paratrophis heterophylla Blume 1852, Trophis opaca Banks & Sol. ex Hooker 1854 (n. d.), P. opaca Cheeseman 1925] A61

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

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Last updated: 19 April 2019.

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