Fruit of cluster fig Ficus racemosa, photographed by Ethel Aardvark.

Belongs within: Rosales.
Contains: Ficus subgenus Ficus, Ficus section Oreosycea, Ficus section Conosycea, Ficus section Malvanthera.

The Moraceae—mulberries, figs and related taxa—are a mostly tropical family of plants bearing compound fruits and with milky sap. In the genus Ficus, figs, the compound inflorescence has become enclosed within a syconium, and the flowers are pollinated by minute wasps of the Chalcidoidea that enter the syconium through an ostiole to lay their eggs therein. Other noteworthy members of the family include Artocarpus, a southeast Asian genus whose members may produce very large fruits, including the breadfruit A. altilis and jackfruit A. heterophyllus. Species of Morus, the mulberries, are also widely grown for their edible fruits, and the white mulberry M. alba is cultivated as the primary food source for the domestic silkworm Bombyx mori.

Characters (from R. P. Wunderlin): Trees, shrubs, herbs, or vines , deciduous or evergreen, frequently with milky sap. Leaves alternate (rarely opposite or whorled), simple; stipules present, persistent or caducous; petiole adaxially grooved. Leaf blade: margins entire, toothed, or lobed; venation pinnate or with 3-5 basal palmate veins; cystoliths often present in epidermal cells. Inflorescences racemes, cymes, or capitula. Flowers unisexual, staminate and pistillate on same or different plants, small, occasionally on flattened torus, more often enclosed within fleshy, flask-shaped receptacle (syconium); sepals 2-6, distinct or partly connate (vestigial in Brosimum). Staminate flowers: stamens equal in number to sepals or calyx lobes and opposite them, straight or inflexed; anthers 1-2-locular. Pistillate flowers: sepals or calyx lobes 4, ± connate; pistils 1, 1-2-carpellate; ovary 1, superior or inferior, 1(-2)-locular; ovules 1 per locule; styles or style branches 1-2; stigmas 1-2, entire. Fruits multiple (syncarps); individual achenes or drupelets partly or completely enclosed by enlarged common receptacle or by individual calyces.

    |--Bosquiea YY22
    |--Bosqueiopsis YY22
    |--Brosimopsis YY22
    |--Cyathanthus YY22
    |--Helicostylis YY22
    |--Lanessania YY22
    |--Mesogyne YY22
    |--Olmedia YY22
    |--Olmediella YY22
    |--Olmediophaena YY22
    |--Perebea YY22
    |--Poulsenia YY22
    |--Prainea YY22
    |--Pseudolmedia YY22
    |--Scyphosyce YY22
    |--Sloetia YY22
    |--Sloetiopsis YY22
    |--Teonangia YY22
    |--Trymatococcus YY22
    |--Acanthotreculia YY22
    |--Allacanthus YY22
    |--Ampalis YY22
    |--Antiariopsis YY22
    |--Bagassa YY22
    |--Balanostreblus YY22
    |--Balansaephytum YY22
    |--Batocarpus YY22
    |--Cardiogyne YY22
    |--Clarisia YY22
    |--Chlorophora tintoria K06
    |--Coussapoa YY22
    |--Cudrania javanensis YY22, C16
    |--Dammaropsis YY22
    |--Gymnartocarpus YY22
    |--Helianthostylis YY22
    |--Hulletia YY22
    |--Maillardia YY22
    |--Musanga smithii YY22, RN72
    |--Myrianthus YY22
    |--Pachytrophe YY22
    |--Parartocarpus YY22
    |--Phyllochlamys YY22
    |--Plecospermum YY22
    |--Pouroma cecropiaefolia YY22, W92
    |--Pseudotrophis YY22
    |--Sahagunia YY22
    |--Sorocea ilicifolia YY22, RJ11
    |--Sparattosyce YY22
    |--Treculia YY22
    |--Bleekrodia YY22
    |--Fatoua villosa LK14
    |--Pseudomorus YY22
    |--Pseudostreblus YY22
    |--Becktonia hantonensis JD05
    |--Castilla elastica PL12
    |--Trophis scandens LK14
    |--Arthmiocarpus hesperus (Wieland) Delevoryas 1964 CBH93
    |--Combretiphyllum acuminatum Menzel 1909 CBH93
    |--Debeya serrata Miquel 1853 CBH93
    |--Dorstenia HQC03
    |    |--D. embergeri S00
    |    `--D. psilurus HQC03
    |--Maclura B00
    |    |--M. cochinchinensis [=Cudrania cochinchinensis] H90
    |    `--M. pomifera H93
    |--Brosimum YY22
    |    |--B. alicastrum VKC07
    |    `--B. terrabanum F55
    |--Broussonetia JD05
    |    |--B. papyrifera [incl. B. kasinoki] LO98
    |    `--B. rugosa JD05
    |--Malaisia YY22
    |    |--M. scandens H90
    |    `--M. tortuosa H09
    |--Paratrophis Blume 1852 A61
    |    |--P. banksii Cheesem. 1906 [incl. P. heterophylla var. elliptica Kirk 1897] A61
    |    |--P. microphylla (Raoul) Cockayne 1915 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |    `--P. smithii Cheesem. 1888 A61
    |--Morus HQC03
    |    |--M. alba HQC03
    |    |--M. indica C55
    |    |--M. nigra R-CT01
    |    `--M. rubra HQC03
    |--Streblus P03
    |    |--S. asper P03
    |    |--S. banksii G01
    |    |--S. brunonianus [incl. S. pendulinus] H90
    |    |--S. glaber (Merr.) Corner 1962 (see below for synonymy) S77
    |    |--S. heterophyllus BKS98
    |    |--S. indicus D95
    |    |--S. sandwicensis D95
    |    `--S. smithii D95
    |--Artocarpus K03
    |    |--A. altilis P88
    |    |--A. chaplasha YZ02
    |    |--A. communis K03
    |    |--A. elasticus K03
    |    |--A. heterophyllus P88
    |    |--A. incisa BMM99
    |    |--A. integer K03
    |    |--A. integrifolia RH01
    |    |--A. odoratissimus K03
    |    `--A. tamaran K03
    `--Ficus URK03
         |  i. s.: F. acamptophylla H03
         |         F. aculeata LK14
         |           |--F. a. var. aculeata LK14
         |           `--F. a. var. indecora LK14
         |         F. americana Aublet 1775 [incl. F. perforata Linnaeus 1775 (nom. rej. prop.)] B03
         |         F. aphanoneura BMM99
         |         F. arnottiana SR07
         |         F. aurantiacea K03
         |         F. beccarii K03
         |         F. benghalensis B88
         |         F. bennettii Seem. 1868 URK03
         |         F. bonijesulapensis C-SQ08
         |         F. caatingae S-SR09
         |         F. carica B88
         |         F. chandleri JD05
         |         F. chauvieri Nicholson 1885 URK03
         |         F. citrifolia Miller 1768 [incl. F. caribaea Jacquin 1767 (nom. rej. prop.)] B03
         |         F. clusiifolia F11
         |         F. comosa B88
         |         F. cookii H11
         |         F. cooperi Veitch 1862 URK03
         |         F. coronulata LK14
         |         F. cotinifolia F11
         |         F. craterostoma G02
         |         F. cuspidata B88
         |         F. deltoidea H03
         |           |--F. d. var. deltoidea H03
         |           `--F. d. var. ovoidea H03
         |         F. dottata C55
         |         F. elastica P88
         |         F. fistulosa V25
         |         F. fulva H03
         |         F. glomerata B00
         |         F. hemsleyana W00
         |         F. hillyi WEE70
         |         F. indica C06
         |         F. laevigata SWK87
         |         F. leucocarpa C55
         |         F. lyrata B00
         |         F. macrocarpa Léveillé & Vaniot 1907 R-SN07
         |         F. microsice H03
         |         F. microstoma H03
         |         F. minahassae R02
         |         F. moorei Seem. 1868 URK03
         |         F. natalensis B00
         |         F. obtusiuscula (Miquel) Miquel 1867 (see below for synonymy) B03
         |         F. opposita VT13
         |         F. padifolia F11
         |         F. parietalis H03
         |         F. pertusa Linnaeus 1782 B03
         |         F. podocarpifolia LK14
         |         F. polymorpha C55
         |         F. pretoriae HQC03
         |         F. prolixa [incl. F. forsteriana, F. stipulacea Forster 1786 (n. n.) non Noronha 1790] URK03
         |         F. pseudosycamorus KAA-W00
         |         F. pumila B00
         |         F. religiosa P88
         |         F. scandens YZ02
         |         F. scobina LK14
         |         F. smithii Horne ex Baker 1883 URK03
         |           |--F. s. var. smithii URK03
         |           `--F. s. var. robusta URK03
         |         F. solanderi Ettingshausen 1886 F71
         |         F. sphaerocarpa B88
         |         F. sur B06
         |         F. sycomorus B88
         |         F. thonningii B88
         |         F. uniglandulosa H03
         |         F. virens LK14
         |           |--F. v. var. virens H90
         |           `--F. v. var. sublanceolata H90
         |--F. subg. Ficus B88
         |--F. subg. Pharmacosycea D03
         |    |  i. s.: F. albipida D03
         |    |         F. maxima Miller 1768 (see below for synonymy) B03
         |    `--F. sect. Oreosycea B88
         |--F. (subg. Sycomorus) racemosa D03
         |    |--F. r. var. racemosa K03
         |    `--F. r. var. elongata K03
         `--F. subg. Urostigma D03
              |  i. s.: F. aurea Nuttall 1846 [incl. F. ciliolosa Link 1822 (nom. rej. prop.)] B03
              |--F. sect. Urostigma B88
              |    |--F. caulocarpa B88
              |    |--F. infectoria B88
              |    |--F. prasinicarpa B88
              |    `--F. superba B88
              |         |--F. s. var. superba B88
              |         |--F. s. var. henneana H90
              |         `--F. s. var. japonica B88
              |--F. sect. Conosycea B88
              `--F. sect. Malvanthera D03

Nomen illegitimum: Ficus planchonellaefolia Guillaumin 1967 URK03

Ficus maxima Miller 1768 [=F. maximus; incl. F. citrifolia Lamarck 1788 non Miller 1768, F. plumieri Urban 1918, F. glaucescens (Liebm.) Miquel 1867, F. radula Willdenow 1806, F. suffocans Grisebach 1859] B03

Ficus obtusiuscula (Miquel) Miquel 1867 [incl. Pharmacosycea perforata Miquel 1848, F. perforata (Miquel) Miquel 1867 non Linnaeus 1775] B03

Paratrophis microphylla (Raoul) Cockayne 1915 [=Epicarpurus microphyllus Raoul 1844, Taxotrophis microphylla (Raoul) Muell. 1868; incl. Paratrophis heterophylla Blume 1852, Trophis opaca Banks & Sol. ex Hooker 1854 (n. d.), P. opaca Cheeseman 1925] A61

Streblus glaber (Merr.) Corner 1962 [=Gironniera glabra Merr. 1906, Chevalierodendron glabrum Leroy 1948, Paratrophis glabra Steen 1934; incl. Aphananthe negrosensis Elmer 1909, Calaunia negrosensis (Elmer) Grudz. 1964] S77

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[BKS98] Baars, R., D. Kelly & A. D. Sparrow. 1998. Liane distribution within native forest remnants in two regions of the South Island, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 22 (1): 71–85.

[B03] Berg, C. C. 2003. Proposals to conserve the names Ficus citrifolia against F. caribaea, F. maxima with a conserved type, F. aurea against F. ciliolosa, and F. americana against F. perforata (Moraceae). Taxon 52: 368–370.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[BMM99] Braun, U., J. Mouchacca & E. H. C. McKenzie. 1999. Cercosporoid hyphomycetes from New Caledonia and some other South Pacific islands. New Zealand Journal of Botany 37: 297–327.

[B06] Burgoyne, P. M. 2006. Review: Plants of the Simen. A flora of the Simen Mountains and surroundings, northern Ethiopia. Bothalia 36 (2): 253.

[C16] Cambage, R. H. 1916. Notes on the native flora of tropical Queensland. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 49 (3): 389–447, pls 57–61.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C-SQ08] Carvalho-Sobrinho, J. G. de, & L. P. de Queiroz. 2008. Ceiba rubriflora (Malvaceae: Bombacoideae), a new species from Bahia, Brazil. Kew Bulletin 63 (4): 649–653.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[D95] Dawson, M. I. 1995. Contributions to a chromosome atlas of the New Zealand flora. 33. Miscellaneous species. New Zealand Journal of Botany 33: 477–487.

[D03] Dixon, D. J. 2003. A taxonomic revision of the Australian Ficus species in the section Malvanthera (Ficus subg. Urostigma: Moraceae). Telopea 10 (1): 125–153.

[F55] Felten, H. 1955. Tagesquartiere von Fledermäusen nach Beobachtungen in El Salvador. Natur und Volk 85 (10): 315–321.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[F11] Fraga, R. M. 2011. Family Icteridae (New World blackbirds). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 684–807. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[G01] Gibbs, G. W. 2001. Habitats and biogeography of New Zealand’s deinacridine and tusked weta species. In: Field, L. H. (ed.) The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies pp. 35–55. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[G02] Greeff, J. M. 2002. Mating system and sex ratios of a pollinating fig wasp with dispersing males. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B—Biological Sciences 269: 2317–2323.

[HQC03] Hadiah, J. T., C. J. Quinn & B. J. Conn. 2003. Phylogeny of Elatostema (Urticaceae) using chloroplast DNA data. Telopea 10 (1): 235–246.

[H90] Harden, G. J. (ed.) 1990. Flora of New South Wales vol. 1. New South Wales University Press.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311–449.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[H11] Hilty, S. L. 2011. Family Thraupidae (tanagers). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 46–329. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[JD05] Junge, F. W., M. Dolezych, H. Walther, T. Böttger, A. Kühl, L. Kunzmann, P. Morgenstern, T. Steinberg & R. Stange. 2005. Ein Fenster in Landschaft und Vegetation vor 37 Millionen Jahren: Lithologische, sedimentgeochemische und paläobotanische Befunde aus einem Paläoflusssystem des Weißelsterbeckens. Mauritiana 19 (2): 185–273.

[KAA-W00] Kheirallah, A.-M., A.-N. H. Aly & N. Y. Abdel-Wahed. 2000. Anamorphosis and life-history of the millipede Nopoiulus kochii (Gervais, 1847), new for Egypt. Zoology in the Middle East 21: 159–168.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81–98.

[K06] Kwiecinski, G. G. 2006. Phyllostomus discolor. Mammalian Species 801: 1–11.

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263–276.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[P03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45: 121–142.

[PL12] Peñalver, E., C. C. Labandeira, E. Barrón, X. Delclòs, P. Nel, A. Nel, P. Tafforeau & C. Soriano. 2012. Thrips pollination of Mesozoic gymnosperms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (22): 8623–8628.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[R-CT01] Ragusa-di Chiara, S., & H. Tsolakis. 2001. Phytoseiid faunas of natural and agricultural ecosystems in Sicily. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 522–529. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[RH01] Ramani, N., & M. A. Haq. 2001. Feeding habits of the Indian oribatid mites Hoplophthiracarus rimosus (Phthiracaridae) and Lohmannia n. sp. (Lohmanniidae) and their role in decomposition. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 262–265. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[R-SN07] Retana-Salazar, A. P., & K. Nishida. 2007. First gall-inducing thrips on Elaphoglossum ferns: a new genus and species of thrips, Jersonithrips galligenus from Costa Rica (Insecta, Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 87 (2): 143–148.

[R02] Riley, J. 2002. Population sizes and the status of endemic and restricted-range bird species on Sangihe Island, Indonesia. Bird Conservation International 12: 53–78.

[RJ11] Rising, J. D., A. Jaramillo, J. L. Copete, P. G. Ryan & S. C. Madge. 2011. Family Emberizidae (buntings and New World sparrows). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 428–683. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[RN72] Rutgers, A., & K. A. Norris (eds) 1972. Encyclopaedia of Aviculture vol. 1. London, Blandford Press.

[SR07] Sankar, R. V., K. Ravikumar, N. M. Ganesh Babu & D. K. Ved. 2007. Botany of Anapady MPCA, Palghat district, Kerala with special emphasis on species of conservation concern. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 165–172.

[S00] Siddiqi, M. R. 2000. Tylenchida: Parasites of plants and insects 2nd ed. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[S77] Soepadmo, E. 1977. Ulmaceae. Flora Malesiana, Series I—Spermatophyta, Flowering Plants 8 (2): 31–76.

[S-SR09] Souza-Silva, R. F. de, & A. Rapini. 2009. Allamanda calcicola (Apocynaceae), an overlooked new species from limestone outcrops in the states of Minas Gerais and Bahia, Brazil. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 171–174.

[URK03] Ungricht, S., J.-Y. Rasplus & F. Kjellberg. 2003. Nomenclature of the endemic monoecious fig trees (Moraceae: Ficus L.) of New Caledonia and Vanuatu (Pacific Ocean). Taxon 52: 319–325.

[VKC07] Vázquez, M. M., H. Klompen & C. I. Chargoy. 2007. Study of the Uropodina (Acari: Mesostigmata) in tropical forests of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico and Belize. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 43–50. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[VT13] Vigilante, T., J. Toohey, A. Gorring, V. Blundell, T. Saunders, S. Mangolamara, K. George, J. Oobagooma, M. Waina, K. Morgan & K. Doohan. 2013. Island country: aboriginal connections, values and knowledge of the Western Australian Kimberley islands in the context of an island biological survey. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 145–182.

[V25] Vitzthum, H. 1925. Fauna sumatrensis. (Beitrag no. 5). Acarinae. Supplementa Entomologica 11: 1–79.

[W00] Walter, D. E. 2000. First record of a fig mite from the Australian region: Paratarsonemella giblindavisi sp. n. (Acari: Tarsonemidae). Australian Journal of Entomology 39: 229–232.

[W92] Wilson, E. O. 1992. The Diversity of Life. Harvard University Press: Belknap (USA).

[WEE70] Woodward, T. E., J. W. Evans & V. F. Eastop. 1970. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 387–457. Melbourne University Press.

[YZ02] Yahya, H. S. A., & A. A. Zarri. 2002. Status, ecology and behaviour of Narcondam hornbill (Aceros narcondami) in Narcondam Island, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 434–445.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

Last updated: 5 September 2020.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="">FoS</a> = FoS