Fruit of cluster fig Ficus racemosa, photographed by Ethel Aardvark.

Belongs within: Rosales.
Contains: Ficus subgenus Ficus, Ficus section Oreosycea, Ficus section Conosycea, Ficus section Malvanthera.

The Moraceae—mulberries, figs and related taxa—are a mostly tropical family of plants bearing compound fruits and with milky sap. In the genus Ficus, figs, the compound inflorescence has become enclosed within a syconium, and the flowers are pollinated by minute wasps of the Chalcidoidea that enter the syconium through an ostiole to lay their eggs therein.

Characters (from R. P. Wunderlin): Trees, shrubs, herbs, or vines , deciduous or evergreen, frequently with milky sap. Leaves alternate (rarely opposite or whorled), simple; stipules present, persistent or caducous; petiole adaxially grooved. Leaf blade: margins entire, toothed, or lobed; venation pinnate or with 3-5 basal palmate veins; cystoliths often present in epidermal cells. Inflorescences racemes, cymes, or capitula. Flowers unisexual, staminate and pistillate on same or different plants, small, occasionally on flattened torus, more often enclosed within fleshy, flask-shaped receptacle (syconium); sepals 2-6, distinct or partly connate (vestigial in Brosimum). Staminate flowers: stamens equal in number to sepals or calyx lobes and opposite them, straight or inflexed; anthers 1-2-locular. Pistillate flowers: sepals or calyx lobes 4, ± connate; pistils 1, 1-2-carpellate; ovary 1, superior or inferior, 1(-2)-locular; ovules 1 per locule; styles or style branches 1-2; stigmas 1-2, entire. Fruits multiple (syncarps); individual achenes or drupelets partly or completely enclosed by enlarged common receptacle or by individual calyces.

    |--Antiaris toxicarica SR07
    |--Bosquiea YY22
    |--Bosqueiopsis YY22
    |--Brosimopsis YY22
    |--Brosimum terrabanum YY22, F55
    |--Castilloa YY22
    |--Cyathanthus YY22
    |--Dorstenia psilurus HQC03
    |--Helicostylis YY22
    |--Lanessania YY22
    |--Mesogyne YY22
    |--Olmedia YY22
    |--Olmediella YY22
    |--Olmediophaena YY22
    |--Perebea YY22
    |--Poulsenia YY22
    |--Prainea YY22
    |--Pseudolmedia YY22
    |--Scyphosyce YY22
    |--Sloetia YY22
    |--Sloetiopsis YY22
    |--Teonangia YY22
    |--Trymatococcus YY22
    |--Acanthosphaera YY22
    |--Acanthotreculia YY22
    |--Allacanthus YY22
    |--Ampalis YY22
    |--Antiariopsis YY22
    |--Bagassa YY22
    |--Balanostreblus YY22
    |--Balansaephytum YY22
    |--Batocarpus YY22
    |--Cardiogyne YY22
    |--Clarisia YY22
    |--Chlorophora tintoria K06
    |--Coussapoa YY22
    |--Cudrania YY22
    |--Dammaropsis YY22
    |--Gymnartocarpus YY22
    |--Helianthostylis YY22
    |--Hulletia YY22
    |--Maclura YY22
    |--Maillardia YY22
    |--Musanga YY22
    |--Myrianthus YY22
    |--Pachytrophe YY22
    |--Parartocarpus YY22
    |--Phyllochlamys YY22
    |--Plecospermum YY22
    |--Pourouma YY22
    |--Pseudotrophis YY22
    |--Sahagunia YY22
    |--Sorocea YY22
    |--Sparattosyce YY22
    |--Treculia YY22
    |--Bleekrodia YY22
    |--Fatoua YY22
    |--Pseudomorus YY22
    |--Pseudostreblus YY22
    |--Becktonia hantonensis JD05
    |--Castilla elastica PL12
    |--Broussonetia JD05
    |    |--B. papyrifera [incl. B. kasinoki] LO98
    |    `--B. rugosa JD05
    |--Malaisia YY22
    |    |--M. scandends P82
    |    `--M. tortuosa H09
    |--Paratrophis Blume 1852 A61
    |    |--P. banksii Cheesem. 1906 [incl. P. heterophylla var. elliptica Kirk 1897] A61
    |    |--P. microphylla (Raoul) Cockayne 1915 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |    `--P. smithii Cheesem. 1888 A61
    |--Morus HQC03
    |    |--M. alba HQC03
    |    |--M. indica C55
    |    |--M. nigra R-CT01
    |    `--M. rubra HQC03
    |--Streblus YY22
    |    |--S. asper P03
    |    |--S. banksii G01
    |    |--S. heterophyllus BKS98
    |    |--S. indicus D95
    |    |--S. sandwicensis D95
    |    `--S. smithii D95
    |--Artocarpus K03
    |    |--A. altilis [incl. A. incisa] P88
    |    |--A. chaplasha YZ02
    |    |--A. communis K03
    |    |--A. elasticus K03
    |    |--A. heterophyllus P88
    |    |--A. integer K03
    |    |--A. integrifolia RH01
    |    |--A. odoratissimus K03
    |    `--A. tamaran K03
    `--Ficus URK03
         |  i. s.: F. acamptophylla H03
         |         F. americana Aublet 1775 [incl. F. perforata Linnaeus 1775 (nom. rej. prop.)] B03
         |         F. arnottiana SR07
         |         F. aurantiacea K03
         |         F. beccarii K03
         |         F. benghalensis B88
         |         F. bennettii Seem. 1868 URK03
         |         F. bonijesulapensis C-SQ08
         |         F. caatingae S-SR09
         |         F. carica B88
         |         F. chandleri JD05
         |         F. chauvieri Nicholson 1885 URK03
         |         F. citrifolia Miller 1768 [incl. F. caribaea Jacquin 1767 (nom. rej. prop.)] B03
         |         F. comosa B88
         |         F. cooperi Veitch 1862 URK03
         |         F. craterostoma G02
         |         F. cuspidata B88
         |         F. deltoidea H03
         |           |--F. d. var. deltoidea H03
         |           `--F. d. var. ovoidea H03
         |         F. dottata C55
         |         F. elastica P88
         |         F. fulva H03
         |         F. laevigata SWK87
         |         F. leucocarpa C55
         |         F. macrocarpa Léveillé & Vaniot 1907 R-SN07
         |         F. microsice H03
         |         F. microstoma H03
         |         F. minahassae R02
         |         F. moorei Seem. 1868 URK03
         |         F. obtusiuscula (Miquel) Miquel 1867 (see below for synonymy) B03
         |         F. parietalis H03
         |         F. pertusa Linnaeus 1782 B03
         |         F. polymorpha C55
         |         F. pretoriae HQC03
         |         F. prolixa [incl. F. forsteriana, F. stipulacea Forster 1786 (n. n.) non Noronha 1790] URK03
         |         F. pseudosycamorus KAA-W00
         |         F. religiosa P88
         |         F. scandens YZ02
         |         F. smithii Horne ex Baker 1883 URK03
         |           |--F. s. var. smithii URK03
         |           `--F. s. var. robusta URK03
         |         F. solanderi Ettingshausen 1886 F71
         |         F. sphaerocarpa B88
         |         F. sur B06
         |         F. sycomorus B88
         |         F. thonningii B88
         |         F. uniglandulosa H03
         |--F. subg. Ficus B88
         |--F. subg. Pharmacosycea D03
         |    |  i. s.: F. albipida D03
         |    |         F. maxima Miller 1768 (see below for synonymy) B03
         |    `--F. sect. Oreosycea B88
         |--F. (subg. Sycomorus) racemosa D03 [incl. F. glomerata B88]
         |    |--F. r. var. racemosa K03
         |    `--F. r. var. elongata K03
         `--F. subg. Urostigma D03
              |  i. s.: F. aurea Nuttall 1846 [incl. F. ciliolosa Link 1822 (nom. rej. prop.)] B03
              |--F. sect. Urostigma B88
              |    |--F. caulocarpa B88
              |    |--F. infectoria B88
              |    |--F. prasinicarpa B88
              |    `--F. superba B88
              |         |--F. s. var. superba B88
              |         `--F. s. var. japonica B88
              |--F. sect. Conosycea B88
              `--F. sect. Malvanthera D03

Nomen illegitimum: Ficus planchonellaefolia Guillaumin 1967 URK03

Ficus maxima Miller 1768 [=F. maximus; incl. F. citrifolia Lamarck 1788 non Miller 1768, F. plumieri Urban 1918, F. glaucescens (Liebm.) Miquel 1867, F. radula Willdenow 1806, F. suffocans Grisebach 1859] B03
Ficus obtusiuscula (Miquel) Miquel 1867 [incl. Pharmacosycea perforata Miquel 1848, F. perforata (Miquel) Miquel 1867 non Linnaeus 1775] B03
Paratrophis microphylla (Raoul) Cockayne 1915 [=Epicarpurus microphyllus Raoul 1844, Taxotrophis microphylla (Raoul) Muell. 1868; incl. Paratrophis heterophylla Blume 1852, Trophis opaca Banks & Sol. ex Hooker 1854 (n. d.), P. opaca Cheeseman 1925] A61

*Type species of generic name indicated


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[BKS98] Baars, R., D. Kelly & A. D. Sparrow. 1998. Liane distribution within native forest remnants in two regions of the South Island, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 22 (1): 71-85.

[B03] Berg, C. C. 2003. (1587-1590) Proposals to conserve the names Ficus citrifolia against F. caribaea, F. maxima with a conserved type, F. aurea against F. ciliolosa, and F. americana against F. perforata (Moraceae). Taxon 52: 368-370.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[B06] Burgoyne, P. M. 2006. Review: Plants of the Simen. A flora of the Simen Mountains and surroundings, northern Ethiopia. Bothalia 36 (2): 253.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C-SQ08] Carvalho-Sobrinho, J. G. de & L. P. de Queiroz. 2008. Ceiba rubriflora (Malvaceae: Bombacoideae), a new species from Bahia, Brazil. Kew Bulletin 63 (4): 649-653.

[D95] Dawson, M. I. 1995. Contributions to a chromosome atlas of the New Zealand flora. 33. Miscellaneous species. New Zealand Journal of Botany 33: 477-487.

[D03] Dixon, D. J. 2003. A taxonomic revision of the Australian Ficus species in the section Malvanthera (Ficus subg. Urostigma: Moraceae). Telopea 10 (1): 125-153.

[F55] Felten, H. 1955. Tagesquartiere von Fledermäusen nach Beobachtungen in El Salvador. Natur und Volk 85 (10): 315-321.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1-167.

[G01] Gibbs, G. W. 2001. Habitats and biogeography of New Zealand’s deinacridine and tusked weta species. In The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies (L. H. Field, ed.) pp. 35-55. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[G02] Greeff, J. M. 2002. Mating system and sex ratios of a pollinating fig wasp with dispersing males. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B—Biological Sciences 269: 2317-2323.

[HQC03] Hadiah, J. T., C. J. Quinn & B. J. Conn. 2003. Phylogeny of Elatostema (Urticaceae) using chloroplast DNA data. Telopea 10 (1): 235-246.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: Vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311-449.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[JD05] Junge, F. W., M. Dolezych, H. Walther, T. Böttger, A. Kühl, L. Kunzmann, P. Morgenstern, T. Steinberg & R. Stange. 2005. Ein Fenster in Landschaft und Vegetation vor 37 Millionen Jahren: Lithologische, sedimentgeochemische und paläobotanische Befunde aus einem Paläoflusssystem des Weißelsterbeckens. Mauritiana 19 (2): 185-273.

[KAA-W00] Kheirallah, A.-M., A.-N. H. Aly & N. Y. Abdel-Wahed. 2000. Anamorphosis and life-history of the millipede Nopoiulus kochii (Gervais, 1847), new for Egypt. Zoology in the Middle East 21: 159-168.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81-98.

[K06] Kwiecinski, G. G. 2006. Phyllostomus discolor. Mammalian Species 801: 1-11.

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263-276.

[P03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45 (1-4): 121-142.

[PL12] Peñalver, E., C. C. Labandeira, E. Barrón, X. Delclòs, P. Nel, A. Nel, P. Tafforeau & C. Soriano. 2012. Thrips pollination of Mesozoic gymnosperms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (22): 8623-8628.

[P82] Pickard, J. 1982. Catastrophic disturbance and vegetation on Little Slope, Lord Howe Island. Australian Journal of Ecology 7: 161-170.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[R-CT01] Ragusa-di Chiara, S., & H. Tsolakis. 2001. Phytoseiid faunas of natural and agricultural ecosystems in Sicily. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 522-529. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[RH01] Ramani, N., & M. A. Haq. 2001. Feeding habits of the Indian oribatid mites Hoplophthiracarus rimosus (Phthiracaridae) and Lohmannia n. sp. (Lohmanniidae) and their role in decomposition. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 262-265. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[R-SN07] Retana-Salazar, A. P., & K. Nishida. 2007. First gall-inducing thrips on Elaphoglossum ferns: a new genus and species of thrips, Jersonithrips galligenus from Costa Rica (Insecta, Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 87 (2): 143-148.

[R02] Riley, J. 2002. Population sizes and the status of endemic and restricted-range bird species on Sangihe Island, Indonesia. Bird Conservation International 12: 53-78.

[SR07] Sankar, R. V., K. Ravikumar, N. M. Ganesh Babu & D. K. Ved. 2007. Botany of Anapady MPCA, Palghat district, Kerala with special emphasis on species of conservation concern. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 165-172.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[S-SR09] Souza-Silva, R. F. de & A. Rapini. 2009. Allamanda calcicola (Apocynaceae), an overlooked new species from limestone outcrops in the states of Minas Gerais and Bahia, Brazil. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 171-174.

[URK03] Ungricht, S., J.-Y. Rasplus & F. Kjellberg. 2003. Nomenclature of the endemic monoecious fig trees (Moraceae: Ficus L.) of New Caledonia and Vanuatu (Pacific Ocean). Taxon 52: 319-325.

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[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

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