Halictinae

Sweat bee Halictus ligatus, photographed by Ron Hemberger.


Belongs within: Halictidae.
Contains: Homalictus, Lasioglossum.

The Halictinae are a group of short-tongued bees commonly known as 'sweat bees', due to their habit of lapping perspiration from animals in order to collect salts. Halictines may provide some of the earliest evidence for bees in the fossil record: the Late Maastrichtian (latest Cretaceous) fossil nest Uruguay has been compared to nests of the halictine tribe Augochlorini (Engel 2001).

Characters (from Engel 2001): Labrum of female with distal process. Clypeus longer than labrum. Pre-episternal groove strongly impressed below level of scrobe. Basal vein strongly arcuate; first submarginal cell longer than third submarginal cell. Scopa developed on metacoxa, metatrochanter, metafemur, and to varying degrees on metatibia in nonparasitic females; metabasitarusus with distal process and penicillus. Prepygidial fimbria of female distinctly divided by pseudopygidial area.

Halictinae
    |--Nomioides Schrenck 1866 M65 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--N. minutissima (Rossi 1790) (see below for synonymy) M65
    |    |--N. arnoldi Friese 1913 [=*Cellaria arnoldi, *Cellariella arnoldi] M65
    |    |--N. horni (Strand 1913) [=Halictus horni, *Ceylalictus horni] M65
    |    |--N. obliqua (Friese 1924) [=Halictus obliquus] M65
    |    |--N. perditella Cockerell 1905 M65
    |    `--N. variegata (Olivier 1789) [=Andrena variegata, *Eunomioides variegata] M65
    `--+--+--Eickwortapis Michener & Poinar 1996 [Caenohalictini] E01
       |  |    `--*E. dominicana Michener & Poinar 1996 E01
       |  |--Agapostemon GE05 [Agapostemonini E01]
       |  |    |--A. nasutus WP99
       |  |    `--A. virescens GE05
       |  `--Augochlorini E01
       |       |  i. s.: Neocorynura electra E01, GE05
       |       |         Oligochlora Engel 1996 E01
       |       |           |  i. s.: O. grimaldii E01
       |       |           |         O. marquettorum E01
       |       |           |         O. micheneri E01
       |       |           |--*O. (Oligochlora) eickworti Engel 1996 E01
       |       |           `--O. (Soliapis) Engel 2000 E01
       |       |                `--O. (*S.) rozeni Engel 2000 E01
       |       |--Corynurina E01
       |       `--Augochlora [Augochlorina] E01
       |            `--A. (Electraugochlora) Engel 2000 E01
       |                 `--A. (*E.) leptoloba Engel 2000 E01
       `--+--Lasioglossum E01
          `--Halictini [Sphecodidae, Thrinchostomini] E01
               |--Thrinchostoma Saussure 1890 E01
               |--Patellapis E01
               |--Electrolictus Engel 2001 E01
               |    `--*E. antiquus Engel 2001 E01
               |--Cyrtapis Cockerell 1908 E01
               |    `--*C. anomalus Cockerell 1908 E01
               |--Prohalictus Armbruster 1938 E01
               |    `--*P. schemppi Armbruster 1938 E01
               |--Halictus Latreille 1804 [Halictina] E01
               |    |--H. albocinctus Lucas 1848 E12
               |    |--H. albomaculatus Lucas 1848 E12
               |    |--H. ligatus KME08
               |    |--H. portlandensis Rayment 1953 M65
               |    `--H. savenyei GE05
               `--Sphecodes Latreille 1804 [Sphecodina] E01
                    |  i. s.: S. amboinensis Meyer 1924 M65
                    |         S. biroi Friese 1909 M65
                    |         S. duplex Blüthgen 1925 [incl. S. biroi Meyer 1924 non Friese 1909] M65
                    |         S. manskii (Rayment 1935) [=Mellitidia manskii] M65
                    |         S. profugus Cockerell 1910 M65
                    |--*S. (Sphecodes) gibba (Linnaeus 1758) M65 [=Sphex gibba M65, Andrena gibba L02, Nomada gibba M65]
                    `--S. (Callosphecodes Friese 1909) M65
                         `--S. (*C.) ralunensis (Friese 1909) [=*Callosphecodes ralunensis] M65

Halictinae incertae sedis:
  Augochloropsis metallica (Fabricius 1793) H79, GE05 [=Andrena metallica GE05]
  Homalictus M65
  Echthralictus Perkins & Cheesman 1928 M65
    |--*E. extraordinarius (Kohl 1908) [=Halictus extraordinarius] M65
    |--E. latro Perkins & Cheesman 1928 M65
    `--E. stevensoni (Cockerell 1924) [=Halictus stevensoni] M65
  Megalopta Smith 1853 M65
    `--*M. idalia Smith 1853 M65
  Pachyhalictus Cockerell 1928 M65
    |--*P. merescens (Cockerell 1919) [=Halictus merescens, Lasioglossum merescens] M65
    |--P. buruanus (Blüthgen 1926) [=Halictus buruanus, Lasioglossum buruanum] M65
    |--P. kalutarae [=Lasioglossum kalutarae] M65
    |--P. reticulosus [=Lasioglossum reticulosum] M65
    |--P. sigiriellus [=Lasioglossum sigiriellum] M65
    |--P. stirlingi (Cockerell 1910) [=Halictus stirlingi, Lasioglossum stirlingi] M65
    |--P. trizonulus (Friese 1909) [=Halictus trizonulus, Lasioglossum trizonulum] M65
    `--P. vinctus [=Lasioglossum vinctum] M65

Nomen nudum: Halictus dimorphus Rayment 1955 [=Lasioglossum (Chilalictus) dimorphum] M65

Nomioides Schrenck 1866 M65 [incl. Cellaria Friese 1913 non Ellis & Solander 1786 M65, Cellariella Strand 1926 M65, Ceylalictus Strand 1913 M65, Eunomioides Blüthgen 1937 M65; Nomioidinae, Nomioidini E01]

Nomioides minutissima (Rossi 1790) [=Apis minutissima; incl. Andrena pulchella Jurine 1807, *Nomioides pulchella] M65

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[E01] Engel, M. S. 2001. A monograph of the Baltic amber bees and evolution of the Apoidea (Hymenoptera). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 259: 1-192.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[G84] Gauld, I. D. 1984. An Introduction to the Ichneumonidae of Australia. British Museum (Natural History).

[H79] Howse, P. E. 1979. The uniqueness of insect societies: Aspects of defense and integration. In Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms (G. Larwood & B. R. Rosen, eds) pp. 345-374. Academic Press: London.

[KME08] Kits, J. H., S. A. Marshall & N. L. Evenhuis. 2008. The bee flies (Diptera: Bombyliidae) of Ontario, with a key to the species of eastern Canada. Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification 6: 1-52.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle des Fourmis, et recueil de mémoires et d'observations sur les abeilles, les araignées, les faucheurs, et autres insectes. Théophile Barrois père: Paris.

[M65] Michener, C. D. 1965. A classification of the bees of the Australian and South Pacific regions. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 130: 1-362.

[WP99] Walter, D. E. & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

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