Fungi

Culture of Basidiobolus ranarum, from the University of Adelaide.


Belongs within: Opisthokonta.
Contains: Trichoconis, Microsporidia, Neocallimastigaceae, Chytridiomycota, Blastocladiales, Entomophthorales, Meromycetidae, Mortierellaceae, Mucorales, Glomeromycota, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota.

The Fungi are a large clade of often filamentous heterotrophic organisms, with vegetative and/or spore cell walls of chitin and β-glucan, and lacking phagocytosis (Cavalier-Smith 1998). Basal members of the fungi retain ciliate zoospores, but many lineages (including all macroscopic fungi) have lost cilia in all stages of the life cycle. Earlier authors divided fungi other than the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota between Chytridiomycota (ciliate at some stage in the life cycle) and Zygomycota (lacking cilia at all times), but these are not phylogenetically coherent groups in these senses, with the loss of cilia having occurred multiple times (James et al. 2006). Rozella allomycis, an intracellular parasite of other fungi previously included within the 'chytridiomycetes', has been identified as a potential close relative of the Microsporidia, a group of intracellular parasites of animals (James et al. 2006).

Fungi (see below for synonymy)
    |--+--Rozella Cornu 1872 JK06, AS12 [Cryptomycota, Rozellida]
    |  |    `--R. allomycis JK06
    |  `--Microsporidia JK06
    `--+--+--Neocallimastigaceae JK06
       |  `--Chytridiomycota JK06
       `--+--Blastocladiales JK06
          `--+--+--+--Entomophthorales JK06
             |  |  `--+--Olpidium brassicae JK06
             |  |     `--Basidiobolus [Basidiobolales, Bolomycetes] JK06
             |  |          |--B. haptosporus LK04
             |  |          `--B. ranarum JK06
             |  `--Meromycetidae JK06
             `--+--Mucormycotina [Mucoromycetidae] JK06
                |    |--Mortierellaceae JK06
                |    `--+--Mucorales JK06
                |       `--Endogone Link 1809 JK06, AS12 [Endogonaceae, Endogonales]
                |            `--E. pisiformis JK06
                `--Symbiomycota LK04
                     |--Glomeromycota JK06
                     `--Dikarya [Dikaryomycota, Neomycota] JK06
                          |  i. s.: Dendropleella Munk 1953 B01
                          |           `--D. hirta B01
                          |--Ascomycota JK06
                          `--Basidiomycota JK06

Fungi incertae sedis:
  Hormonema dematioides KS01
  Metarhizium anisopliae CM07
    |--M. a. var. anisopliae H04
    `--M. a. var. acridum H04
  Tolypocladium M-RL01
  Thermomyces lanuginosus BY03
  Dilophospora alopecuri L02a
  Harposporium anguillulae L02b
  Drechmeria coniospora KH02
  Paecilomyces KH02
    |--P. lilacinus KH02
    `--P. marquandii KH02
  Xanthophyllomyces dendorous BJ03
  Phaffia rhodozyma SM03
  Syncephalis depressa SM03
  Amblyosporium botrytis NU03
  Eccrinales C-S98
  Acontium velatum PHK96
  Microsporum PHK96
    |--M. audouinii PHK96
    `--M. canis PHK96
  Drechslera sorokiniana PHK96
  Pityrosporum PHK96
    |--P. orbiculare PHK96
    `--P. ovale PHK96
  Epidermophyton floccosum PHK96
  Madurella mycetomatis PHK96
  Cephalosporium DP72
    |--C. acremonium PHK96
    `--C. macrosporum Rivolta 1873 DP72
  Gymnopilus dilepis P88
  Lasiodiplodia theobromae RS99
  Metasphaeria typhoides RS99
  Entomophaga CM07
    |--E. aulicae SSW01
    |--E. batkoi CM07
    |--E. maimaiga SS96
    `--E. praxibuli SS96
  Cystopage KH02
  Capniomyces stellatus SSW01
  Circinomucor circinelloides SSW01
  Eryniopsis ptycopterae SSW01
  Furculomyces boomerangus SSW01
  Genistelloides hibernus SSW01
  Pandora SSW01
    |--P. neoaphidis SSW01
    `--P. phalangicida CM07
  Strongwellsea castrans SSW01
  Zoophthora radicans [incl. Z. culisetae] SSW01
  Nomuraea atypicola B90
  Atractilina Dearness & Bartholomew 1924 DP72
    |--A. parasitica (Winter) Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 (see below for synonymy) DP72
    `--A. asterinae (Hansford) Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 [=Eriomycopsis asterinae Hansford 1942] DP72
  Redbia Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 DP72
    `--*R. pucciniicola Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 DP72
  Paratrichoconis Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 DP72
    `--*P. chinensis (Hansford) Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 [=Eriomycopsis chinensis Hansford 1948] DP72
  Vermispora Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 DP72
    `--*V. grandispora Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 DP72
  Tuberculispora Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 DP72
    `--*T. jamaicensis Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 DP72
  Acrostaurus Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 DP72
    `--*A. turneri Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 DP72
  *Monosporiella meliolicola (Spegazzini) Spegazzini 1918 [=Monosporium meliolicola Spegazzini 1910] DP72
  Trichoconis DP72
  Scolecobasidium pusillum Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 DP72
  Calcarisporium DP72
    |--C. echinosporum Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 DP72
    `--C. setiphilum Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 DP72
  Domingoella Petrak & Ciferri 1932 DP72
    `--*D. asterinarum Petrak & Ciferri 1932 DP72
  Spermosporella DP72
    |--*S. aggregata Deighton 1969 DP72
    `--S. pulvinata Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 DP72
  Triposporina DP72
    |--T. aphanopaga Drechsler 1937 DP72
    |--T. quadridens Drechsler 1962 DP72
    `--T. uredinicola Höhnel 1912 DP72
  Spermatoloncha maticola Spegazzini 1908 DP72
  Cylindrocarpon DP72
    |--C. didymum (see below for synonymy) DP72
    |--C. luteoviride Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 DP72
    |--C. macrosporum (Spegazzini) Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 (see below for synonymy) DP72
    |--C. orthosporum DP72
    |--C. tenue DP72
    `--C. ugandense Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 DP72
  Phaeotrichoconis crotalariae (Salam & Rao) Subramanian 1956 [=Trichoconis crotalariae] DP72
  Botryodiplodia theobromae DP72
  Phaeophragmeriella englerulae DP72
  Eriomycopsis Spegazzini 1910 DP72
    |--*E. bonplandi Spegazzini 1910 [=E. bomplandi] DP72
    |--E. acrophioglossa Ciferri 1954 DP72
    |--E. biseptata Chevaugeon 1956 DP72
    |--‘Dactylaria’ domina-gregem Ciferri 1955 DP72
    |--E. flagellata Hansford 1942 DP72
    |--E. fusarioides (Stevens) Ciferri 1954 [=Trichothecium fusarioides Stevens 1917] DP72
    |--E. meliolinae Hansford 1947 DP72
    |--E. minuta Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 DP72
    `--E. paraensis Batista & Peres 1965 DP72
  Acremoniula sarcinellae [incl. Domingoella pycnopeltarum] DP72
  Arthrobotryum DP72
    |--*A. stilboideum DP72
    `--A. ugandense Hansford 1943 DP72
  Sympodiophora Arnold 1970 DP72
    |--*S. stereicola Arnold 1970 DP72
    |--S. didyma Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 DP72
    |--S. meliolae (Stevens) Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 (see below for synonymy) DP72
    |--S. mycophila (Tubaki) Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 [=Dactylaria mycophila Tubaki 1955] DP72
    |--S. pulchella Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 DP72
    |--S. tenuis (Sydow) Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 (see below for synonymy) DP72
    |--S. varanasiensis Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 DP72
    `--S. venezuelensis Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 DP72
  Melanographium citri DP72
  Dothidiella derridis DP72
  Exosporium stilbaceum DP72
  Titaea doidgeae DP72
  Dimerina parasitica DP72
  Didymopsis Saccardo & Marchal 1885 DP72
    |--*D. perexigua Saccardo & Marchal 1885 DP72
    |--D. congoensis DP72
    |--D. helvellae [=Didymaria helvellae] DP72
    |--D. locustanae DP72
    |--D. phyllogena DP72
    |--D. radicivora DP72
    `--D. spicata DP72
  Cephalosporiopsis Peyronel 1916 [incl. Cephalodiplosporium Kamyschko 1961] DP72
    |--*C. alpina (Peyronel) Peyronel 1916 [=Cephalothecium alpinum] DP72
    |--C. asterinicola DP72
    |--C. carnivora DP72
    |--‘*Cephalodiplosporium’ elegans Kamyschko 1961 DP72
    |--C. imperfecta DP72
    `--C. parasitica DP72
  Phyllosticta M27
    |--P. castanopsis D2003
    |--P. dearnessii M27
    |--P. ruborum M27
    `--P. variabilis Peck 1884 M27
  Hymenostilbe verrucosa CM07
  Engyodonthium aranearum CM07
  Ceratiopsis de Wildeman 1896 FT93
  Pyrgidium Nylander 1867 FT93
  Ramilina americana AB-E04
  Hamaspora acutissima M27
  Pestalozzia M27
    |--P. antennaeformis Murray 1927 M27
    `--P. longiseta M27
  Coryneum M27
    |--C. foliicolum M27
    |--C. microstictum M27
    `--C. ruborum M27
  Hirneola auricula-judae A27
  Caldariomyces fumago HS98
  Polystictus velutinus B30
  Neuropogon trachycarpus D1903
  Cladina J87
    |--C. confusa J87
    |--C. rangiferina J87
    |    |--C. r. ssp. rangiferina J87
    |    `--C. r. ssp. abbayesii J87
    `--C. subtenuis J87
  Fistulariella inflata J87
  Favolus cucullatus J87
  Paneolus campanulatus J87
  Pestalotiopsis versicolor RH91
  Illosporium carneum M60
  Cetraria M60
    |--C. aculeata M08
    `--C. islandica M60
         |--C. i. var. islandica M60
         `--C. i. var. tenuifolia M60
  Microcyclus ulei BSA97
  Thielaviopsis basicola AGS93
  Piromonas Liebetanz 1910 HAJ00
  Hagenia crinalis H04

Atractilina parasitica (Winter) Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 [=Arthrosporium parasiticum Winter 1886, Arthrobotryum parasiticum (Winter) Hansford 1943; incl. Eriomycopsis bosqueiae Hansford 1942, *Atractilina callicarpae Dearness & Bartholomew 1924, Arthrobotryum caudatum Sydow & Sydow in de Wildeman 1909, Arthrobotryum deightonii Hansford 1946, Arthrobotryum dieffenbachiae Stevens 1918, Podosporium pallidum Patouillard in Seaver & Chardon 1926, Isariopsis penicillata Ellis & Everhart 1895, Phaeoisariopsis penicillata (Ellis & Everhart) Jong & Morris 1968, Arthrobotryum tecomae Hennings 1904] DP72

Cylindrocarpon macrosporum (Spegazzini) Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 [=Cephalothecium macrosporum Spegazzini 1886, Cephalosporium microsporum (l. c.); incl. Cephalosporiopsis asterinicola Batista & Nascimento 1956, Cephalosporiopsis parasitica Hansford 1943, Didymopsis phyllachorae Sydow 1939] DP72

Cylindrocarpon didymum [incl. Hyalopus macrosporus Mańka & Gierczak 1963 non Cephalothecium macrosporum Spegazzini 1886] DP72

Fungi [Amastigomycota, Archemycota, Carpomycetes, Dictyomycotina, Entomycetidae, Eomycota, Eozygomycetia, Eumycetes, Eumycophyta, Eumycota, Glomomycetes, Inophyta, Melanomycotina, Mycetalia, Mycota, Mykophyta, Neozygomycetia, Opisthomastigomycota, Pedomycetidae, Spizomycetidae, Uniflagellatae, Zoomycetes, Zygomycetes, Zygomycota, Zygomycotina]

Sympodiophora meliolae (Stevens) Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 [=Acremonium meliolae Stevens 1918, A. meliola] DP72

Sympodiophora tenuis (Sydow) Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 [=Eriomycopsis tenuis Sydow 1927, Ramularia tenuis (Sydow) Toro in Seaver & Chardon 1932 non Davis 1924] DP72

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

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