Grass of Parnassus Parnassia palustris, photographed by Bernd Haynold.

Belongs within: Fabidae.
Contains: Celastraceae.

The Celastrales are an order of flowering plants primarily supported by molecular data. Members include the Holarctic genus Parnassia, grass of Parnassus, an inhabitant of wet and/or open locations with basal, ovate leaves and solitary flowers borne on an erect stalk (Hickman 1993).

Characters (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Vessel elements with simple perforation plates; tension wood absent; mucilage cells; stipules present; inflorescence cymose; flowers small; calyx quincuncial; micropyle bistomal; chloroplast infA gene present.

Celastrales [Celastranae, Celastriflorae]
    |  i. s.: Lepuropetalon [Lepuropetalaceae] T00
    |--Lepidobotryaceae WM09
    |    |--Ruptiliocarpon caracolito WM09
    |    `--Lepidobotrys XR12
    `--+--Parnassia [Parnassiaceae, Parnassiales, Parnassioideae] XR12
       |    |--P. asarifolia EBS98
       |    |--P. californica [=P. palustris var. californica] H93
       |    |--P. chinensis O88
       |    |--P. cirrata H93
       |    |--P. fimbriata H93
       |    |--P. kumaonica O88
       |    |--P. nubicola O88
       |    |--P. palustris WM09
       |    |--P. parviflora [=P. palustris var. parviflora] H93
       |    `--P. pusilla O88
       `--+--Celastraceae XR12
          `--+--Siphonodon [Siphonodontaceae] XR12
             |    |--S. australe B88
             |    `--S. membranaceum B88
             `--+--Denhamia obscura XR12, LK14
                `--Stackhousiaceae [Stackhousieae] T00
                     |--Macgregorioideae T00
                     `--Stackhousioideae T00
                          |--Tripterococcus brunonis T00, GK00
                          `--Stackhousia Smith 1798 XR12, A61
                               |--S. clementii KM08
                               |--S. intermedia LK14
                               |--S. linariaefolia C08
                               |--S. minima Hooker 1852 [incl. S. uniflora Colenso 1886] A61
                               |--S. monogyna OS04
                               `--S. scoparia OS04

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[C08] Cambage, R. H. 1908. Notes on the native flora of New South Wales. Part VI. Deepwater to Torrington and Emmaville. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33 (1): 45–65, pls 1–2.

[EBS98] Elliott, K. J., L. R. Boring & W. T. Swank. 1998. Changes in vegetation structure and diversity after grass-to-forest succession in a southern Appalachian watershed. American Midland Naturalist 140: 219–232.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11–19.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19–28.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

[WM09] Wang, H., M. J. Moore, P. S. Soltis, C. D. Bell, S. F. Brockington, R. Alexandre, C. C. Davis, M. Latvis, S. R. Manchester & D. E. Soltis. 2009. Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (10): 3853–3858.

[XR12] Xi, Z., B. R. Ruhfel, H. Schaefer, A. M. Amorim, M. Sugumaran, K. J. Wurdack, P. K. Endress, M. L. Matthews, P. F. Stevens, S. Mathews & C. C. Davis. 2012. Phylogenomics and a posteriori data partitioning resolve the Cretaceous angiosperm radiation Malpighiales. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (43): 17519–17524.

Last updated: 31 March 2021.

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