Iowa golden saxifrage Chrysosplenium iowense, copyright Tab Tannery.

Belongs within: Hamamelidaceae.
Contains: Heuchera, Saxifraga.

The Saxifragaceae are a diverse group of perennial herbs and subshrubs that are most diverse in temperate and boreal regions.

Characters (from Hickman 1993): Perennial or subshrub from caudex or rhizome, generally more or less hairy. Stem often more or less leafy on lower half, rarely trailing and leafy throughout. Leaves generally simple, basal or sometimes cauline, generally alternate, generally petioled; veins more or less palmate. Inflorescence a panicle, generally more or less scapose. Flowers generally bisexual, generally radial; hypanthium free to more or less fused to ovary; calyx lobes generally 5: petals generally 5, free, generally clawed, generally white; stamens generally 5 or 10; pistils 2 and simple or 1 and compound (chambers 1-2, placentas 2-4, axile or parietal), ovary superior to inferior, sometimes more superior in fruit, styles generally 2. Fruit 2 follicles or 2—4-valved capsule. Seeds generally many, small.

Saxifragaceae [Saxifragoideae]
    |--Saxifragella albowiana NDA05
    `--+--+--Astilbe [Astilboideae] NDA05
       |  |    `--A. taquetii NDA05
       |  `--+--+--Tanakaea radicans NDA05
       |     |  `--Leptarrhena pyrifolia NDA05
       |     `--+--+--Telesonix heucheriformis NDA05
       |        |  `--Jepsonia NDA05
       |        |       |--J. heterandra [=J. parryi var. heterandra] H93
       |        |       |--J. malvifolia H93
       |        |       `--J. parryi NDA05
       |        `--+--Sullivantia oregana NDA05
       |           `--+--Bolandra NDA05
       |              |    |--B. californica H93
       |              |    `--B. oregana NDA05
       |              `--Boykinia NDA05
       |                   |--B. intermedia NDA05
       |                   |--B. major H93
       |                   |--B. occidentalis [incl. B. elata] H93
       |                   `--B. rotundifolia NDA05
       `--+--+--+--Tolmiea menziesii NDA05
          |  |  `--Bensoniella oregona NDA05 [=Bensonia oregana H93]
          |  `--+--Elmera racemosa NDA05
          |     `--+--Tiarella NDA05
          |        |    |--T. polyphylla O88
          |        |    `--T. trifoliata H93
          |        |         |--T. t. var. trifoliata H93
          |        |         `--T. t. var. unifoliata H93
          |        `--+--Heuchera NDA05
          |           `--+--Tellima grandiflora NDA05
          |              `--Mitella NDA05
          |                   |--M. breweri H93
          |                   |--M. caulescens H93
          |                   |--M. diversifolia NDA05
          |                   |--M. nuda NDA05
          |                   |--M. ovalis H93
          |                   |--M. pentandra NDA05
          |                   `--M. trifida H93
          `--+--+--+--Astilboides tabularis NDA05
             |  |  |--Darmera peltata NDA05 [=Peltiphyllum peltatum H93]
             |  |  `--Rodgersia pinnata NDA05
             |  `--+--Mukdenia rosii NDA05
             |     `--Bergenia NDA05
             |          |--B. cordifolia JK80
             |          `--B. purpurascens O88
             `--+--Saxifraga NDA05
                `--+--Peltoboykinia tellimoides NDA05
                   `--Chrysosplenium Linnaeus 1753 NDA05, KC01
                        |--C. carnosum O88
                        |--C. forrestii O88
                        |--C. glechomifolium H93
                        |--C. iowense NDA05
                        |--C. nepalense O88
                        |--C. nudicaule O88
                        |    |--C. n. var. nudicaule O88
                        |    `--C. n. var. intermedium O88
                        |--C. tenellum O88
                        `--C. uniflorum O88

Saxifragaceae incertae sedis:
  Broussaissia YY22
  Jurraniodendron YY22
  Dedea YY22
  Suksdorfia ranunculifolia H93
  Lithophragma H93
    |--L. affine [incl. L. affine ssp. mixtum, L. tripartita] H93
    |--L. bolanderi [incl. L. scabrella] H93
    |--L. cymbalaria H93
    |--L. glabrum [incl. L. bulbiferum] H93
    |--L. heterophyllum H93
    |--L. maximum H93
    |--L. parviflorum H93
    |    |--L. p. var. parviflorum H93
    |    `--L. p. var. trifoliatum H93
    `--L. tenellum [incl. L. breviloba, L. rupicola] H93
  Saxifragopsis fragarioides [=Saxifraga fragarioides] H93
  Saxifragispermum spinosissimum Reid & Chandler 1933 CBH93
  Elmeria Ridl. 1905 KC01
  Adenanthemum P92
  Stephanostemon P92
  Micranthes BGS05
    |--M. engleri (Dalla Torre) Galasso, Banfi & Soldano in Banfi, Galasso & Soldano 2005 (see below for synonymy) BGS05
    |--‘Saxifraga’ gageana WO88
    |--‘Saxifraga’ pallida WO88
    `--M. stellaris (L.) Galasso, Banfi & Soldano in Banfi, Galasso & Soldano 2005 (see below for synonymy) BGS05
  Cascadia BGS05
  Oresitrophe BGS05

Micranthes engleri (Dalla Torre) Galasso, Banfi & Soldano in Banfi, Galasso & Soldano 2005 [=Saxifraga engleri Dalla Torre 1882, S. stellaris ssp. engleri; incl. S. stellaris ssp. alpigena, S. stellaris ssp. robusta] BGS05

Micranthes stellaris (L.) Galasso, Banfi & Soldano in Banfi, Galasso & Soldano 2005 [=Saxifraga stellaris L. 1753] BGS05

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BGS05] Banfi, E., G. Galasso & A. Soldano. 2005. Notes on systematics and taxonomy for the Italian vascular flora. 1. Atti Soc. It. Sci. Nat. Museo Civ. Stor. Nat. Milano 146 (2): 219–244.

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[JK80] John, J., & K.-P. Kolbe. 1980. The systematic position of the “Theales” from the viewpoint of serology. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 8: 241–248.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby's Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[NDA05] Nickrent, D. L., J. P. Der & F. E. Anderson. 2005. Discovery of the photosynthetic relatives of the "Maltese mushroom" Cynomorium. BMC Evolutionary Biology 5: 38.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

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