Rough horsetail Equisetum hyemale, copyright Liné1.

Belongs within: Monilophyta.

The Equisetopsida includes the modern horsetails, Equisetum, and their fossil relatives. Members of this group have whorled leaves, and most have a eustele stem structure with a hollow pith surrounded by vascular bundles (Doyle 1998).

<==Equisetopsida [Equisetophyta, Sphenophyta, Sphenophytae, Sphenopsida]
    |  i. s.: Equisetires keuperiana W70
    |         Schizoneura Z02
    |           |--S. australis Etheridge 1893 F71
    |           `--S. paradoxa W70
    |         Phyllotheca Z02
    |           |--P. australis F71
    |           |--P. robusta F71
    |           `--P. wonthaggiensis [=Equisetites wonthaggiensis] KDD98
    |         Archaeocalamites radiatus D98, F71 [=Calamites radiatus F71]
    |--Calamostachys A38 [Calamostachyales Z02]
    |--Sphenophyllum [Sphenophyllales] D98
    |    |--S. antiquum A38
    |    `--S. cuneifolium A38
    `--Equisetales D98
         |--Calamites suckowi D98, A38
         `--Equisetum Linnaeus 1753 CD07 (see below for synonymy)
              |  i. s.: E. endoi BO02
              |         E. filum BO02
              |         E. inglisii D06
              |         E. renaultii BO02
              |         E. robustum SM03
              |         E. × schaffneri D06
              |--E. subg. Equisetum D06
              |    |--E. × dubium [=E. arvense × E. telmateia] D06
              |    |--E. × litorale [E. arvense × E. fluviatile] D06
              |    |--E. × rothmaleri [E. arvense × E. palustre; incl. E. × rogesianum] D06
              |    |--E. × wallichianum Page 1974 (see below for synonymy) D06
              |    |--E. sect. Equisetum D06
              |    |    |--*E. fluviatile Linnaeus 1753 [incl. E. maximum (nom. inv.)] D06
              |    |    |--E. bogotense D06
              |    |    |--E. diffusum Don 1825 (see below for synonymy) D06
              |    |    |--E. × dycei Page 1981 [E. fluviatile × E. palustre] D06
              |    |    |--E. × font-queri [E. palustre × E. telmateia] D06
              |    |    |--E. palustre Linnaeus 1753 (see below for synonymy) D06
              |    |    `--E. telmateia Ehrh. 1783 D06, CD07
              |    `--E. sect. Heterophyadica Br. 1839 D06
              |         |--E. (sect. *Heterophyadica) arvense Linnaeus 1753 (see below for synonymy) D06
              |         |--E. × calderi [E. arvense × E. pratense] D06
              |         |--E. pratense D06
              |         |--E. × suecicum [E. arvense × E. pratense] D06
              |         `--E. sylvaticum D06
              `--E. subg. Hippochaete (Milde) Baker 1887 [=Hippochaete Milde 1865] D06
                   |--E. × ferrissii [E. hyemale var. affine × E. laevigatum] D06
                   |--E. × mexicanum [E. hyemale var. affine × E. myriochaetum] D06
                   |--E. × moorei [E. hyemale var. hyemale × E. ramosissimum ssp. ramosissimum] D06
                   |--E. × naegelianum [E. ramosissimum ssp. ramosissimum × E. variegatum] D06
                   |--E. sect. Hippochaete [=Hippochaete sect. Euhippochaete Farwell 1916] D06
                   |    |  i. s.: E. scirpoides D06
                   |    |         E. × trachyodon [=Hippochaete trachyodon; Equisetum hyemale × E. variegatum] D06
                   |    |         E. variegatum D06
                   |    `--E. subsect. Perennantia (Doell) Hauke 1962 (see below for synonymy) D06
                   |         `--E. (sect. *Hippochaete, subsect. *Perennantia) hyemale Linnaeus 1753 (see below for synonymy) D06
                   |              |--E. h. var. hyemale D06
                   |              `--E. h. var. affine D06
                   |--E. sect. Ambigua (Farwell) Hauke 1962 [=Hippochaete sect. Ambigua Farwell 1916] D06
                   |    |--E. (sect. *Ambigua) laevigatum Br. 1844 D06
                   |    |--E. myriochaetum D06
                   |    `--E. ramosissimum Desf. 1800 [=Hippochaete ramosissima] D06
                   |         |--E. r. ssp. ramosissimum [incl. E. ramosissimum var. altissimum, E. elongatum] D06
                   |         `--E. r. ssp. debile (Roxburgh) Hauke 1962 D06 (see below for synonymy)
                   `--E. sect. Incunabula Hauke 1962 [=Hippochaete subg. Incunabula (Hauke) Holub 1972] D06
                        `--E. (sect. *Incunabula) giganteum Linnaeus 1763 (see below for synonymy) D06

Equisetum Linnaeus 1753 CD07 [incl. Allostelites Börner 1912 D06; Equisetaceae, Gonopterides, Iulospermae, Peltasporae, Peltata, Peltiflorae, Peltigerae]

Equisetum subsect. Perennantia (Doell) Hauke 1962 [=E. II Sclerocaulon b. Perennantia Doell 1857] D06

Equisetum (sect. *Heterophyadica) arvense Linnaeus 1753 [incl. E. boreale, E. plantula Griffith 1849, E. saxicola] D06

Equisetum diffusum Don 1825 [incl. E. bicarinatum, E. diffusum var. caespitosum, E. leave, E. mekongense Page 1974, E. diffusum var. nudum, E. diffusum var. paucidentatum Page 1974, E. diffusum var. polystachyum Milde 1867, E. diffusum var. ramosum non E. ramosum Payot. 1860] D06

Equisetum (sect. *Incunabula) giganteum Linnaeus 1763 [incl. E. elongatum var. affine non E. hyemale var. affine, E. brasiliense, E. caracasanum, E. elongatum var. dolosum, E. martii, E. poeppigianum, E. elongatum var. scaberrimum] D06

Equisetum (sect. *Hippochaete, subsect. *Perennantia) hyemale Linnaeus 1753 [=Hippochaete hiemale, H. hyemalis] D06

Equisetum palustre Linnaeus 1753 [incl. E. palustre var. americana Victorin 1927, E. arenarium Opiz 1819, E. nodosum Hoppe 1794, E. pratense de Schlechtendal 1823-1824 (preoc.), E. ramosum Payot. 1860, E. palustre var. szechuanense Page 1974, E. tenellum Fries 1846, E. tuberosum Hectot ap. De Candolle 1815, E. veronense Pollini 1816] D06

Equisetum ramosissimum ssp. debile (Roxburgh) Hauke 1962 D06 [=E. debilis D06, E. debile Roxburgh ex Vaucher 1822 I88, Hippochaete debilis (Vaucher) Holub 1972 D06; incl. E. huegelii Milde 1861 D06, E. pallens Wallich 1828 D06, E. debile var. pashan Mahabale 1938 D06]

Equisetum × wallichianum Page 1974 [E. arvense × E. diffusum; incl. E. scoparium Wallich 1828 (n. n.)] D06

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A38] Alcock, F. J. 1938. Geology of Saint John region, New Brunswick. Geological Survey of Canada Memoir 216: 1-65.

[BO02] Barale, G., & M. Ouaja. 2002. La biodiversité végétale des gisements d’âge Jurassique supérieur-Crétacé inférieur de Merbah El Asfer (Sud-Tunisien). Cretaceous Research 23: 707-737.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1-E44.

[D06] Datta, A. 2006. The family Equisetaceae in India. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 48 (1-4): 1-58.

[D98] Doyle, J. A. 1998. Phylogeny of vascular plants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 567-599.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1-167.

[I88] Iwatsuki, K. 1988. An enumeration of the pteridophytes of Nepal. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 231-339.

[KDD98] Krassilov, V. A., D. L. Dilcher & J. G. Douglas. 1998. New ephedroid plant from the Lower Cretaceous Koonwarra fossil bed, Victoria, Australia. Alcheringa 22 (2): 123-133.

[SM03] Saldarriaga, J. F., M. L. McEwan, N. M. Fast, F. J. R. Taylor & P. J. Keeling. 2003. Multiple protein phylogenies show that Oxyrrhis marina and Perkinsus marinus are early branches of the dinoflagellate lineage. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 355-365.

[W70] Wills, L. J. 1970. The Triassic succession in the central Midlands in its regional setting. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 126: 225-283.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Ecological history of the terrestrial insects. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 331-388. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

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