South Georgian diving petrel Pelecanoides georgicus, photographed by Mike Danzenbaker.

Belongs within: Neoaves.
Contains: Pelagornithidae, Oceanitinae, Diomedea, Oceanodroma, Procellariinae, Fulmarinae.

The Procellariiformes contain the tube-nosed seabirds: albatrosses, petrels and shearwaters. Members of the Procellariiformes have more or less tubular nostrils running along the basal part of the beak, and the front three toes connected by webs (Mayr et al. 2002).

<==Procellariiformes [Procellarae, Tubinares]
    |  i. s.: Diomedeoididae MPR02
    |           |--Rupelornis van Beneden 1871 MPR02
    |           |    `--*R. definitus van Beneden 1871 MPR02
    |           `--Diomedeoides Fischer 1985 [incl. Frigidafons Cheneval 1995] MPR02
    |                |--D. lipsiensis (Fischer 1983) MPR02 (see below for synonymy)
    |                |--D. babaheydariensis (Peters & Hamedani 2000) [=Frigidafons babaheydariensis] MPR02
    |                `--D. brodkorbi (Cheneval 1995) [=*Frigidafons brodkorbi] MPR02
    |         Primodroma Harrison & Walker 1977 M02
    |           `--*P. bournei Harrison & Walker 1977 M02
    |         Marinavis Harrison & Walker 1977 M05, M02 [Marinavidae]
    |           `--*M. longirostris Harrison & Walker 1977 M02
    |         Plotornis Milne-Edwards 1874 M02
    |           |--*P. delfortrii Milne-Edwards 1874 M02
    |           `--P. arvernensis (Milne-Edwards in Shufeldt 1896) [=Puffinus arvernensis] M02
    |         Pelagornithidae M02
    |--Oceanitidae [Hydrobatidae, Oceanitoidea, Thalassidromidae] LZ07
    |    |--Oceanitinae HK08
    |    `--Hydrobates Boie 1822 (see below for synonymy) B94
    |         `--*H. pelagicus [=*Procellaria pelagica] B94
    `--Procellarioidea LZ07
         |--Diomedeidae LZ07
         |    |--Diomedea HK08
         |    |--Manu antiquus Marples 1946 GM91, WH02
         |    |--Gigantornis eaglesomei FP64
         |    |--Murunkus Panteleyev & Nessov 1987 MPR02
         |    |    `--*M. subitus Panteleyev & Nessov 1987 MPR02
         |    |--Phoebetria Reichenbach 1853 [Phoebetriidae] B94
         |    |    |--P. fusca ZJM03
         |    |    `--P. palpebrata (Forster 1785) WH02
         |    `--Thalassarche WH02
         |         |--T. bulleri (Rothschild 1893) WH02 (see below for synonymy)
         |         |--T. cauta (Gould 1841) WH02 [incl. T. steadi HWT01]
         |         |--T. chrysostoma (Forster 1785) WH02
         |         |--T. eremita Murphy 1930 WH02
         |         |--T. impavida Mathews 1912 WH02
         |         |--T. melanophris [=T. melanophrys] HWT01
         |         `--T. salvini (Rothschild 1893) WH02
         `--+--Oceanodroma HK08
            `--Procellariidae LZ07
                 |  i. s.: Calonectris Mathews & Iredale 1915 M02
                 |           |--C. diomedea (Scopoli 1769) [=Puffinus diomedea; incl. P. eyermani Shufeldt 1896] M02
                 |           |    |--C. d. diomedea R85
                 |           |    |--C. d. borealis Cory 1881 R85
                 |           |    `--C. d. edwardsii HR96
                 |           `--C. leucomelas WBSJ82
                 |         Bulweria Bonaparte 1843 [Bulweriidae] B94
                 |           |--B. bulwerii MPR02
                 |           `--B. fallax FP64
                 |         Pseudobulweria rostrata HR96
                 |           |--P. r. rostrata HR96
                 |           |--P. r. becki HR96
                 |           `--P. r. trouessarti HR96
                 |         Argyrodyptes Ameghino 1905 S72
                 |           `--*A. microtarsus Ameghino 1905 S72
                 |--Procellariinae HK08
                 `--+--Fulmarinae EA06
                    `--Pelecanoides Lacépède 1799 HK08, B94 (see below for synonymy)
                         |--P. cymatotrypetes Olson 1985 B93
                         |--P. exsul Salvin 1896 WH02 [=P. urinatrix exsul R85]
                         |--P. garnotii FP64
                         |--P. georgicus Murphy & Harper 1916 WH02
                         |--P. magellani FP64
                         `--P. urinatrix Gmelin 1789 WH02
                              |--P. u. urinatrix HWT01
                              `--P. u. chathamensis HWT01

Diomedeoides lipsiensis (Fischer 1983) MPR02 [=Gaviota lipsiensis MPR02; incl. *D. minimus Fischer 1985 M02, MPR02]

Hydrobates Boie 1822 [=Procellaria Linné 1766 non Linnaeus 1758; incl. Thalassidroma Vigors 1825; Hydrobatinae] B94

Pelecanoides Lacépède 1799 HK08, B94 [incl. Haladroma Illiger 1811 B94; Haladromidae, Pelecanoidi, Pelecanoididae]

Thalassarche bulleri (Rothschild 1893) WH02 [=Diomedea bulleri HWT01; incl. D. bulleri platei Reichenow 1898 HWT01, R85]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1-281.

[B93] Brooke, R. K. 1993. Annotated catalogue of the Aves type specimens in the South African Museum. Annals of the South African Museum 102 (10): 327-349.

[EA06] Ericson, P. G. P., C. L. Anderson, T. Britton, A. Elzanowski, U. S. Johansson, M. Källersjö, J. I. Ohlson, T. J. Parsons, D. Zuccon & G. Mayr. 2006. Diversification of Neoaves: integration of molecular sequence data and fossils. Biology Letters 2 (4): 543-547.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[GM91] Gill, B., & P. Martinson. 1991. New Zealand’s Extinct Birds. Random Century: Auckland (New Zealand).

[HK08] Hackett, S. J., R. T. Kimball, S. Reddy, R. C. K. Bowie, E. L. Braun, M. J. Braun, J. L. Chojnowski, W. A. Cox, K.-L. Han, J. Harshman, C. J. Huddleston, B. D. Marks, K. J. Miglia, W. S. Moore, F. H. Sheldon, D. W. Steadman, C. C. Witt & T. Yuri. 2008. A phylogenomic study of birds reveals their evolutionary history. Science 320: 1763-1768.

[HR96] Heather, B. D., & H. A. Robertson. 1996. The Field Guide to the Birds of New Zealand. Viking: Auckland.

[HWT01] Holdaway, R. N., T. H. Worthy & A. J. D. Tennyson. 2001. A working list of breeding bird species of the New Zealand region at first human contact. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 28: 119-187.

[LZ07] Livezey, B. C., & R. L. Zusi. 2007. Higher-order phylogeny of modern birds (Theropoda, Aves: Neornithes) based on comparative anatomy. II. Analysis and discussion. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 149 (1): 1-95.

[M05] Mayr, G. 2005. The Paleogene fossil record of birds in Europe. Biological Reviews 80: 515-542.

[MPR02] Mayr, G., D. S. Peters & S. Rietschel. 2002. Petrel-like birds with a peculiar foot morphology from the Oligocene of Germany and Belgium (Aves: Procellariiformes). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 22 (3): 667-676.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[R85] Robertson, C. J. R. (ed.) 1985. Reader’s Digest Complete Book of New Zealand Birds. Reader’s Digest: Sydney.

[S72] Simpson, G. G. 1972. Conspectus of Patagonian fossil penguins. American Museum Novitates 2488: 1-37.

[WBSJ82] Wild Bird Society of Japan. 1982. A Field Guide to the Birds of Japan. Kodansha International Ltd.: Tokyo.

[WH02] Worthy, T. H., & R. N. Holdaway. 2002. The Lost World of the Moa: Prehistoric life of New Zealand. Indiana University Press: Bloomington (Indiana).

[ZJM03] Zeffer, A., L. C. Johansson & Å. Marmebro. 2003. Functional correlation between habitat use and leg morphology in birds (Aves). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 79: 461-484.

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