Southern royal albatross Diomedea epomophora, copyright J. J. Harrison.

Belongs within: Aequorlitornithes.
Contains: Oceanitinae, Oceanodroma, Procellariidae.

The Procellariiformes contain the tube-nosed seabirds: albatrosses, petrels and shearwaters. Members of the Procellariiformes have more or less tubular nostrils running along the basal part of the beak, and the front three toes connected by webs (Mayr et al. 2002). The albatrosses of the Diomedeidae include the largest living seabirds with the wandering albatross Diomedea exulans having the largest wingspan of any living bird.

The genus Diomedea includes the larger albatrosses, marine gliders found in colder waters of the Southern Hemisphere. Fossil species from the northern Atlantic have also been assigned to this genus (Mlíkovský 2002) though they may be better placed in one of the other albatross genera. Diomedea species are distinguished from the sooty albatrosses of the genus Phoebetria by their shorter, rounded tails. Recent authors have increased the number of species recognised in Diomedea; the northern royal albatross D. sanfordi has been separated from the southern royal albatross D. epomophora, while populations previously included in the wandering albatross D. exulans have been distinguished as the Amsterdam albatross D. amsterdamensis, Tristan albatross D. dabbenena and Antipodean albatross D. antipodensis.

Procellariiformes [Hydrobatidae, Oceanitidae, Oceanitoidea, Procellarae, Procellarioidea, Thalassidromidae, Tubinares]
    |  i. s.: Primodroma Harrison & Walker 1977 M02
    |           `--*P. bournei Harrison & Walker 1977 M02
    |         Plotornis Milne-Edwards 1874 M02
    |           |--*P. delfortrii Milne-Edwards 1874 M02
    |           `--P. arvernensis (Milne-Edwards in Shufeldt 1896) [=Puffinus arvernensis] M02
    |         Tytthostonyx [Tytthostonychidae] M09
    |           `--T. glauconiticus Olson & Parris 1987 M09
    |--Marinavis Harrison & Walker 1977 M05, M02 [Marinavidae]
    |    `--*M. longirostris Harrison & Walker 1977 M02
    |--Diomedeoididae MPR02
    |    |--Rupelornis van Beneden 1871 MPR02
    |    |    `--*R. definitus van Beneden 1871 MPR02 [incl. Vanellus selysii van Beneden 1871 M09]
    |    `--Diomedeoides Fischer 1985 [incl. Frigidafons Cheneval 1995] MPR02
    |         |--D. lipsiensis (Fischer 1983) MPR02 (see below for synonymy)
    |         |--D. babaheydariensis (Peters & Hamedani 2000) [=Frigidafons babaheydariensis] MPR02
    |         `--D. brodkorbi (Cheneval 1995) [=*Frigidafons brodkorbi] MPR02
    `--+--+--Oceanitinae BKB15
       |  `--+--Oceanodroma BKB15
       |     `--Procellariidae BKB15
       `--Diomedeidae BKB15
            |  i. s.: Manu Marples 1946 CC10
            |           `--*M. antiquus Marples 1946 CC10
            |         Murunkus Panteleyev & Nessov 1987 MPR02
            |           `--*M. subitus Panteleyev & Nessov 1987 MPR02
            |--+--Phoebetria Reichenbach 1853 JT12, CC10 [Phoebetriidae]
            |  |    |--P. palpebrata (Forster 1785) (see below for synonymy) CC10
            |  |    `--P. fusca (Hilsenberg 1822) (see below for synonymy) CC10
            |  `--Thalassarche Reichenbach 1853 JT12, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
            |       |--+--T. carteri (Rothschild 1903) CM09, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
            |       |  `--T. chlororhynchos (Gmelin 1789) CM09, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
            |       `--+--+--T. chrysostoma (Forster 1785) CM09, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
            |          |  `--+--*T. melanophris (Temminck 1828) CC10, JT12, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
            |          |     `--T. impavida Mathews 1912 JT12, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
            |          `--+--T. bulleri (Rothschild 1893) CM09, CC10 [=Diomedea bulleri CC10]
            |             |    |--T. b. bulleri CC10
            |             |    `--T. b. platei (Reichenow 1898) [=Diomedea platei, D. bulleri platei] CC10
            |             `--+--+--T. cauta (Gould 1841) CM09, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
            |                |  `--T. steadi Falla 1933 CM09, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
            |                `--+--T. eremita Murphy 1930 CM09, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
            |                   `--T. salvini (Rothschild 1893) JT12, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
            `--+--Phoebastria Reichenbach 1853 JT12, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
               |    |--+--P. albatrus (Pallas 1769) JT12, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
               |    |  `--P. irrorata JT12 (see below for synonymy)
               |    `--+--P. immutabilis (Rothschild 1893) JT12, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
               |       `--+--P. nigripes (Audubon 1839) JT12, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
               |          `--P. nihonus BKB15
               `--Diomedea Linnaeus 1758 CM09, CC10 [incl. Rhothonia Murphy 1917 CC10]
                    |  i. s.: D. adusta Tschudi 1856 (n. d.) CC10
                    |         D. anglica Lydekker 1891 M02
                    |         D. demersa Linnaeus 1758 L58
                    |         D. rumana Grigorescu & Kessler 1988 M02
                    |         D. spadicea Gmelin 1789 (n. d.) CC10
                    |--+--D. epomophora (Lesson 1825) CM09, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                    |  `--D. sanfordi (Murphy 1917) CM09, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                    `--+--D. dabbenena Mathews 1929 CM09, CC10 [=D. exulans dabbenena CC10]
                       `--+--D. antipodensis Robertson & Warham 1992 CM09, CC10
                          |    |--D. a. antipodensis [=D. exulans antipodensis] CC10
                          |    `--D. a. gibsoni Robertson & Warham 1992 [=D. exulans gibsoni] CC10
                          `--+--*D. exulans Linnaeus 1758 CC10, CM09, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                             |    |--D. e. exulans CC10
                             |    `--D. e. grisea Pelzeln 1873 (n. d.) CC10
                             `--D. amsterdamensis CM09

Diomedea epomophora (Lesson 1825) CM09, CC10 [=Diomedaea (l. c.) epomophora CC10, Rhothonia epomophora CC10; incl. Diomedea epomophora longirostris Mathews 1934 CC10, Diomedea epomophora mccormicki Mathews 1912 CC10, Diomedea regia Buller 1891 CC10]

*Diomedea exulans Linnaeus 1758 CC10, CM09, CC10 [incl. D. chionoptera Salvin 1896 CC10, D. exulans chionoptera CC10, D. exulans georgia Mathews 1933 CC10, D. exulans rohui Mathews 1915 CC10, D. chionoptera rohui CC10, D. exulans rothschildi Mathews 1912 CC10, D. exulans westralis Mathews 1918 CC10]

Diomedea sanfordi (Murphy 1917) CM09, CC10 [=D. (*Rhothonia) sanfordi CC10, D. epomophora sanfordi CC10]

Diomedeoides lipsiensis (Fischer 1983) MPR02 [=Gaviota lipsiensis MPR02; incl. *D. minimus Fischer 1985 M02, MPR02]

Phoebastria Reichenbach 1853 JT12, CC10 [incl. Galapagornis Boetticher 1949 CC10, Julietata Mathews in Mathews & Hallstrom 1943 CC10, Laysanornis Boetticher 1949 CC10, Penthirenia Boetticher 1949 CC10]

Phoebastria albatrus (Pallas 1769) JT12, CC10 [=Diomedea albatrus CM09; incl. D. brachyura CC10, *Phoebastria brachyura CC10]

Phoebastria immutabilis (Rothschild 1893) JT12, CC10 [=Diomedea immutabilis CC10, *Laysanornis immutabilis CC10, Thalassarche immutabilis CC10]

Phoebastria irrorata JT12 [=Diomedea irrorata CC10, *Galapagornis irrorata CC10, *Julietata irrorata CC10]

Phoebastria nigripes (Audubon 1839) JT12, CC10 [=Diomedea nigripes CC10, *Penthirenia nigripes CC10, Thalassarche nigripes CC10; incl. Diomedea nigripes reischekia Mathews 1930 CC10]

Phoebetria fusca (Hilsenberg 1822) [=Diomedea fusca, D. palpebrata fusca; incl. P. fusca campbelli Mathews 1912] CC10

Phoebetria palpebrata (Forster 1785) [=Diomedea palpebrata, D. antarctica Gray 1844, D. fuliginosa Gmelin 1789, *Phoebetria fuliginosa; incl. P. palpebrata antarctica Mathews 1912 non D. antarctica Gray 1844, P. palpebrata auduboni Nichols & Murphy 1914, D. fuliginosa var. cornicoides Hutton 1867, P. cornicoides, P. palpebrata huttoni Mathews 1912, P. palpebrata murphyi Mathews & Iredale 1921] CC10

Thalassarche Reichenbach 1853 JT12, CC10 [incl. Diomedella Mathews 1912 CC10, Nealbatrus Mathews 1912 CC10, Thalassogeron Ridgway in Baird, Brewer & Ridgway 1884 CC10]

Thalassarche carteri (Rothschild 1903) CM09, CC10 [=Thalassogeron carteri CC10, Diomedea chlororhynchos carteri CC10, Nealbatrus chlororhynchus carteri CC10, Thalassarche chlororhynchus carteri CC10; incl. Diomedea bassi Mathews 1912 CC10, D. chlororhynchos bassi CC10, Nealbatrus chlororhynchus bassi CC10, Thalassarche chlororhynchus bassi CC10, Thalassogeron chlororhynchos bassi CC10]

Thalassarche cauta (Gould 1841) CM09, CC10 [=Diomedea cauta CC10, *Diomedella cauta CC10, Thalassogeron cautus CC10; incl. Thalassogeron layardi Salvin 1896 CC10, Thalassogeron cautus layardi CC10, Diomedella cauta rohui Mathews 1916 CC10, Diomedella cauta wallacea Mathews 1918 CC10]

Thalassarche chlororhynchos (Gmelin 1789) CM09, CC10 [=Diomedea chlororhynchos CC10, D. (Thalassarche) chlororhyncha CC10, D. chlororhynchus CC10, *Nealbatrus chlororhynchus CC10, Thalassarche chlororhynchus CC10, Thalassogeron chlororhynchus CC10; incl. Thalassogeron eximius Verrill 1895 CC10, Diomedea melanoptera Miranda-Ribeiro 1928 CC10, D. presaga Bonaparte 1857 CC10]

Thalassarche chrysostoma (Forster 1785) CM09, CC10 [=Diomedea chrysostoma CC10, Thalassogeron culminatus chrysostoma CC10; incl. Thalassogeron chrysostoma alexanderi Mathews 1916 CC10, Thalassarche chrysostoma alexanderi CC10, Diomedea culminata Gould 1843 CC10, D. (Thalassarche) culminata CC10, Thalassarche chrysostoma culminatus CC10, *Thalasssogeron chrysostoma culminata CC10, *Thalassogeron culminatus CC10, Thalassogeron desolationis Salvadori 1911 CC10, Thalassarche chrysostoma desolationis CC10, Thalassogeron chrysostoma desolationis CC10, Thalassogeron chrysostoma harterti Mathews 1912 CC10, Diomedea culminata mathewsi Rothschild 1912 CC10, Thalassarche chrysostoma mathewsi CC10]

Thalassarche eremita Murphy 1930 CM09, CC10 [=Thalassarche cauta eremita CC10, Diomedea cauta eremita CC10, T. (Diomedella) cauta eremita CC10]

Thalassarche impavida Mathews 1912 JT12, CC10 [=T. melanophris impavida CC10, Diomedea melanophris impavida CC10, D. melanophrys impavida CC10]

*Thalassarche melanophris (Temminck 1828) CC10, JT12, CC10 [=Diomedea melanophris CC10, D. melanophrys CC10, Thalassarche melanophrys CC10; incl. T. melanophris belcheri Mathews 1912 CC10, Diomedea gilliana Coues 1866 CC10, T. melanophris richmondi Mathews 1912 CC10]

Thalassarche salvini (Rothschild 1893) JT12, CC10 [=Thalassogeron salvini CC10, Diomedea cauta salvini CC10, Diomedella cauta salvini CC10, Thalassogeron cautus salvini CC10; incl. Diomedella cauta atlantica Mathews 1933 CC10, Diomedea cauta peruvia Mathews 1933 CC10]

Thalassarche steadi Falla 1933 CM09, CC10 [=T. cauta steadi CC10, Diomedea cauta steadi CC10, Diomedella cauta steadi CC10]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CM09] Chambers, G. K., C. Moeke, R. Steel & J. W. H. Trueman. 2009. Phylogenetic analysis of the 24 named albatross taxa based on full mitochondrial cytochrome b DNA sequences. Notornis 56: 82–94.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M05] Mayr, G. 2005. The Paleogene fossil record of birds in Europe. Biological Reviews 80: 515–542.

[M09] Mayr, G. 2009. Paleogene Fossil Birds. Springer.

[MPR02] Mayr, G., D. S. Peters & S. Rietschel. 2002. Petrel-like birds with a peculiar foot morphology from the Oligocene of Germany and Belgium (Aves: Procellariiformes). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 22 (3): 667–676.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

Last updated: 5 July 2019.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="">FoS</a> = FoS