White-throated dipper Cinclus cinclus, photographed by Jean Hupperetz.

Belongs within: Passerida.
Contains: Certhioidea, Mimidae, Sturninae, Turdinae, Muscicapinae.

The Muscicapoidea is a clade of passerine birds including the Old World flycatchers, thrushes, starlings and related species. Muscicapoids are speciose throughout the Northern Hemisphere, with Turdinae and Mimidae extending into South America.

See also: The tomb of the unknown honeyeater.

    |--Certhioidea JF06
    `--+--Bombycillidae BB05
       |    |  i. s.: Hypocolius Bonaparte 1850 B94 [Hypocoliinae L03]
       |    |           `--H. ampelinus Bonaparte 1851 [incl. H. ampelinus orientalis Koelz 1939] L03
       |    |--Bombycilla Vieillot 1807 FJO08, M02 [Bombycillinae]
       |    |    |--B. cedrorum FP64
       |    |    |--B. garrulus (Linnaeus 1758) [=Lanius garrulus] M02
       |    |    `--B. japonica T89
       |    `--+--Dulus Vieillot 1816 FJO08, B94 [Dulidae, Dulinae]
       |       |    `--D. dominicus FP64
       |       `--+--Ptilogonatinae L03
       |          |    |--Phainoptila melanoxantha Salvin 1877 FJO08, L03 [incl. P. m. minor Griscom 1924 L03]
       |          |    `--+--Phainopepla nitens FJO08
       |          |       `--Ptilogonys Swainson 1824 FJO08, B94
       |          |            `--P. cinereus BC04
       |          `--Mohoidae FJO08
       |               |--Moho Lesson 1831 FJO08
       |               |    |--M. apicalis FJO08
       |               |    |--M. bishopi FJO08
       |               |    |--M. braccatus FJO08
       |               |    `--M. nobilis FJO08
       |               `--Chaetoptila Gray 1869 FJO08
       |                    `--C. angustipluma FJO08
       `--+--Sturnidae BB05
          |    |  i. s.: Fregilupus OF05
          |    |           |--F. rodericanus FP64
          |    |           `--F. varius OF05
          |    |         Necropsar rodericanus OF05
          |    |--+--Mimidae JF06
          |    |  `--Sturninae JF06
          |    `--Buphagus Brisson 1760 JF06, B94 [Buphaginae]
          |         |--B. africanus A61
          |         `--B. erythrorhynchus FP64
          `--+--Cinclus Borkhausen 1797 BB05, B94 (see below for synonymy)
             |    |  i. s.: ‘Hydrobata’ marila L03
             |    |--+--*C. cinclus (Linnaeus 1758) B94, JF06, L03 [=*Hydrobata cinclus B94]
             |    |  |    |--C. c. cinclus (see below for synonymy) L03
             |    |  |    |--C. c. aquaticus Bechstein 1803 (see below for synonymy) L03
             |    |  |    |--C. c. hibernicus L03
             |    |  |    `--C. c. leucogaster Bonaparte 1850 [incl. C. bilkevitchi Zarudny 1902] L03
             |    |  `--C. pallasii JF06
             |    |       |--C. p. pallasii L03
             |    |       `--C. p. tenuirostris Bonaparte 1850 [incl. C. p. kargasiensis Koelz 1939] L03
             |    `--+--C. mexicanus JF06
             |       |    |--C. m. mexicanus L03
             |       |    `--C. m. anthonyi Griscom 1930 L03
             |       `--+--C. leucocephalus JF06
             |          `--C. schulzi JF06
             `--Muscicapidae [Turdidae] BB05
                  |  i. s.: Xenocopsychus ansorgei MS55
                  |         *Campicoloides bifasciatus (see below for synonymy) B93
                  |         Cercomela schlegelii B93
                  |           |--C. s. schlegelii B93
                  |           `--C. s. pollux (Hartlaub 1865) [=Saxicola pollux] B93
                  |         Pseudogerygone S13
                  |           |--P. fluvilateralis S13
                  |           |    |--P. f. fluvilateralis S13
                  |           |    `--P. f. lifuensis Sarasin 1913 S13
                  |           `--P. rouxi Sarasin 1913 S13
                  |--Turdinae BB05
                  `--Muscicapinae BB05

*Campicoloides bifasciatus [=Saxicola bifasciata, Oenanthe bifasciata; incl. S. spectabilis Hartlaub 1865] B93

Cinclus Borkhausen 1797 BB05, B94 [=Hydrobata Vieillot 1816 (nom. rej.) B94; incl. Accentor Bechstein 1802 B94, Aquatilis Montagu 1813 B94; Aquatilidae, Cinclidae]

Cinclus cinclus aquaticus Bechstein 1803 [incl. C. medius Brehm 1831, C. meridionalis Brehm 1856, C. peregrinus Brehm 1856, C. rupestris Brehm 1856] L03

*Cinclus cinclus cinclus (Linnaeus 1758) [incl. C. melanogaster Brehm 1822, C. cinclus sardus Hartert 1904, C. septentrionalis Brehm 1823] L03

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Austin, O. L., Jr. 1961. Birds of the World: A survey of the twenty-seven orders and one hundred and fifty-five families. Paul Hamlyn: London.

[BC04] Barker, F. K., A. Cibois, P. Schikler, J. Feinstein & J. Cracraft. 2004. Phylogeny and diversification of the largest avian radiation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 101 (30): 11040-11045.

[BB05] Beresford, P., F. K. Barker, P. G. Ryan & T. M. Crowe. 2005. African endemics span the tree of songbirds (Passeri): Molecular systematics of several evolutionary ‘enigmas’. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences 272: 849-858.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1-281.

[B93] Brooke, R. K. 1993. Annotated catalogue of the Aves type specimens in the South African Museum. Annals of the South African Museum 102 (10): 327-349.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[FJO08] Fleischer, R. C., H. F. James & S. L. Olson. 2008. Convergent evolution of Hawaiian and Australo-Pacific honeyeaters from distant songbird ancestors. Current Biology 18: 1-5.

[JF06] Jønsson, K. A., & J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds. Zoologica Scripta 35: 149-186.

[L03] LeCroy, M. 2003. Type specimens of birds in the American Museum of Natural History. Part 5. Passeriformes: Alaudidae, Hirundinidae, Motacillidae, Campephagidae, Pycnonotidae, Irenidae, Laniidae, Vangidae, Bombycillidae, Dulidae, Cinclidae, Troglodytidae, and Mimidae. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 278: 1-156.

[MS55] Mertens, R., & J. Steinbacher. 1955. Die im Senckenberg-Museum vorhandenen Arten ausgestorbener, aussterbender oder seltener Vögel. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (3-4): 241-265.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[OF05] Olson, S. L., R. C. Fleischer, C. T. Fisher & E. Bermingham. 2005. Expunging the 'Mascarene starling' Necropsar leguati: archives, morphology and molecules topple a myth. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 125 (1): 31-42.

[S13] Sarasin, F. 1913. Die Vögel Neu-Caledoniens und der Loyalty-Inseln. In Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1, Heft I (F. Sarasin & J. Roux, eds) pp. 1-78, pl. 1-3. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[T89] Takeshita, N. 1989. Nihon no Yachoo. Kogakukan: Tokyo.

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