Barn swallow Hirundo rustica, photographed by Jiří Bohdal.

Belongs within: Hirundinidae.

The genus Hirundo includes the barn swallow H. rustica, welcome swallow H. neoxena, and related species. Authors have differed in the circumscription of this genus: at its broadest, it may include nearly all the hirundine swallows. Species of Hirundo as recognised here generally have blue upperparts, rufous throats and pale underparts, and build their nests as open cups. The crag martins (Hirundo rupestris and related species), sometimes separated as the genus Ptyonoprogne, are dark brown or grey in colouration.

<==Hirundo Linnaeus 1758 M02 [incl. Biblis Lesson 1837 B94, Ptyonoprogne Reichenbach 1850 B94; Biblidinae]
    |--+--H. rupestris JT12 [=Ptyonoprogne rupestris JF06]
    |  `--+--H. concolor JT12 [=Ptyonoprogne concolor JF06]
    |     `--H. fuligula JT12 [=Ptyonoprogne fuligula JF06]
    |          |--H. f. fuligula L03
    |          |--H. f. buchanani (Hartert 1921) [=Riparia obsoleta buchanani] L03
    |          |--H. f. perpallida Vaurie 1951 [=H. obsoleta perpallida] L03
    |          `--H. f. presaharica Vaurie 1953 [=H. obsoleta presaharica] L03
    `--+--+--H. atrocaerulea JT12
       |  `--H. nigrorufa JT12
       `--+--+--H. leucosoma JT12
          |  `--+--H. cucullata JT12 [=Cecropis cucullata JF06]
          |     `--H. megaensis JT12
          `--+--+--H. neoxena Gould 1852 JT12, R85
             |  |    |--H. n. neoxena [=H. tahitica neoxena] R85
             |  |    |--H. n. carteri (Mathews 1912) [=Chelidon javanica carteri] L03
             |  |    `--H. n. parsonsi M03
             |  `--H. tahitica JT12
             |       |--H. t. tahitica L03
             |       |--H. t. ambiens Mayr 1934 L03
             |       `--H. t. javanica Sparrman 1789 [incl. H. t. viridissima Meise 1929] L03
             `--+--H. albigularis Strickland 1849 JT12, L03 [incl. H. albigularis microptera Hartert 1904 L03]
                `--+--H. smithii JT12
                   `--+--H. nigrita JT12
                      `--+--H. rustica Linnaeus 1758 JT12, L03
                         |    |--H. r. rustica [incl. H. r. afghanica Koelz 1939] L03
                         |    |--H. r. erythrogaster FS55
                         |    `--H. r. gutturalis J06
                         `--+--H. angolensis JT12
                            `--+--H. aethiopica Blanford 1869 JT12, L03 (see below for synonymy)
                               `--H. lucida JT12
                                    |--H. l. lucida L03
                                    `--H. l. rothschildi Neumann 1904 L03

Hirundo incertae sedis:
  H. borbonica Sch66
  H. capensis Scl66
  H. domicola B66
  H. fossilis Giebel 1847 M02
  H. fuliginosa JT12
  H. obsoleta JT12
  H. paludicola B93
  H. perdita JT12
  H. senegalensis [=Cecropis senegalensis] L03
    |--H. s. senegalensis L03
    `--H. s. monteiri Hartlaub 1862 [incl. H. s. hybrida van Someren 1921] L03

Hirundo aethiopica Blanford 1869 JT12, L03 [incl. H. aethiopica fulvipectus Amadon 1954 L03]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1-281.

[B93] Brooke, R. K. 1993. Annotated catalogue of the Aves type specimens in the South African Museum. Annals of the South African Museum 102 (10): 327-349.

[B66] Bulger, G. E. 1866. List of birds observed at Wellington, Neilgherry Hills, about 6000 feet above the level of the sea, during the months of April and May, 1866. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 568-571.

[FS55] Felten, H., & J. Steinbacher. 1955. Zur Vogelfauna von El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (1-2): 9-19.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444-448.

[J06] Johnstone, R. E. 2006. The birds of Gag Island, Western Papuan islands, Indonesia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 23 (2): 115-132.

[JF06] Jønsson, K. A., & J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds. Zoologica Scripta 35: 149-186.

[L03] LeCroy, M. 2003. Type specimens of birds in the American Museum of Natural History. Part 5. Passeriformes: Alaudidae, Hirundinidae, Motacillidae, Campephagidae, Pycnonotidae, Irenidae, Laniidae, Vangidae, Bombycillidae, Dulidae, Cinclidae, Troglodytidae, and Mimidae. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 278: 1-156.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[M03] Morcombe, M. 2003. Field Guide to Australian Birds, 2nd ed. Steve Parish Publishing.

[R85] Robertson, C. J. R. (ed.) 1985. Reader’s Digest Complete Book of New Zealand Birds. Reader’s Digest: Sydney.

[Sch66] Schlegel, H. 1866. Communication from, on mammals and birds collected in Madagascar. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 419-426.

[Scl66] Sclater, P. L. 1866. Report on birds collected at Windvogelberg, South Africa, by Capt. G. E. Bulger, C. M. Z. S. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 21-23.

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