Yellow-billed jacamar Galbula albirostris, photographed by William Hull.

Belongs within: Anomalogonatae.
Contains: Ramphastidae, Capitonidae, Picidae.

The Piciformes are a group of birds characterised by the possession of a zygodactylous foot with both the first and fourth toes directed backwards. Living species are divided between the Galbulae, including jacamars (Galbulidae) and puffbirds (Bucconidae), and the Pici, including barbets and toucans (Capitonidae and/or Ramphastidae), honeyguides (Indicatoridae) and woodpeckers (Picidae).

Synapomorphies (from Mayr 2005): Coracoid with distinct notch on medial side of extremitas sternalis; humerus with far ventrodistally extending, large fossa musculi brachialis situated on far medial side of bone, with weakly developed ventral margin; carpometacarpus with well-developed processus intermetacarpalis fused with os metacarpale minus; trochlea metatarsi IV with plantarly projecting wing-like flange; hypotarsus of tarsometatarsus with tendon of musculus flexor hallucis longus situated in marked sulcus medially bordered by prominent crista lateralis hypotarsi.

Synapomorphies of crown group (from Mayr et al. 2003): Proximal end of phalanx proximalis digiti majoris with large, proximally directing process on ventral side; origin of musculus flexor hallucis longus with three heads; tendon of musculus flexor hallucis longus supplying digits I, II and VI; pygostyle with large shield-like discus pygostyli with sharply defined ridge-like lateral margins; extremitas sternalis of coracoid with notch on margo medialis; trochlea metatarsi IV with large trochlea accessoria.

    |  i. s.: Zygodactylidae [Miopiconidae, Primoscenidae, Primoscinidae] M02
    |           |--Primoscens Harrison & Walker 1977 M02
    |           |    `--*P. minutus Harrison & Walker 1977 M02
    |           |--Miopico Mayr 1998 M02
    |           |    `--M. benimellalensis Mayr 1998 M02
    |           |--Zygodactylus Ballmann 1969 M02
    |           |    |--*Z. ignotus Ballmann 1969 M02
    |           |    `--Z. grivensis Ballmann 1969 M02
    |           `--Primozygodactylus Mayr 1998 M02
    |                |--*P. danielsi Mayr 1998 M02
    |                |--P. ballmanni Mayr 1998 M02
    |                `--P. major Mayr 1998 M02
    |--Sylphornithidae M05
    |    |--Sylphornis Mourer-Chauviré 1988 M02
    |    |    `--*S. bretouensis Mourer-Chauviré 1988 M02
    |    `--Palaegithalus Milne-Edwards 1871 M05, M02 [Palaegithalidae]
    |         `--*P. cuvieri (Gervais 1848-1852) [=Sitta cuvieri] M02
    |--Gracilitarsidae M05
    |    |--Neanis schucherti Feduccia 1973 M05
    |    |--Gracilitarsus Mayr 1998 M01
    |    |    `--*G. mirabilis Mayr 1998 M01
    |    `--Eutreptodactylus Baird & Vickers-Rich 1997 M05
    |         `--E. itaboraiensis Baird & Vickers-Rich 1997 M01
    `--+--Pici LZ07
       |    |--Capitonoidea LZ07
       |    |    |--Ramphastidae LZ07
       |    |    `--Capitonidae HK08
       |    `--Picoidea LZ07
       |         |--Picidae HK08
       |         `--Indicatoridae LZ07
       |              |--Prodotiscus Sundevall 1850 [Prodotiscidae] B94
       |              `--Indicator Stephens 1815 HK08, B94
       |                   |--I. indicator BP87
       |                   |--I. maculatus HK08
       |                   |--I. minor EA06
       |                   `--I. variegatus MMJ03
       `--Galbulae LZ07
            |--Galbulidae LZ07
            |    |--Galbalcyrhynchus leucotis SS66
            |    |--Jacamerops Lesson 1830 [Jacameropidae] B94
            |    |    `--J. aurea FP64
            |    `--Galbula Brisson 1760 HK08, B94
            |         |--G. albirostris HK08
            |         |--G. cyanescens EA06
            |         |--G. dea A61
            |         `--G. tombacea SS66
            `--Bucconidae [Cyphidae, Tamatiidae] LZ07
                 |--Chelidoptera tenebrosa MMJ03, SS66
                 |--Notharchus macrorynchos MMJ03, A61
                 |--Nystalus maculatus EA06
                 |--Malacoptila Gray 1841 [Malacoptilidae] B94
                 |    `--M. rufa SS66
                 |--Monasa MMJ03
                 |    |--M. nigrifrons MMJ03
                 |    `--M. peruana SS66
                 |--Bucco Brisson 1760 HK08, B94 [incl. Cyphus Spix 1824 B94, Tamatia Lesson 1831 B94]
                 |    |--*B. capensis Linnaeus 1766 B94
                 |    `--B. macrodactylus HK08
                 `--Nonnula SS66
                      |--N. frontalis SS66
                      `--N. ruficapilla SS66

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Austin, O. L., Jr. 1961. Birds of the World: A survey of the twenty-seven orders and one hundred and fifty-five families. Paul Hamlyn: London.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1-281.

[BP87] Burton, J. A., & B. Pearson. 1987. Collins Guide to the Rare Mammals of the World. Collins: London.

[EA06] Ericson, P. G. P., C. L. Anderson, T. Britton, A. Elzanowski, U. S. Johansson, M. Källersjö, J. I. Ohlson, T. J. Parsons, D. Zuccon & G. Mayr. 2006. Diversification of Neoaves: integration of molecular sequence data and fossils. Biology Letters 2 (4): 543-547.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[HK08] Hackett, S. J., R. T. Kimball, S. Reddy, R. C. K. Bowie, E. L. Braun, M. J. Braun, J. L. Chojnowski, W. A. Cox, K.-L. Han, J. Harshman, C. J. Huddleston, B. D. Marks, K. J. Miglia, W. S. Moore, F. H. Sheldon, D. W. Steadman, C. C. Witt & T. Yuri. 2008. A phylogenomic study of birds reveals their evolutionary history. Science 320: 1763-1768.

[LZ07] Livezey, B. C., & R. L. Zusi. 2007. Higher-order phylogeny of modern birds (Theropoda, Aves: Neornithes) based on comparative anatomy. II. Analysis and discussion. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 149 (1): 1-95.

[M01] Mayr, G. 2001. A new specimen of the tiny Middle Eocene bird Gracilitarsus mirabilis (new family: Gracilitarsidae). Condor 103 (1): 78-84.

[M05] Mayr, G. 2005. The Paleogene fossil record of birds in Europe. Biological Reviews 80: 515-542.

[MMJ03] Mayr, G., A. Manegold & U. S. Johansson. 2003. Monophyletic groups within ‘higher land birds’ – comparison of morphological and molecular data. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 41: 233-248.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[SS66] Sclater, P. L., & O. Salvin. 1866. Catalogue of birds collected by Mr. E. Bartlett on the River Uyacali, Eastern Peru, with notes and descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 175-201.

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