Porzana

Spotted crake Porzana porzana, from here.


Belongs within: Rallini.
Contains: Amaurornis, Fulica, Gallinula.

Porzana is one of the primary genera of crakes, short-billed rails without significant aquatic adaptations (Livezey 1998). The phylogenetic analysis of Livezey (1998) indicated that the species included in Porzana form a paraphyletic grade within which are nested more derived aquatic groups such as the coots (Fulica) and moorhens (Gallinula).

Porzana Vieillot 1816 M02 (see below for synonymy)
    |  i. s.: P. astrictocarpus Olson 1973 L98
    |         P. estramosi Jánossy 1979 [incl. P. estramosi veterior Jánossy 1979] M02
    |         P. exilis [=Rallus exilis; incl. Gallinula ruficollis] SS66
    |         P. keplororum Olson & James 1991 L98
    |         P. menehune Olson & James 1991 L98
    |         P. ralphorum Olson & James 1991 L98
    |         P. rua Steadman 1986 L98
    |         P. severnsi Olson & James 1991 L98
    |         P. ziegleri Olson & James 1991 L98
    |--P. (Limnocorax Peters 1854) L98
    |    |--P. (L.) tabuensis (Gmelin 1789) L98, WH02
    |    |    |--P. t. tabuensis R85
    |    |    `--P. t. plumbea (Gray 1829) R85
    |    `--+--P. (L.) monasa (Kittlitz 1858) [=*Aphanolimnas monasa] L98
    |       `--+--P. (L.) atra North 1908 [=*Nesophylax ater] L98
    |          `--+--P. (L.) flavirostra (Swainson 1837) [=Amaurornis flavirostra] L98
    |             `--+--P. (L.) olivieri Grandidier & Berlioz 1927 [=Amaurornis olivieri] L98
    |                `--+--+--P. (L.) bicolor Walden 1872 L98
    |                   |  `--P. (Neocrex Sclater & Salvin 1868) L98
    |                   |       |--P. (N.) columbiana (Bangs 1898) L98
    |                   |       `--P. (N.) erythrops Sclater 1867 L98
    |                   `--+--Amaurornis L98
    |                      `--Fulicina [Fulicarina, Fulicinae] L98
    |                           |--+--Gallicrex Blyth 1852 L98
    |                           |  |    `--G. cinerea (Gmelin 1789) L98
    |                           |  `--Porphyriops Pucheran 1845 L98
    |                           |       `--P. melanops (Vieillot 1819) L98
    |                           `--+--Pareudiastes Hartlaub & Finsch 1871 L98
    |                              |    |--P. pacificus Hartlaub & Finsch 1871 L98
    |                              |    `--P. silvestris (Mayr 1933) [=Edithornis silvestris] L98
    |                              `--+--+--Fulica L98
    |                                 |  `--Gallinula L98
    |                                 `--Tribonyx Du Bus 1840 [Tribonychinae] L98
    |                                      |--T. ventralis (Gould 1836) L98
    |                                      `--+--T. mortierii Du Bus 1840 L98
    |                                         `--T. repertus (De Vis 1888) L98
    `--P. (Corethrura Gray 1846) L98
         |--P. (C.) sandwichensis (Gmelin 1789) L98
         `--+--P. (C.) fusca (Linné 1766) L98
            |--P. (C.) paykullii (Ljungh 1813) [=Rallina paykullii] L98
            `--+--Coturnicops Gray 1854 L98
               |    |--C. notatus (Gould 1841) L98
               |    `--+--C. exquisitus (Swinhoe 1873) L98 [=Porzana exquisita I92]
               |       `--C. noveboracensis (Gmelin 1789) [incl. C. goldmani] L98
               `--+--Micropygia Bonaparte 1856 L98
                  |    |--M. flaviventer (Boddaert 1783) [=Porzana flaviventer] L98
                  |    `--M. schomburgkii (Schomburgk 1848) L98
                  `--+--P. (Poliolimnas Sharpe 1893) L98
                     |    |--P. (P.) cinerea (Vieillot 1819) L98 (see below for synonymy)
                     |    |    |--P. c. cinerea I92
                     |    |    `--‘Poliolimnas cinereus’ brevipes (Ingram 1911) I92
                     |    `--P. (P.) marginalis Hartlaub 1857 [=*Aenigmatolimnas marginalis] L98
                     `--P. (Porzana) L98
                          |--P. (P.) parva (Scopoli 1769) L98, M02 [=Rallus parvus M02]
                          `--+--+--P. (P.) pusilla (Pallas 1776) L98, WH02
                             |  |    |--P. p. pusilla R85
                             |  |    |--P. p. affinis (Gray 1846) R85
                             |  |    `--P. p. palustris HR96
                             |  `--+--P. (P.) carolina (Linnaeus 1758) L98
                             |     `--+--P. (P.) porzana (Linnaeus 1766) L98, M02 [=Rallus porzana M02]
                             |        `--P. (P.) fluminea Gould 1842 L98
                             `--+--P. (P.) palmeri (Frohawk 1892) [=*Porzanula palmeri] L98
                                `--+--P. (P.) spiloptera Durnford 1877 L98
                                   `--Crex Bechstein 1803 L98, M02 (see below for synonymy)
                                        |--C. albicollis (Vieillot 1819) [=Porzana albicollis] L98
                                        |--C. crex (Linnaeus 1758) [=Rallus crex] M02
                                        `--C. egregia (Peters 1854) [=*Crecopsis egregia, Porzana egregia] L98

Crex Bechstein 1803 L98, M02 [incl. Crecopsis Sharpe 1893 L98, Ortygometra Forster 1817 B94; Ortygometrinae]

Porzana Vieillot 1816 M02 [incl. Aenigmatolimnas Peters 1932 L98, Aphanolimnas Sharpe 1892 L98, Nesophylax Murphy 1924 L98, Porzanula Frohawk 1892 L98, Zapornia Stephens 1824 B94; Zaporniinae]

Porzana (Poliolimnas) cinerea (Vieillot 1819) L98 [=Poliolimnas cinereus I92; incl. Porzana leucophrys S13, Ortygometra quadristrigata S13]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1-281.

[HR96] Heather, B. D., & H. A. Robertson. 1996. The Field Guide to the Birds of New Zealand. Viking: Auckland.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[L98] Livezey, B. C. 1998. A phylogenetic analysis of the Gruiformes (Aves) based on morphological characters, with an emphasis on the rails (Rallidae). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences 353: 2077-2151.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[R85] Robertson, C. J. R. (ed.) 1985. Reader’s Digest Complete Book of New Zealand Birds. Reader’s Digest: Sydney.

[S13] Sarasin, F. 1913. Die Vögel Neu-Caledoniens und der Loyalty-Inseln. In Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1, Heft I (F. Sarasin & J. Roux, eds) pp. 1-78, pl. 1-3. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[SS66] Sclater, P. L., & O. Salvin. 1866. On some additions to the catalogue of birds collected by Mr. E. Bartlett on the River Ucayali. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 566-567.

[WH02] Worthy, T. H., & R. N. Holdaway. 2002. The Lost World of the Moa: Prehistoric life of New Zealand. Indiana University Press: Bloomington (Indiana).

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