Rallidae

Slate-breasted wood-rail Aramides saracura, photographed by Dario Sanches.


Belongs within: Grues.
Contains: Porphyrio, Rallina, Rallini.

The Rallidae contains the rails, ground-dwelling birds found mostly in swampy or other damp habitats.

Synapomorphies (from Livezey 1998): Os lacrimale with processus supraorbitalis present; margo medialis of extremitas sternalis coracoidei with medial, variably prominent crista medialis, continued cranially by crista procoracoidei; ala postacetabularis ilii, margo lateralis, crista dorsolateralis ilii, angulus caudolateralis marked by comparatively prominent, ventrally curved flange, undercut by deep concavitas infracristalis; ala postacetabularis ilii, facies ventralis, facies renalis ilii flat or convex, delimiting comparatively dorsoventrally deep fossa renalis, recessus iliacus; extremitas proximalis femoris, trochanter femoris, crista trochanteris, facies caudalis distal to facies articularis antitrochantericus with thickening weakly developed; hypotarsus, lamina medialis hypotarsi, plantar prominence relative to corpus tarsometatarsi, facies plantaris, less than or equal to that of lamina lateralis hypotarsi; sulcus extensorius of corpus tarsometatarsi with arcus extensorius present.

<==Rallidae
    |  i. s.: Pleistorallus flemingi WH02
    |         Palaeorallus troxelli FP64
    |         Telmatornis FP64
    |         Pennula sandwichensis FP64
    |         Ibidopsis Lydekker 1891 M05
    |           `--*I. hordwelliensis Lydekker 1891 M02
    |         Quercyrallus Brodkorb 1952 M02
    |           |--*Q. arenarius (Milne-Edwards 1892) [=Rallus arenarius] M02
    |           `--Q. quercy Cracraft 1973 M05
    |         Rupelrallus Fischer 1997 M05
    |         Belgirallus Mayr & Smith 2001 M05
    |         Parvirallus Harrison & Walker 1979 M02
    |           |--*P. gracilis Harrison & Walker 1979 M02
    |           |--P. bassetti Harrison 1984 M02
    |           |--P. gassoni Harrison 1984 M02
    |           `--P. medius Harrison 1984 M02
    |         Latipons Harrison & Walker 1979 M02
    |           |--*L. gardneri Harrison & Walker 1979 M02
    |           `--L. robinsoni Harrison & Walker 1979 M02
    |         Montirallus Mlíkovský 1981 M02
    |           `--*M. gypsorum (Gervais 1848) [=Numenius gypsorum, N. (Limosa) gypsorum, Villetus gypsorum] M02
    |         Rallicrex Lambrecht 1933 M02
    |           |--*R. kolozsvarensis Lambrecht 1933 M02
    |           `--R. polgardiensis Jánossy 1991 M02
    |         Paraortygometra Lambrecht 1933 [incl. Microrallus Švec 1983] M02
    |           `--*P. porzanoides (Milne-Edwards 1869) [=Rallus porzanoides; incl. *Microrallus fejfari Švec 1983] M02
    |         Palaeoaramides Lambrecht 1933 [incl. Tertiariaporphyrula Kuročkin & Ganea 1972] M02
    |           |--*P. christyi (Milne-Edwards 1869) (see below for synonymy) M02
    |           |--P. beaumontii (Milne-Edwards 1869) (see below for synonymy) M02
    |           |--P. lungi (Kuročkin & Ganea 1972) [=Tertiariaporphyrula lungi] M02
    |           |--P. minutus Cracraft 1973 M02
    |           `--P. tugarinovi Kuročkin 1980 M02
    |         Miorallus Lambrecht 1933 M02
    |           `--*M. major (Milne-Edwards 1869) [=Rallus major] M02
    |--Himantornis Hartlaub 1855 [Himantornithinae] L98
    |    `--H. haematopus Hartlaub 1855 L98
    `--Rallinae L98
         |  i. s.: Hovacrex roberti L98
         |--Porphyrionini [Porphyrioninae, Porphyriornithini] L98
         |    |--Aphanocrex Wetmore 1963 L98
         |    |    `--A. podarces Wetmore 1963 [=Atlantisia podarces] L98
         |    `--+--Porphyrio L98
         |       `--Porphyrula Blyth 1852 L98
         |            |--P. alleni (Thompson 1842) L98
         |            `--+--P. flavirostris (Gmelin 1789) L98
         |               `--P. martinica (Linnaeus 1766) L98
         `--+--Gymnocrecini L98
            |    |--Habroptila Gray 1860 L98
            |    |    `--H. wallacii Gray 1860 [=Rallus wallacii] L98
            |    `--Gymnocrex Salvadori 1875 L98
            |         |--G. plumbeiventris (Gray 1862) [=Eulabeornis plumbeiventris] L98
            |         |--G. rosenbergii (Schlegel 1866) [=Eulabeornis rosenbergii] L98
            |         `--G. talaudensis Lambert 1998 L98
            `--Eulabeornithini L98
                 |--Eulabeornis Gould 1844 L98
                 |    `--E. castaneoventris Gould 1844 L98
                 |--+--Canirallus Bonaparte 1856 [incl. Mentocrex] L98
                 |  |    |--C. kioloides (Pucheran 1845) [=Mentocrex kioloides] L98
                 |  |    `--C. oculeus (Hartlaub 1855) L98
                 |  `--Nesotrochis Wetmore 1918 L98
                 |       |--N. debooyi Wetmore 1918 L98
                 |       |--N. picapicensis (Fischer & Stephan 1971) L98
                 |       `--N. steganinos Olson 1974 L98
                 |--+--Anurolimnas Sharpe 1893 L98
                 |  |    `--A. castaneiceps (Sclater & Salvin 1868) L98
                 |  `--+--Amaurolimnas Sharpe 1893 L98
                 |     |    `--A. concolor (Gosse 1847) L98
                 |     `--+--Rougetius Bonaparte 1856 L98
                 |        |    `--R. rougetii (Guérin-Méneville 1843) L98 (see below for synonymy)
                 |        `--+--Rallina L98
                 |           `--Rallini L98
                 `--Aramides Pucheran 1845 L98
                      |--+--A. calopterus Sclater & Salvin 1878 L98
                      |  `--A. saracura (Spix 1825) L98
                      `--+--A. wolfi Berlepsch & Taczanowski 1883 L98
                         `--+--A. ypecaha (Vieillot 1819) L98
                            `--+--A. cajanea (Müller 1776) L98
                               `--+--A. mangle (Spix 1825) L98
                                  `--+--A. axillaris Lawrence 1863 L98
                                     `--+--A. albiventris Lawrence 1867 L98
                                        |--A. mexicana Bangs 1907 L98
                                        `--A. plumbeicollis Zeledon 1888 L98

Palaeoaramides beaumontii (Milne-Edwards 1869) [=Rallus beaumontii, Pararallus beaumonti, *Tertiariaporphyrula beaumonti] M02

*Palaeoaramides christyi (Milne-Edwards 1869) [=Rallus christyi; incl. R. eximius Milne-Edwards 1869, Palaeoaramides eximius] M02

Rougetius rougetii (Guérin-Méneville 1843) L98 [=Rallus rougetii S05; incl. Rallus obscurus Gray 1844 (n. n.) S05, Rallus abyssinicus Rüppell 1845 S05]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[L98] Livezey, B. C. 1998. A phylogenetic analysis of the Gruiformes (Aves) based on morphological characters, with an emphasis on the rails (Rallidae). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences 353: 2077-2151.

[M05] Mayr, G. 2005. The Paleogene fossil record of birds in Europe. Biological Reviews 80: 515-542.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[S05] Steinheimer, F. D. 2005. Eduard Rüppel’s avian types at the Natural History Museum, Tring (Aves). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (2): 233-264.

[WH02] Worthy, T. H., & R. N. Holdaway. 2002. The Lost World of the Moa: Prehistoric life of New Zealand. Indiana University Press: Bloomington (Indiana).

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