Acorn woodpecker Melanerpes formicivorus, photographed by David Hofmann.

Belongs within: Piciformes.
Contains: Picoidini, Colaptini, Dryocopini, Picini.

The Picidae include the woodpeckers (Picinae), wrynecks (Jynx) and piculets (Picumninae), and are found on all continents except Australia and Antarctica. Picids have more or less straight, pointed beaks and elongate tongues. They are ancestrally insectivorous and arboreal, though some have become terrestrial and/or herbivorous.

    |--Jynx Linnaeus 1758 M02 [Iunginae, Jungidae, Jyngidae, Jynginae B94, Torquillinae, Yunginae, Yunxinae]
    |    `--J. torquilla Linnaeus 1758 M02
    |--Picumninae B94
    |    |--Nesoctites Hargitt 1890 [Nesoctitini] B94
    |    |    `--N. micromegas A61
    |    `--Picumnus Temminck 1825 [Picumnini] B94
    |         |--P. buffoni SS66
    |         |--P. castelnaudi SS66
    |         |--P. cinnamomeus SS66
    |         |--P. cirrhatus S55
    |         |--P. guttifer S55
    |         |--P. innominatus VP89
    |         |    |--P. i. innominatus VP89
    |         |    `--P. i. chinensis VP89
    |         `--P. rufiventris (Bonaparte 1837) [=Asthenurus rufiventris] SS66
    `--Picinae [Dendrodrocopinae, Psilorhinae] B94
         |  i. s.: Sphyrapicus A61
         |           |--S. nuchalis MSD93
         |           |--S. ruber [incl. S. daggetti] S70
         |           `--S. varius A61
         |         Thripias xantholophus FP64
         |         Mesopicos goertae FP64
         |--Picoidini B94
         |--Colaptini B94
         |--Dryocopini B94
         |--Picini B94
         |--Hemicircini B94
         |    |--Meiglyptes Swainson 1837 [Meiglyptini] B94
         |    `--Hemicircus Swainson 1837 B94
         |         `--H. canente RD02
         `--Melanerpes Swainson 1832 [incl. Centurus Swainson 1837; Centurini, Melanerpini] B94
              |--‘Centurus’ aurifrons A61
              |    |--C. a. aurifrons FS55
              |    `--C. a. santacruzi FS55
              |--M. cruentatus SS66
              |--M. erythrocephalus A61
              |--M. formicivorus FP64
              |--M. portoricensis SWK87
              |--‘Centurus’ pygmaeus G68
              |--‘Centurus’ radiolatus A61
              `--M. uropygialis FP64

Picidae incertae sedis:
  Dendropicos MMJ03
  Chryserpes striatus SWK87
  Sapheopipo noguchii (Seebohm 1887) I92
  Micropternus VP89
    |--M. brachyurus VP89
    `--M. phaeoceps S89
  Gecinulus grantia VP89
  Blythipicus pyrrhotis VP89
    |--B. p. pyrrhotis VP89
    `--B. p. sinensis VP89
  Nesoceleus fernandinae FP64
  Sasia FP64
    |--S. africana DL94
    `--S. ochracea FP64
  Scapaneus S55
    |--S. melanoleucos S55
    |    |--S. m. melanoleucos S55
    |    `--S. m. cearae S55
    `--S. trachelopyrus S55
  Crocomorphus flavus S55
    |--C. f. flavus S55
    `--C. f. inornatus S55
  Balanosphyra formicivora S55
    |--B. f. formicivora S55
    `--B. f. bairdii S55
  Leuconerpes candidus S55
  Ceophloeus lineatus FS55
    |--C. l. lineatus FS55
    `--C. l. similis FS55
  Piculus rubiginosa FS55
    |--P. r. rubiginosa FS55
    `--P. r. yucatanensis FS55
  Geocolaptes arator S66
  Yungipicus canicapillus (Blyth 1845) [=Picus canicapillus] W66
    |--Y. c. canicapillus W66
    |--Y. c. auritus Eyton 1845 W66
    `--Y. c. moluccensis W66

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Austin, O. L., Jr. 1961. Birds of the World: A survey of the twenty-seven orders and one hundred and fifty-five families. Paul Hamlyn: London.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1-281.

[DL94] Dinesen, L., T. Lehmberg, J. O. Svendsen, L. A. Hansen & J. Fjeldså. 1994. A new genus and species of perdicine bird (Phasianidae, Perdicini) from Tanzania, a relict form with Indo-Malayan affinities. Ibis 136: 2-11.

[FS55] Felten, H., & J. Steinbacher. 1955. Zur Vogelfauna von El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (1-2): 9-19.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[G68] Grant, P. R. 1968. Bill size, body size, and the ecological adaptations of bird species to competitive situations on islands. Systematic Zoology 17 (3): 319-333.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[MMJ03] Mayr, G., A. Manegold & U. S. Johansson. 2003. Monophyletic groups within ‘higher land birds’ – comparison of morphological and molecular data. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 41: 233-248.

[MSD93] Mills, L. S., M. E. Soulé & D. F. Doak. 1993. The keystone-species concept in ecology and conservation. BioScience 43 (4): 219-224.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[RD02] Robin, V. V., & P. Davidar. 2002. The vertical stratification of birds in mixed species flocks at Parambikulam, south India: a comparison between two habitats. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 389-399.

[S89] Salvadori, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea nella Birmania e nelle regioni vicine. XIX. – Uccelli raccolti nei Monti Carin a nord-est di Tounghoo, nel Pegù presso Rangoon e Tounghoo e nel Tenasserim presso Malewoon. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 369-438.

[S66] Sclater, P. L. 1866. Report on birds collected at Windvogelberg, South Africa, by Capt. G. E. Bulger, C. M. Z. S. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 21-23.

[SS66] Sclater, P. L., & O. Salvin. 1866. Catalogue of birds collected by Mr. E. Bartlett on the River Uyacali, Eastern Peru, with notes and descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 175-201.

[S70] Short, L. L. 1970. A reply to Uzzell and Ashmole. Systematic Zoology 19 (2): 199-202.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[S55] Steinbacher, J. 1955. Zur Morphologie und Anatomie des Zungenapparates brasilianischer Spechte. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 1-8.

[VP89] Viney, C., & K. Phillipps. 1989. Birds of Hong Kong 5th ed. Government Printer: Hong Kong.

[W66] Walden, A. 1866. Notes on birds collected in Tennasserim and in the Andaman Islands. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 537-556.

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