Downy woodpecker Picoides pubescens, photographed by Dan Sudia.

Belongs within: Picidae.

The Picoidini are an assemblage of small to medium-sized woodpeckers proposed to unite the Afrotropical woodpeckers with the Holarctic barred woodpeckers of the genus Picoides. This group is often referred to as the Campetherini, but Bock (1994) indicated that the name Picoidini has priority. Many authors divide the Picoides species between two genera, Picoides and Dendrocopos.

<==Picoidini [Dendrodrocopini]
    |--Campethera Gray 1837 [Campetherini] B94
    |    |--C. abingoni [incl. Dendrobates striatus Layard 1871] B93
    |    |--C. bennettii B93
    |    |    |--C. b. bennettii B93
    |    |    `--C. b. buysi Winterbottom 1966 B93
    |    `--C. nivosa FP64
    `--Picoides Lacépède 1799 M02 (see below for synonymy)
         |--P. borealis C98 [=Dendrocopos borealis USDI77]
         |--P. canicapillus VP89
         |--P. kizuki [=Dendrocopos kizuki] T89
         |--P. leucotos VP89 [=Dendrocopos leucotos I92]
         |    |--P. l. leucotos I92
         |    `--‘Dendrocopos’ l. owstoni (Ogawa 1905) I92
         |--‘Dendrocopos’ mahrattensis S02
         |--P. major (Linnaeus 1758) [=Picus major, Dendrocopos major; incl. D. major submajor Jánossy 1974] M02
         |    |--P. m. major VP89
         |    `--‘Dendrocopos’ m. mandarinus VP89
         |--P. medius (Linnaeus 1758) [=Picus medius, Dendrocopos medius; incl. D. praemedius Jánossy 1974] M02
         |--P. minor CM07 [=Dendrocopos minor WBSJ82]
         |--‘Dendrocopos’ nanus RD02
         |--P. pubescens YH01 [=Dendrocopos pubescens FP64, Dryobates pubescens CM07]
         |--P. syriacus [=Dendrocopos syriacus] CM07
         |--P. tridactylus I92
         |    |--P. t. tridactylus I92
         |    `--P. t. inouyei Yamashina 1943 I92
         `--‘Dendrocopos’ villosus FP64

Picoides Lacépède 1799 M02 [incl. Apternus Swainson 1837 B94, Dendrocopos Koch 1816 M02, Dryobates Boie 1826 B94; Apternini, Dendrocopini, Dryobatini]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1-281.

[B93] Brooke, R. K. 1993. Annotated catalogue of the Aves type specimens in the South African Museum. Annals of the South African Museum 102 (10): 327-349.

[C98] Cockburn, A. 1998. Evolution of helping behavior in cooperatively breeding birds. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 141-177.

[CM07] Cokendolpher, J. C., & P. G. Mitov. 2007. Natural enemies. In Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones (R. Pinto-da-Rocha, G. Machado & G. Giribet, eds) pp. 339-373. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[RD02] Robin, V. V., & P. Davidar. 2002. The vertical stratification of birds in mixed species flocks at Parambikulam, south India: a comparison between two habitats. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 389-399.

[S02] Santharam, V. 2002. Fruit and nectar resources in a moist deciduous forest and their use by birds – a preliminary report. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 537-543.

[T89] Takeshita, N. 1989. Nihon no Yachoo. Kogakukan: Tokyo.

[USDI77] USDI (United States Department of the Interior). 1977. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants - republication of list of species. Federal Register 42: 36420-36431.

[VP89] Viney, C., & K. Phillipps. 1989. Birds of Hong Kong 5th ed. Government Printer: Hong Kong.

[WBSJ82] Wild Bird Society of Japan. 1982. A Field Guide to the Birds of Japan. Kodansha International Ltd.: Tokyo.

[YH01] Yamagishi, S., M. Honda, K. Eguchi & R. Thorstrom. 2001. Extreme endemic radiation of the Malagasy vangas (Aves: Passeriformes). Journal of Molecular Evolution 53: 39-46.

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