Golden eagles Aquila chrysaetos, photographed by Matti Rekilä.

Belongs within: Aquilinae.

Aquila is a genus of large eagles found in Eurasia, Africa, North America and Australia. Circumscription of the genus has varied between authors and it may be expanded to include members of the related genus Hieraaetus.

<==Aquila Brisson 1760 CC10
    |  i. s.: A. bonellii C77
    |         A. corroyi Gaillard 1939 [=Aquilavus corroyi] M02
    |         A. delphinensis Gaillard 1939 M02
    |         A. fossilis Giebel 1847 M02
    |         A. hypogaea Milne-Edwards 1892 [=Aquilavus hypogaea, Aquilavus hypogaeus] M02
    |         A. occipitalis FP64
    |         A. pennatoides Gaillard 1939 M02
    |         A. prisca Milne-Edwards 1863 [=Aquilavus priscus, Eutolmaetus priscus, Nisaetus priscus] M02
    |--+--A. nipalensis JT12 [=A. rapax nipalensis VP89; incl. A. bifasciata S89]
    |  `--+--+--A. adalberti JT12 [=A. heliaca adalberti USDI77]
    |     |  `--A. heliaca JT12
    |     `--A. rapax (Temminck 1828) LM05, M02 [=Falco rapax M02]
    |          |--A. r. rapax S05
    |          `--A. r. belisarius (Levaillant 1850) [incl. Falco (Aquila) albicans Rüppell 1835] S05
    `--+--*A. chrysaetos (Linnaeus 1758) CC10, JT12, M02 (see below for synonymy)
       |    |--A. c. chrysaetos I92
       |    `--A. c. japonica Severtzov 1888 I92
       `--+--A. africana BKB15 [=Hieraaetus africanus LM05, Spizaetus africanus LM05]
          `--+--+--A. audax JT12
             |  |    |--A. a. audax M03
             |  |    `--A. a. fleayi M03
             |  `--A. gurneyi JT12
             `--+--A. verreauxii JT12
                `--+--A. fasciata Vieillot 1822 JT12, M02 [=Hieraaetus fasciatus M02]
                   `--A. spilogaster BKB15 [=Hieraaetus fasciatus spilogaster LM05]

*Aquila chrysaetos (Linnaeus 1758) CC10, JT12, M02 [=Falco chrysaetos CC10; incl. A. chrysaetos bonifacti Mourer-Chauviré 1975 M02, A. chrysaetos simurgh Weesie 1988 M02]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[C77] Cope, E. D. 1877. Report upon the extinct Vertebrata obtained in New Mexico by parties of the expedition of 1874. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (2): i–iv, 1–370.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[LM05] Lerner, H. R. L., & D. P. Mindell. 2005. Phylogeny of eagles, Old World vultures, and other Accipitridae based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 37: 327–346.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[M03] Morcombe, M. 2003. Field Guide to Australian Birds 2nd ed. Steve Parish Publishing.

[S89] Salvadori, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea nella Birmania e nelle regioni vicine. XIX.—Uccelli raccolti nei Monti Carin a nord-est di Tounghoo, nel Pegù presso Rangoon e Tounghoo e nel Tenasserim presso Malewoon. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 369–438.

[S05] Steinheimer, F. D. 2005. Eduard Rüppel’s avian types at the Natural History Museum, Tring (Aves). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (2): 233–264.

[USDI77] USDI (United States Department of the Interior). 1977. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants—republication of list of species. Federal Register 42: 36420–36431.

[VP89] Viney, C., & K. Phillipps. 1989. Birds of Hong Kong 5th ed. Government Printer: Hong Kong.

Worthy, T. H., & R. N. Holdaway. 2002. The Lost World of the Moa: Prehistoric life of New Zealand. Indiana University Press: Bloomington (Indiana).

Last updated: 5 August 2019.

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