Holotype of Primozygodactylus major, from here.

Belongs within: Neoaves.
Contains: Coliiformes, Strigiformes, Trogonidae, Coraciiformes, Piciformes, Bucerotidae, Upupiformes, Cathartae, Accipitridae, Cariamae, Falconidae, Psittaciformes, Passeriformes.

The name 'Anomalogonatae' has been used here for the clade of 'higher land birds' identified by molecular analysis (Hackett et al. 2008). This clade corresponds to the Anomalogonatae as it has been recognised previously on the basis of the absence of the musculus ambiens in the leg (Mayr et al. 2003), albeit with the exclusion of the Caprimulgiformes and Apodiformes, and the inclusion of the 'Falconiformes'. Recent molecular studies have agreed that the latter are polyphyletic within the higher land birds: the falcons form a clade with the cariamas, parrots and perching birds, while the remaining 'Falconiformes' are in a more basally placed clade.

<==Anomalogonatae (see below for synonymy)
    |--+--Coliiformes JT12
    |  `--+--+--Strigiformes JT12
    |     |  `--Messelasturidae M05b
    |     |       |--Messelastur Peters 1994 M05b
    |     |       |    `--*M. gratulator Peters 1994 M.02
    |     |       `--Tynskya Mayr 2000 M05b
    |     |            `--*T. eocaena Mayr 2000 Ml02
    |     `--+--Leptosomidae [Leptosomiformes] Ma02a
    |        |    |--Leptosomus Vieillot 1816 HK08, B94 (see below for synonymy)
    |        |    |    |--L. afer Sch66
    |        |    |    `--L. discolor Ma02a
    |        |    `--Plesiocathartes Gaillard 1908 Ma02a
    |        |         |--*P. europaeus Gaillard 1908 Ml02
    |        |         |--P. gaillardi Crusafont & Villalta 1955 Ma02a
    |        |         `--P. kelleri Mayr 2002 Ma02a
    |        `--+--Trogonidae HK08
    |           `--+--+--Coraciiformes Ma02a
    |              |  `--Piciformes HK08
    |              `--Bucerotes [Bucerotiformes] LZ07
    |                   |--Bucerotidae Ma02a
    |                   `--Upupiformes Ma02a
    `--+--+--Cathartae JT12
       |  `--+--Accipitridae HK08
       |     `--Sagittariidae [Gypogeranidae, Serpentariidae, Serpentariides] LZ07
       |          |--Sagittarius Hermann 1783 JT12, B94 (see below for synonymy)
       |          |    `--S. serpentarius HK08 [=Serpentarius serpentarius K08]
       |          `--Pelargopappus Stejneger 1885 M05a (see below for synonymy)
       |               `--*P. magnus (Milne-Edwards 1868) (see below for synonymy) Ml02
       `--+--+--Cariamae HK08
          |  `--Salmila Mayr 2000 [Salmilidae] Ma02b
          |       `--*S. robusta Mayr 2000 Ml02
          `--+--Falconidae HK08
             `--+--Psittaciformes HK08
                `--+--Passeriformes HK08
                   `--+--Zygodactylidae [Miopiconidae] M04
                      |    |--Miopico Mayr 1998 Ml02
                      |    |    `--M. benimellalensis Mayr 1998 Ml02
                      |    `--Zygodactylus Ballmann 1969 Ml02
                      |         |--*Z. ignotus Ballmann 1969 Ml02
                      |         `--Z. grivensis Ballmann 1969 Ml02
                      `--Primoscenidae [Primoscinidae] M04
                           |--Primoscens Harrison & Walker 1977 Ml02
                           |    `--*P. minutus Harrison & Walker 1977 Ml02
                           `--Primozygodactylus Mayr 1998 M04, Ml02
                                |--*P. danielsi Mayr 1998 Ml02
                                |--P. ballmanni Mayr 1998 Ml02
                                `--P. major Mayr 1998 Ml02

Anomalogonatae incertae sedis:
  Horusornis Mourer-Chauviré 1991 Ml02 [Horusornithidae M05b]
    `--*H. vianeyliaudae Mourer-Chauviré 1991 Ml02
  Parvulivenator Harrison 1982 M05a
    `--*P. watteli Harrison 1982 Ml02
  Stintonornis Harrison 1984 M05a
    `--*S. mitchelli Harrison 1984 Ml02
  Milvoides Harrison & Walker 1979 M05a
    `--*M. kempi Harrison & Walker 1979 Ml02
  Oxylophus glandarius Scl66
  Corythornis cristata Scl66

Anomalogonatae [Accipitres, Coracii, Coraciides, Diurni, Falcones, Falconides, Falconiformes, Falconimorphae, Falconoidea, Leptosomatoidea, Passerimorphae, Picariae, Picoclamatores, Raptores, Trogones, Trogonomorphae, Zygodactyli]

Leptosomus Vieillot 1816 HK08, B94 [=Leptosoma (l. c.) non Stafford 1904 B94; Leptosomatinae, Leptosominae]

Pelargopappus Stejneger 1885 M05a [=Pelargocrex Milne-Edwards 1893 Ml02, Pelargodes Lydekker 1891 Ml02, Pelargopsis Milne-Edwards 1868 non Gloger 1841 Ml02; incl. Amphiserpentarius Gaillard 1908 Ml02, Amynoptilon Cracraft & Rich 1972 Ml02]

*Pelargopappus magnus (Milne-Edwards 1868) [=Pelargopsis magnus, *Pelargocrex magnus, *Pelargodes magnus; incl. Serpentarius robustus Milne-Edwards 1870, Amphiserpentarius robustus, *Amynoptilon robustum, *Amphiserpentarius schlosseri Gaillard 1908, Pelargopappus schlosseri, Pelargopsis stehlini Gaillard 1908, Pelargodes stehlini, Pelargopappus stehlini, Pelargopsis trouessarti Gaillard 1908, Pelargodes trouessarti, Pelargopappus trouessarti] Ml02

Sagittarius Hermann 1783 HK08, B94 [incl. Gypogeranus Illiger 1811 B94, Serpentarius Cuvier 1798 B94]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1-281.

[HK08] Hackett, S. J., R. T. Kimball, S. Reddy, R. C. K. Bowie, E. L. Braun, M. J. Braun, J. L. Chojnowski, W. A. Cox, K.-L. Han, J. Harshman, C. J. Huddleston, B. D. Marks, K. J. Miglia, W. S. Moore, F. H. Sheldon, D. W. Steadman, C. C. Witt & T. Yuri. 2008. A phylogenomic study of birds reveals their evolutionary history. Science 320: 1763-1768.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444-448.

[K08] Kellogg, V. L. 1908. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Schwedischen Zoologischen Expedition nach dem Kilimandjaro, dem Meru und den Umgebenden Massaisteppen Deutsch-Ostafrikas 1905–1906, 15. Corrodentia, 4. Mallophaga. Almqvist & Wiksells Boktryckeri-A. B.: Uppsala.

[LZ07] Livezey, B. C., & R. L. Zusi. 2007. Higher-order phylogeny of modern birds (Theropoda, Aves: Neornithes) based on comparative anatomy. II. Analysis and discussion. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 149 (1): 1-95.

[Ma02a] Mayr, G. 2002a. A new species of Plesiocathartes (Aves: ?Leptosomidae) from the Middle Eocene of Messel, Germany. PaleoBios 22 (1): 10-20.

[Ma02b] Mayr, G. 2002b. A new specimen of Salmila robusta (Aves: Gruiformes: Salmilidae n. fam.) from the Middle Eocene of Messel. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 76 (2): 305-316.

[M04] Mayr, G. 2004. The phylogenetic relationships of the early Tertiary Primoscenidae and Sylphornithidae and the sister taxon of crown group piciform birds. Journal of Ornithology 145: 188-198.

[M05a] Mayr, G. 2005a. The Paleogene fossil record of birds in Europe. Biological Reviews 80: 515-542.

[M05b] Mayr, G. 2005b. The postcranial osteology and phylogenetic position of the Middle Eocene Messelastur gratulator Peters, 1994—a morphological link between owls (Strigiformes) and falconiform birds? Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 25 (3): 635-645.

Mayr, G., A. Manegold & U. S. Johansson. 2003. Monophyletic groups within ‘higher land birds’ – comparison of morphological and molecular data. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 41: 233-248.

[Ml02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[Sch66] Schlegel, H. 1866. Communication from, on mammals and birds collected in Madagascar. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 419-426.

[Scl66] Sclater, P. L. 1866. Report on birds collected at Windvogelberg, South Africa, by Capt. G. E. Bulger, C. M. Z. S. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 21-23.


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