Reconstruction of Palaeopalaemon newberryi, from Schram (2009).

Belongs within: Pancrustacea.
Contains: Thylacocephala, Hoplocarida, Decapoda, Anaspidacea, Bathynellacea, Euphausiacea, Thermosbaenacea, Mysidacea, Phreatoicidea, Scuticoxifera, Asellota, Microcerberidae, Cosinzeneacea, Cumacea, Tanaidacea, Amphipoda.

The Eumalacostraca is a clade containing most of the familiar macroscopic crustaceans, such as amphipods, isopods and shrimps. Living eumalacostracans are commonly divided between four major groups: the Hoplocarida (which some authors exclude from the Eumalacostraca), Syncarida, Peracarida and Eucarida. However, the monophyly of Eucarida, including the Decapoda, Euphausiacea and Amphionides, and characterised by the fusion of the carapace to the thoracic segments to form a cephalothorax, is uncertain. The Peracarida includes amphipods, isopods and related taxa; most peracarids possess a ventral brood pouch formed from thin flattened plates (oostegites) arising from the base of the legs.

Synapomorphies (from Ax 2000): First antenna and rostrum firmly fused to rest of head; statocyst present in basal segment of first antenna; pleon and tail fan developed as muscular structure for use in escape; mandibles of larva with row of setae between processus incisivus and processus molaris, and one seta on left mandible converted to lacinia mobilis.

<==Eumalacostraca [Eucarida]
    |  i. s.: Crangopsis cooperi [=Pygocephalus cooperi] S74
    |--Waterstonellidea B95
    |--Eocaridacea [Eocarida] S74
    |    |--Anthacophausia [Anthracophausiidae] S74
    |    |--Peachella strongi S74
    |    |--Eocaris Schr77 [Eocarididae S74]
    |    |    `--E. oervigi Brooks 1962 Schr77
    |    |--Belotelson [Belotelsonidae, Belotelsonidea] S74
    |    |    `--B. magister Packard 1886 S74
    |    |--Essoidia [Essoidiidae] S74
    |    |    `--E. epiceron Schram 1974 S74
    |    `--Palaeopalaemon Whitefield 1880 Schr77 [Palaeopalaemonidae S74]
    |         |--P. iowensis S74
    |         `--P. newberryi B95
    |--Thylacocephala LSE13
    `--+--Hoplocarida LSE13
       `--+--+--Amphionides [Amphionidacea, Amphionididae] LSE13
          |  `--Decapoda LSE13
          `--+--Syncarida S86
             |    |  i. s.: Allanaspides S86
             |    |         Acanthotelson [incl. Eileticus] WA04
             |    |           `--‘Eileticus’ anthracinus Scudder 1882 WA04
             |    |         Clarkecaris brazilicus (Clarke 1920) Schr77
             |    |--Anaspidacea LSE13
             |    |--Bathynellacea LSE13
             |    `--Palaeocaridacea MD01
             `--+--Euphausiacea LSE13
                `--Peracarida [Arthrostraca, Brachycarida, Edriophthalma, Hemicaridea] MD01
                     |--Thermosbaenacea LSE13
                     `--+--Mysidacea LSE13
                        `--+--Isopoda [Euisopoda, Normalia, Polygonata, Quatuordecempedes, Tetracera] BP03
                           |    |  i. s.: Albunione B02
                           |    |           |--A. australiana Markham & Boyko 1999 B02
                           |    |           `--A. indecora (Markham 1988) B02
                           |    |         Syscenus infelix K-M02
                           |    |         Holotelson tuberculatus KBC03
                           |    |         Hydroniscus lobocephalus B88
                           |    |         Palaega kunthi (Ammon 1882) GH05
                           |    |         Urda GH05
                           |    |           |--U. punctata Münster 1842 GH05
                           |    |           `--U. rostrata Münster 1840 GH05
                           |    |         Archaeoniscus brodiei Milne-Edwards 1843 GH05
                           |    |         Isocladus HS01
                           |    |           |--I. armatus HS01
                           |    |           `--I. dulciculus HS01
                           |    |         Batedotea elongatus HS01
                           |    |         Notatolana albicaudata HS01
                           |    |         Pentheus tuberculatus [=Armadillo tuberculatus] Schm77
                           |    |         Proteolepas bivincta G87
                           |    |         Oxyuropoda ligioides H47
                           |    |         Nodoplanulis Hussey 1943 LT64
                           |    |           `--*N. elongata Hussey 1943 LT64
                           |    |--Phreatoicidea BP03
                           |    `--+--Scuticoxifera LSE13
                           |       `--+--Calabozoa L86 [Calabozoida, Calabozoidea BP03]
                           |          |    `--*C. pellucida Van Lieshout 1983 L86
                           |          `--+--Asellota BP03
                           |             `--Microcerberidea BP03
                           |                  |--Microcerberidae MD01
                           |                  `--Atlantasellus Sket 1979 HLM86 [Atlantasellidae MD01]
                           |                       `--A. cavernicolus Sket 1979 HLM86
                           `--+--Cosinzeneacea LSE13
                              `--+--Cumacea LSE13
                                 `--+--Tanaidacea MD01
                                    `--Amphipoda LSE13

*Type species of generic name indicated


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[B95] Bousfield, E. L. 1995. A contribution to the natural classification of Lower and Middle Cambrian arthropods: food-gathering and feeding mechanisms. Amphipacifica 2: 3–34.

[B88] Boxshall, G. A. 1988. A new genus of tantulocaridan (Crustacea: Tantulocarida) parasitic on a harpacticoid copepod from Tasmania. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Zoology series 54 (6): 271–274.

[B02] Boyko, C. B. 2002. A worldwide revision of the recent and fossil sand crabs of the Albuneidae Stimpson and Blepharipodidae, new family (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura: Hippoidea). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 272: 1–396.

[BP03] Brandt, A. & G. C. B. Poore. 2003. Higher classification of the flabelliferan and related Isopoda based on a reappraisal of relationships. Invertebrate Systematics 17: 893–923.

[GH05] Gaillard, C., P. Hantzpergue, J. Vannier, A.-L. Margerard & J.-M. Mazin. 2005. Isopod trackways from the Crayssac Lagerstätte, Upper Jurassic, France. Palaeontology 48 (5): 947–962.

[G87] Grygier, M. J. 1987. New records, external and internal anatomy, and systematic position of Hansen’s y-larvae (Crustacea: Maxillopoda: Facetotecta). Sarsia 72: 261–278.

[H47] Hatch, M. H. 1947. The Chelifera and Isopoda of Washington and adjacent regions. University of Washington Publications in Biology 10 (5): 155–274.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45–80.

[HLM86] Henry, J.-P., J. J. Lewis & G. Magniez. 1986. Isopoda: Asellota: Aselloidea, Gnathostenetroidoidea, Stenetrioidea. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 434–464. E. J. Brill/Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[KBC03] Kashin, I. A., E. V. Bagaveeva & S. F. Chaplygina. 2003. Fouling communities of hydrotechnical constructions in Nakhodka Bay (Sea of Japan). Russian Journal of Marine Biology 29: 267–283.

[K-M02] Klein-MacPhee, G. 2002. Grenadiers. Family Macrouridae. In: Collette, B. B. & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 212–216. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[LSE13] Legg, D. A., M. D. Sutton & G. D. Edgecombe. 2013. Arthropod fossil data increase congruence of morphological and molecular phylogenies. Nature Communications 4 (2485): 1–7.

[L86] Lieshout, S. E. N. van. 1986. Isopoda: Calabozoidea. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 480-481. E. J. Brill/Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[LT64] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt. C. Protista 2, vol. 2. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[MD01] Martin, J. W., & G. E. Davis. 2001. An updated classification of the Recent Crustacea. Natural History Museum Los Angeles County, Science Series 39: 1–124.

[Schm77] Schmalfuss, H. 1977. Eine neue Nagurus-Art aus der Süd-Agäis (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscoidea: Trachelipidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (4–6): 359–365.

[S86] Schminke, H. K. 1986. Syncarida. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 389–404. E. J. Brill/Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[S74] Schram, F. R. 1974. Convergences between Late Paleozoic and modern caridoid Malacostraca. Systematic Zoology 23 (3): 323–332.

[Schr77] Schram, F. R. 1977. Paleozoogeography of Late Paleozoic and Triassic Malacostraca. Systematic Zoology 26 (4): 367–379.

[WA04] Wilson, H. M., & L. I. Anderson. 2004. Morphology and taxonomy of Paleozoic millipedes (Diplopoda: Chilognatha: Archipolypoda) from Scotland. Journal of Paleontology 78 (1): 169–184.

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