Amphiporus angulatus, photographed by Chris Harvey-Clark.

Belongs within: Monostilifera.

The Amphiporidae are a family of nemertean worms traditionally distinguished by the presence in most species of numerous (three or more) pairs of eyes. The molecular phylogenetic analysis of Thollesson & Norenburg (2003) indicated that the traditional 'Amphiporidae' is paraphyletic with regard to taxa previously included in Emplectonematidae, Ototyphlonemertidae and Prosorhochmidae, as well as the highly derived genus Malacobdella. Malacobdella species are commensal in the mantle cavities of bivalves to which they are attached by a posterior ventral sucker.

<==Amphiporidae [Emplectonematidae]
    |--Nemertopsis TN03
    |    |--N. bivittata (Delle Chiaje 1841) TN03
    |    `--N. peronea PP64
    |--+--Zygonemertes TN03
    |  |    |--Z. simonae Corrêa 1961 TN03
    |  |    `--Z. virescens (Verril 1879) TN03
    |  `--+--Poseidonemertes collaris Roe & Wickham 1984 TN03
    |     `--Ototyphlonemertes Diesing 1863 TN03, K86 [Ototyphlonemertidae]
    |          |--O. americana Gerner 1969 K86
    |          |--O. antipai Müller 1968 K86
    |          |--O. aurantiaca (Du Plessis 1891) K86
    |          |--O. aurita (Uljanin 1870) K86
    |          |--O. brevis Corrêa 1948 K86
    |          |--O. brunnea Bürger 1895 K86
    |          |--O. cirrula Mock & Schmidt 1975 K86
    |          |--O. duplex Bürger 1895 K86
    |          |--O. erneba Corrêa 1950 K86
    |          |--O. evelinae Corrêa 1948 K86
    |          |--O. fila Corrêa 1953 K86
    |          |--O. lactea Corrêa 1954 K86
    |          |--O. macintoshi Bürger 1895 K86
    |          |--O. pallida (Keferstein 1862) K86
    |          |--O. parmula Corrêa 1950 K86
    |          |--O. pellucida Coe 1943 K86
    |          |--O. santacruzensis Mock & Schmidt 1975 K86
    |          `--O. spiralis Coe 1940 K86
    `--+--+--Pantinonemertes californiensis Gibson, Moore & Crandall 1982 TN03, G02
       |  `--Malacobdella De Blainville 1827 TN03, K91 [Bdellomorpha, Bdellonemertea, Bdellonemertini, Malacobdellidae]
       |       |--*M. grossa (Müller 1776) [=Hirudo grossa] K91
       |       |--M. anceps (Dalyell 1853) [=Hirudo anceps] K91
       |       |--M. auriculae Blanchard 1847 (n. d.) K91
       |       |--M. cardii Hesse 1865 K91
       |       |--M. japonica Takakura 1897 K91
       |       |--M. macomae Kozloff 1991 K91
       |       |--M. mercenaria Verrill 1892 K91
       |       |--M. minuta Coe 1945 K91
       |       |--M. obesa Verrill 1892 K91
       |       |--M. siliquae Kozloff 1991 K91
       |       `--M. valenciennaei (Blanchard 1845) [=Xenistum valenciennaei] K91
       `--+--+--Emplectonema gracile (Johnston 1837) TN03
          |  `--Gurjanovella littoralis Ushakov 1926 TN03
          `--+--Emplectonema buergeri Coe 1901 TN03
             `--Amphiporus Ehrenberg 1831 TN03, G02
                  |  i. s.: A. bioculatus McIntosh 1873-1874 (n. d.) G02
                  |         A. hastatus McIntosh 1873-1874 (n. d.) G02
                  |         A. korschelti Friedrich 1940 (n. d.) G02
                  |         A. mortonmilleri Gibson 2002 G02
                  |         A. nebulosus Coe 1901 (n. d.) G02
                  |         A. novaezelandiae (Quoy & Gaimard 1833) (n. d.) (see below for synonymy) G02
                  |         A. ochraceus K92
                  |--+--A. formidabilis Griffin 1898 TN03
                  |  `--A. imparispinosus Griffin 1898 TN03
                  `--+--+--*A. lactifloreus (Johnston 1828) G02, TN03
                     |  `--A. angulatus (Müller 1774) TN03
                     `--Paranemertes TN03
                          |--P. biocellatus Coe 1944 G02
                          |--P. brattstroemi Friedrich 1970 G02
                          |--P. incola Iwata 1952 G02
                          |--P. peregrina Coe 1901 TN03
                          |--P. plana Iwata 1957 G02
                          `--P. sanjuanensis Stricker 1982 TN03

Amphiporidae incertae sedis:
  Correanemertes Kirsteuer 1967 G02
    |--*C. bioculatus Kirsteuer 1967 G02
    `--C. gordoni Gibson 2002 G02
  Ischyronemertes Gibson 1990 G02
    |--*I. albanyensis Gibson 1990 G02
    `--I. heterophthalma (Schmarda 1859) (see below for synonymy) G02
  Noteonemertes Gibson 2002 G02
    `--*N. novaezealandiae Gibson 2002 G02
  Parischyronemertes Gibson 2002 G02
    `--*P. mathesonensis Gibson 2002 G02

Amphiporus novaezelandiae (Quoy & Gaimard 1833) (n. d.) [=Borlasia novaezelandiae, A. novaezealandiae (l. c.), Drepanophorus novaezealandiae, Chlamydocephalus gaimardi Diesing 1850] G02

Ischyronemertes heterophthalma (Schmarda 1859) [=Ommatoplea heterophthalma, Amphiporus heterophthalmus, A. heterophthalma (l. c.)] G02

*Type species of generic name indicated


[G02] Gibson, R. 2002. The Invertebrate Fauna of New Zealand: Nemertea (ribbon worms). NIWA Biodiversity Memoir 118. National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research: Wellington.

[K86] Kirsteuer, E. 1986. Nemertina. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 72–75. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[K91] Kozloff, E. N. 1991. Malacobdella siliquae sp. nov. and Malacobdella macomae sp. nov., commensal nemerteans from bivalve molluscs on the Pacific coast of North America. Canadian Journal of Zoology 69: 1612–1618.

[K92] Kozloff, E. N. 1992. The genera of the phylum Orthonectida. Cahiers de Biologie Marine 33: 377–406.

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d'Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[TN03] Thollesson, M., & J. L. Norenburg. 2003. Ribbon worm relationships: a phylogeny of the phylum Nemertea. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B—Biological Sciences 270: 407–415.

Last updated: 6 March 2022.

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