Amphiporidae

Amphiporus angulatus, photographed by Chris Harvey-Clark.


Belongs within: Monostilifera.

The Amphiporidae are a family of nemertean worms traditionally distinguished by the presence in most species of numerous (three or more) pairs of eyes (Chernyshev 2005). The molecular phylogenetic analysis of Thollesson & Norenburg (2003) indicated that the traditional 'Amphiporidae' is paraphyletic with regard to taxa previously included in Emplectonematidae, Ototyphlonemertidae and Prosorhochmidae, as well as the highly derived parasitic genus Malacobdella.

<==Amphiporidae [Emplectonematidae]
    |  i. s.: Correanemertes Kirsteuer 1967 G02
    |           |--*C. bioculatus Kirsteuer 1967 G02
    |           `--C. gordoni Gibson 2002 G02
    |         Ischyronemertes Gibson 1990 G02
    |           |--*I. albanyensis Gibson 1990 G02
    |           `--I. heterophthalma (Schmarda 1859) (see below for synonymy)
    |         Noteonemertes Gibson 2002 G02
    |           `--*N. novaezealandiae Gibson 2002 G02
    |         Parischyronemertes Gibson 2002 G02
    |           `--*P. mathesonensis Gibson 2002 G02
    |--Nemertopsis bivittata (Delle Chiaje 1841) TN03
    |--+--Zygonemertes TN03
    |  |    |--Z. simonae Corrêa 1961 TN03
    |  |    `--Z. virescens (Verril 1879) TN03
    |  `--+--Poseidonemertes collaris Roe & Wickham 1984 TN03
    |     `--Ototyphlonemertes Diesing 1863 TN03, K86 [Ototyphlonemertidae]
    |          |--O. americana Gerner 1969 K86
    |          |--O. antipai Müller 1968 K86
    |          |--O. aurantiaca (Du Plessis 1891) K86
    |          |--O. aurita (Uljanin 1870) K86
    |          |--O. brevis Corrêa 1948 K86
    |          |--O. brunnea Bürger 1895 K86
    |          |--O. cirrula Mock & Schmidt 1975 K86
    |          |--O. duplex Bürger 1895 K86
    |          |--O. erneba Corrêa 1950 K86
    |          |--O. evelinae Corrêa 1948 K86
    |          |--O. fila Corrêa 1953 K86
    |          |--O. lactea Corrêa 1954 K86
    |          |--O. macintoshi Bürger 1895 K86
    |          |--O. pallida (Keferstein 1862) K86
    |          |--O. parmula Corrêa 1950 K86
    |          |--O. pellucida Coe 1943 K86
    |          |--O. santacruzensis Mock & Schmidt 1975 K86
    |          `--O. spiralis Coe 1940 K86
    `--+--+--Pantinonemertes californiensis Gibson, Moore & Crandall 1982 TN03, G02
       |  `--Malacobdella [Bdellonemertea, Malacobdellidae] TN03
       |       `--M. grossa (Müller 1776) TN03
       `--+--+--Emplectonema gracile (Johnston 1837) TN03
          |  `--Gurjanovella littoralis Ushakov 1926 TN03
          `--+--Emplectonema buergeri Coe 1901 TN03
             `--Amphiporus Ehrenberg 1831 TN03, G02
                  |  i. s.: A. bioculatus McIntosh 1873-1874 (n. d.) G02
                  |         A. hastatus McIntosh 1873-1874 (n. d.) G02
                  |         A. korschelti Friedrich 1940 (n. d.) G02
                  |         A. mortonmilleri Gibson 2002 G02
                  |         A. nebulosus Coe 1901 (n. d.) G02
                  |         A. novaezelandiae (Quoy & Gaimard 1833) (n. d.) (see below for synonymy) G02
                  |         A. ochraceus K92
                  |--+--A. formidabilis Griffin 1898 TN03
                  |  `--A. imparispinosus Griffin 1898 TN03
                  `--+--+--*A. lactifloreus (Johnston 1828) G02, TN03
                     |  `--A. angulatus (Müller 1774) TN03
                     `--Paranemertes TN03
                          |--P. biocellatus Coe 1944 G02
                          |--P. brattstroemi Friedrich 1970 G02
                          |--P. incola Iwata 1952 G02
                          |--P. peregrina Coe 1901 TN03
                          |--P. plana Iwata 1957 G02
                          `--P. sanjuanensis Stricker 1982 TN03

Amphiporus novaezelandiae (Quoy & Gaimard 1833) (n. d.) [=Borlasia novaezelandiae, A. novaezealandiae (l. c.), Drepanophorus novaezealandiae, Chlamydocephalus gaimardi Diesing 1850] G02

Ischyronemertes heterophthalma (Schmarda 1859) [=Ommatoplea heterophthalma, Amphiporus heterophthalmus, A. heterophthalma (l. c.)] G02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Chernyshev, A. V. 2005. System of families of enoplan nemerteans of the order Eumonostilifera (Nemertea: Enopla). Russian Journal of Marine Biology 31 (Suppl. 1): S27-S33.

[G02] Gibson, R. 2002. The Invertebrate Fauna of New Zealand: Nemertea (ribbon worms). NIWA Biodiversity Memoir 118. National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research: Wellington.

[K86] Kirsteuer, E. 1986. Nemertina. In Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) (L. Botosaneanu, ed.) pp. 72-75. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[K92] Kozloff, E. N. 1992. The genera of the phylum Orthonectida. Cahiers de Biologie Marine 33: 377-406.

[TN03] Thollesson, M., & J. L. Norenburg. 2003. Ribbon worm relationships: A phylogeny of the phylum Nemertea. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences 270: 407-415.

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