The New Zealand fur seal Arctocephalus forsteri, photographed by Mike Lehmann.

Belongs within: Carnivora.

The Otarioidea are the eared seals, the clade containing fur seals, sea lions and walruses. Eared seals differ from their sister group, the true seals, in retaining visible ear flaps, and being able to bring the hind flippers forward underneath the body for walking on land. Otarioids have a homodont dentition except in the basal Enaliarctos (Repenning 1976).

<=Otarioidea [Desmatophocidae] BDR85
    |  i. s.: Atopotarus Downs 1956 BDR85
    |         Prototaria Takeyama & Ozawa 1984 BDR85
    |           `--P. primigena Takeyama & Ozawa 1984 BDR85
    |         Oriensarctos Mitchell 1968 BDR85
    |--+--Pinnarctidion Barnes 1979 BDR85
    |  `--Allodesmus Kellogg 1922 [Allodesminae] BDR85
    |       |--A. courseni (Downs 1956) B76
    |       |--A. kernensis Kellogg 1922 BDR85
    |       `--A. packardi BDR85
    |--Odobenidae BDR85
    |    |  i. s.: Pliopedia Kellogg 1921 BDR85
    |    |         Ontocetus Leidy 1859 BDR85
    |    |           `--O. oxymycterus Kellogg 1925 B76
    |    |         Trichecodon Lankester 1865 BDR85
    |    |         Valenictus Mitchell 1961 BDR85
    |    |--Neotherium Kellogg 1931 BDR85
    |    |--+--Imagotaria Mitchell 1968 [Imagotariinae] BDR85
    |    |  |    `--I. downsi Mitchell 1968 Re76
    |    |  `--Pontoleon True 1905 [=Pontolis True 1906] BDR85
    |    |       `--‘Pontolis’ magnus (True 1905) Ra76
    |    `--+--Dusignathus Kellogg 1927 [Dusignathinae] BDR85
    |       `--+--+--Prorosmarus Berry & Gregory 1906 BDR85
    |          |  `--Alachtherium du Bus 1867 BDR85
    |          `--+--Aivukus Repenning & Tedford 1977 BDR85
    |             |    `--A. cedrosensis Repenning & Tedford 1977 BDR85
    |             `--Odobenus [incl. Hemicaulodon Cope 1869; Odobeninae] BDR85
    |                  `--O. rosmarus AA02
    `--+--Desmatophoca Condon 1906 [Desmatophocinae] BDR85
       |    `--D. oregonensis Condon 1906 Ra76
       `--+--Enaliarctidae BDR85
          |    |--Kamtschatarctos Dubrovo 1981 [Kamtschatarctinae] BDR85
          |    |    `--K. sinelnikovae Dubrovo 1981 BDR85
          |    `--Enaliarctinae BDR85
          |         |--Kolponomos clallamensis Stirton 1960 BDR85
          |         `--Enaliarctos Mitchell & Tedford 1973 BDR85
          |              `--E. mealsi Mitchell & Tedford 1973 BDR85
          `--Otariidae BDR85
               |--Pithanotaria Kellogg 1925 BDR85
               |    `--P. starri Kellogg 1925 B76
               `--+--Callorhinae BDR85
                  |    |--Callorhinus ursinus BDR85, G03
                  |    `--Thalassoleon Repenning & Tedford 1977 BDR85
                  `--Otariinae LA02
                       |--Otaria Péron 1816 AG06, C57 (see below for synonymy)
                       |    |--O. byronia (Blainville 1820) AG06, C57 (see below for synonymy)
                       |    |--O. flavescens (Shaw 1800) (see below for synonymy) C57
                       |    |--O. cinerea
                       |    `--O. hookeri
                       `--+--+--Zalophus Gill 1866 AG06, C57
                          |  |    |--Z. californianus M-GO01 (see below for synonymy)
                          |  |    |    |--Z. c. californianus I92
                          |  |    |    `--Z. c. japonicus (Peters 1866) I92
                          |  |    `--Z. wollebaeki Sivertsen 1953 C57 [=Z. californianus wollenbaeki BP87]
                          |  `--Eumetopias AG06
                          |       |--E. jubatus Schreber 1776 AG06, M76
                          |       `--E. ojiyaensis Horikawa 1981 BDR85
                          `--Arctocephalus Geoffroy & Cuvier 1826 AG06, C57 (see below for synonymy)
                               |  i. s.: A. galapagoensis Heller 1904 C57
                               |         A. gazella IT07
                               |         A. hookeri Gray 1866 W09
                               |         A. philippii BP87
                               |         A. tropicalis IT07
                               |         A. (Hydrarctos de Muizon 1978) BDR85
                               |--A. (Arctocephalus) pusillus AG06 [=Phoca pusilla C57; incl. *A. ursinus C57]
                               `--+--+--A. townsendi AG06
                                  |  `--+--A. australis (Zimmermann 1782) AG06, C57 (see below for synonymy)
                                  |     `--A. forsteri (Lesson 1828) AG06, W09 [=Otaria forsteri W09]
                                  `--+--Phocarctos hookeri AG06
                                     `--Neophoca AG06
                                          |--N. cinerea LA02
                                          |--N. hookeri BP87
                                          `--N. palatina King 1983 BDR85

Inorganic: Callorhinus ursinus minilorientalus Okamura 1987 O87
           Eumetopias jubata protominilorientalis Okamura 1987 O87
           Zalophus californianus minilorientalus Okamura 1987 O87
           Zalophus californianus protominilorientalus Okamura 1987 O87

Arctocephalus Geoffroy & Cuvier 1826 AG06, C57 [incl. Euotaria Gray 1866 C57, Gypsophoca Gray 1866 C57, Halarctus Gill 1866 C57; Arctocephalinae]

Arctocephalus australis (Zimmermann 1782) AG06, C57 [=Phoca australis C57, Otaria australis C57; incl. Otaria (Arctophoca) argentata Philippi in Peters 1871 C57, O. brachydactyla Philippi 1892 C57, Phoca falklandica Shaw 1800 C57, Arctocephalus falklandicus C57, Otaria falklandica C57, Phoca falclandica C57, Arctocephalus (Arctophoca) gracilis Nehring 1887 C57, A. grayii Scott 1873 C57, O. hauvilli Lesson 1827 C57, A. latirostris Gray 1872 C57, Euotaria latirostris C57, Otaria leucostoma Philippi 1892 C57, Phoca lupina Molina 1782 C57, Arctocephalus nigrescens Gray 1850 C57, Euotaria nigrescens C57, Otaria (Arctophoca) nigrescens C57, O. (A.) philippii Peters 1866 C57, Arctocephalus philippii C57, Phoca porcina Molina 1782 C57, Otaria porcina C57, O. shawii Lesson 1828 C57]

Otaria Péron 1816 AG06, C57 [incl. Otiphoca Blainville 1840 C57, Otoes Fischer 1817 C57, Platyrhincus Cuvier 1827 C57]

Otaria byronia (Blainville 1820) AG06, C57 [=Phoca byronia C57, Macrorhinus byronii C57, Mirounga byronii C57]

Otaria flavescens (Shaw 1800) [=Phoca flavescens; incl. Ph. aurita Bechstein 1800, Otaria chilensis Müller 1841, O. chonotica Philippi 1892, O. fulva Philippi 1892, O. godeffroyi Peters 1866, Phoca leonina Molina 1782 non Linnaeus 1758, *O. leonina, Platyrhincus leoninus, O. minor Gray 1874, O. molossina Lesson & Garnot 1826, Pl. molossinus, O. pernettyi Lesson 1828, O. pygmaea Gray 1874, O. rufa Philippi 1892, O. ulloae Tschudi 1844, Platyrhincus uraniae Lesson 1827, O. velutina Philippi 1892] C57

Zalophus californianus M-GO01 [=Otaria californiana C57; incl. O. gillespii C57, *Zalophus gillespii C57]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AA02] Arnason, U., J. A. Adegoke, K. Bodin, E. W. Born, Y. B. Esa, A. Gullberg, M. Nilsson, R. V. Short, X. Xu & A. Janke. 2002. Mammalian mitogenomic relationships and the root of the eutherian tree. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 99 (12): 8151-8156.

[AG06] Arnason, U., A. Gullberg, A. Janke, M. Kullberg, N. Lehman, E. A. Petrov & R. Väinölä. 2006. Pinniped phylogeny and a new hypothesis for their origin and dispersal. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 41 (2): 345-354.

[B76] Barnes, L. G. 1976. Outline of eastern North Pacific fossil cetacean assemblages. Systematic Zoology 25 (4): 321-343.

[BDR85] Barnes, L. G., D. P. Domning & C. E. Ray. 1985. Status of studies on fossil marine mammals. Marine Mammal Science 1 (1): 15-53.

[BP87] Burton, J. A., & B. Pearson. 1987. Collins Guide to the Rare Mammals of the World. Collins: London.

[C57] Cabrera, A. 1957. Catalogo de los mamiferos de America del Sur. I (Metatheria - Unguiculata - Carnivora). Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia” e Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de Las Ciencias Naturales, Ciencias Zoológicas 4 (1): 1-307.

[G03] Gingerich, P. D. 2003. Land-to-sea transition in early whales: Evolution of Eocene Archaeoceti (Cetacea) in relation to skeletal proportions and locomotion of living semiaquatic mammals. Paleobiology 29 (3): 429-454.

[IT07] Isaac, N. J. B., S. T. Turvey, B. Collen, C. Waterman & J. E. M. Baillie. 2007. Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny. PLoS One 2 (3): e296.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[LA02] Long, J., M. Archer, T. Flannery & S. Hand. 2002. Prehistoric Mammals of Australia and New Guinea: One Hundred Million Years of Evolution. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[M76] Masui, M. 1976. Nihon no Doobutsu. Kogakukan: Tokyo.

[M-GO01] Mignucci-Giannoni, A. A., & D. K. Odell. 2001. Tropical and subtropical records of hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) dispel the myth of extant Caribbean monk seals (Monachus tropicalis). Bulletin of Marine Science 68 (1): 47-58.

[O87] Okamura, C. 1987. New facts: Homo and all Vertebrata were born simultaneously in the former Paleozoic in Japan. Original Report of the Okamura Fossil Laboratory 15: 347-573.

[Ra76] Ray, C. E. 1976. Fossil marine mammals of Oregon. Systematic Zoology 25 (4): 420-436.

[Re76] Repenning, C. A. 1976. Adaptive evolution of sea lions and walruses. Systematic Zoology 25 (4): 375-390.

[S66] Sclater, P. L. 1866. Notice of some recent additions to the Society's menagerie. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 80.

[W09] Waite, E. R. 1909. Vertebrata of the Subantarctic islands of New Zealand. In Subantarctic Islands of New Zealand pp. 541-551. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

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