Posterior and dorsal views of Paeckelmanella dieneri, from Boucot et al. (1965).

Belongs within: Rhynchonellata.
Contains: Retziacea, Athyrisinidae, Delthyrididae, Hysterolitidae, Mucrospiriferinae, Cyrtiacea, Suessiacea, Spiriferinidae, Reticulariacea, Syringothyrididae, Costispiriferidae, Spiriferidae, Cyrtospiriferoidea, Brachythyrididae.

The Spiriferida were a lineage of brachiopods found from the Ordovician to the Jurassic (Prothero 1998). Many members of the spiriferidans in the Delthyridoidea and Spiriferidina possessed shells with broad lateral wings. The Delthyridoidea have a fimbriate growth fabric, with spinose projections on the margins of growth lamellae. In members of the Upper Silurian to Triassic Retziidina, the laterally directed spiralia are connected by medially directed crural loops (Boucot et al. 1965). The Verneuliidae are a unique family within the Spiriferida in possessing a shell morphology with opposed folding of the anterior shell margins, and lacking dental plates or adminicula, but were regarded by Sun et al. (2004) as derived within the Spiriferidina.

Characters (from Prothero 1998): Brachidia spiral. Shells usually highly biconvex; radial costae well developed; large interarea present on ventral valve.

    |  i. s.: Clavigera Hector 1879 (see below for synonymy) BJ65
    |           |--*C. bisulcata Hector in Thomson 1913 [=*Hectoria bisulcata, *Hectorina bisulcata] BJ65
    |           |--C. cuneiformis [=Hectoria cuneiformis, Hectorina cuneiformis] F27
    |           `--C. tumida BJ65
    |--Retziidina [Retzioidea] BJ65
    |    |--Retziacea BJ65
    |    `--Athyrisinidae BJ65
    |--Delthyridoidea [Delthyridina] RG04
    |    |--Delthyrididae M03
    |    |--Hysterolitidae RG04
    |    `--Mucrospiriferidae RG04
    |         |  i. s.: Amoenospirifer Havlíček 1957 BJ65
    |         |           `--*A. thetidis (Barrande 1848) [=Spirifer thetidis] BJ65
    |         |         Brevispirifer Cooper 1942 BJ65
    |         |           `--*B. gregarius (Clapp 1857) [=Spirifer gregaria] BJ65
    |         |         Strophopleura Stainbrook 1947 BJ65
    |         |           |--*S. notabilis (Kindle 1909) [=Spirifer notabilis] BJ65
    |         |           `--S. raymondi N79
    |         |         Tylothyris North 1920 (see below for synonymy) BJ65
    |         |           |--*T. laminosa M’Coy 1844 [=Cyrtia laminosa] BJ65
    |         |           |--‘Spirifer’ bouchardi Murchison 1840 [=*Bouchardopsis bouchardi] BJ65
    |         |           `--T. mesocostalis N79
    |         `--Mucrospiriferinae RG04
    `--Spiriferidina SB04
         |  i. s.: Verneuiliidae [Verneuilinae] SB04
         |           |--Minythyra Brunton 1984 SB04
         |           |--Nuguschella Tjazheva 1960 SB04
         |           |--Changshunella Sun, Baliński et al. 2004 SB04
         |           |    `--*C. yangi Sun, Baliński et al. 2004 SB04
         |           `--Verneuilia Hall & Clarke 1893 SB04
         |                |--*V. cheiroptyx (d’Archiac & de Verneuil 1842) [=Spirifer cheiroptyx] BJ65
         |                |--V. langenstrasseni SB04
         |                `--V. oceani SB04
         |--Cyrtiacea BJ65
         |--Suessiacea BJ65
         |--Spiriferinidae BJ65
         |--Reticulariacea BJ65
         `--Spiriferacea BJ65
              |  i. s.: Fimbrispirifer Cooper 1942 [Fimbrispiriferidae] BJ65
              |           |--*F. venustus (Hall 1860) [=Spirifer venustus] BJ65
              |           `--F. divaricatus N79
              |         Syringothyrididae BJ65
              |         Costispiriferidae BJ65
              |         Thomasaria Stainbrook 1945 BJ65
              |           `--*T. altumbona Stainbrook 1945 BJ65
              |--Spiriferidae SB04
              |--Cyrtospiriferoidea BJ65
              |--Brachythyrididae SB04
              `--Paeckelmanelloidea SB04
                   |--Voiseyella SB04
                   `--Paeckelmanella Likharev 1934 BJ65
                        |--*P. dieneri (Chernyshev 1902) [=Spirifer dieneri] BJ65
                        `--P. quadriplicata DX84

Clavigera Hector 1879 [=Clavigerina (l. c.), Hectoria Trechmann 1918 nec Castelnau 1873 nec Tepper 1889, Hectorina Finlay 1927] BJ65

Tylothyris North 1920 [incl. Bouchardopsis Maillieux 1933 (n. n.), Welleria Maillieux 1931 (n. n.) nec Ulrich & Bassler 1923 nec Rotai 1941] BJ65

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BJ65] Boucot, A. J., J. G. Johnson, C. W. Pitrat & R. D. Staton. 1965. Spiriferida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt H. Brachiopoda vol. 2 pp. H632–H728. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas Press: Lawrence (Kansas).

[DX84] Ding Y., Xia G., Duan C., Li W., Liu X. & Liang Z. 1984. Study on the early Permian stratigraphy and fauna in Zhesi district, Nei Mongol Zizhiqu (Inner Mongolia). Bulletin Tianjin Institure Geol. Min. Res. 10.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[M03] Modzalevskaya, T. L. 2003. Silurian and Devonian brachiopods from Severnaya Zemlya (Russian Arctic). Geodiversitas 25 (1): 73–107.

[N79] Norris, A. W. 1979. Devonian in the Western Hemisphere. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A218–A253. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[RG04] Racheboeuf, P. R., R. Gourvennec, M. Deynoux & D. Brice. 2004. The Devonian of the Hodh area (Islamic Republic of Mauritania): paleontology and stratigraphy. Journal of Paleontology 78 (1): 98–110.

[SB04] Sun, Y., A. Baliński, X. Ma & Y. Zhang. 2004. New bizarre micro-spiriferid brachiopod from the Early Carboniferous of China. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 49 (2): 267–274.

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