Amphipoda

Epimeria georgiana, photographed by Gauthier Chapelle.


Belongs within: Eumalacostraca.
Contains: Cyamidae, Caprellida, Ingolfiellidae, Physocephalata, Talitroidea, Liljeborgioidea, Corophioidea, Phoxocephaloidea, Lysianassidae, Stegocephalidae, Ampelisca, Metopidae, Eophliantidae, Acanthonotozomatidae, Oedicerotidae, Dexaminidae, Pontoporeioidea, Gammaroidea, Melitoidea, Crangonyctoidea, Melphidippoidea, Eusiridae, Pontogeneiidae, Pleustidae.

The Amphipoda are a large group of crustaceans found in both marine and fresh water, with a relatively small number of terrestrial species. Most species are strongly laterally compressed, and the legs are often divided between foreward-pointing anterior and backward-pointing posterior legs (from which are derived the name 'amphipod').

Characters (from Stock 1986a): Generally slender and laterally compressed body. Thoracomere I fused with cephalosome. Antennae well developed, antenna 1 may bear accessory flagellum, antenna 2 may bear sensory structures (calceoli). All mouthparts clustered beneath cephalosome. Seven pairs of uniramous legs; dactyls of P1-P4 directed posteriad, of P5-P7 directed anteriad. Coxal gills associated with several coxae; sternal gills may be present or absent. Brood-plates (oostegites) associated with certain coxae. Seven leg-bearing somites followed by three pleosomites bearing pleopods and (usually) lateral epimeral plates; pleopods generally biramous and multiarticulate (sometimes reduced). Posterior end of body with three urosomites (sometimes fused) with biramous uropods; uropods 1 and 2 with one-segmented rami; rami of uropod 3 one- or two-segmented or absent. Telson completely cleft, bifid, emarginate or entire.

<==Amphipoda
    |  i. s.: Astyra [Astyridae] BV01
    |           `--A. abyssi BV01
    |         Unicola inermis K-M02a
    |         Lafystius morhuanus K-M02a
    |         Amphitoe parasitica BK77
    |         Metope KBC03
    |         Mesostenothoides nenoi KBC03
    |         Paracalliopiella litoralis KBC03
    |         Parallorchestes ochotensis KBC03
    |         Pareurystheus KBC03
    |           |--P. anamae KBC03
    |           `--P. gurjanovae KBC03
    |         Stenothoides bassarginensis KBC03
    |         Parharpinia simplex KBC03
    |         Sandro starmuhlneri W86
    |         Tegano seticornis W86
    |         Alicella gigantea CH97
    |         Atyloides gabrieli N26
    |         Trichophoxus chelatus HS01
    |         Waipirophoxus australis HS01
    |         Parawaldeckia thomsoni HS01
    |         Paradexamine pacifica HS01
    |         Torridoharpinia hurleyi HS01
    |         Paracentromedon manene HS01
    |         Pseudamphithoides incurvaria DH90
    |         Lilljeborgiella Schellenberg 1931 MD01
    |--Caprellidea MD01
    |    |--Cyamidae MD01
    |    `--Caprellida MD01
    |--Ingolfiellidea S86c
    |    |--Ingolfiellidae W86
    |    `--Metaingolfiella Ruffo 1969 [Metaingolfiellidae] S86c
    |         `--M. mirabilis Ruffo 1969 S86c
    |--Hyperiidea MD01
    |    |  i. s.: Euthemisto B26
    |    |           |--E. bispinosa B26
    |    |           |--E. compressa B26
    |    |           `--E. libellula B26
    |    |         Hyperoche tauriformis B26
    |    |         Parathemisto B26
    |    |           |--P. guadichaudii W81
    |    |           `--P. oblivia B26
    |    |         Phronimella elongata B26
    |    |--Physocephalata MD01
    |    `--Physosomata MD01
    |         |--Lanceoloidea MD01
    |         |    |--Chuneolidae MD01
    |         |    |--Lanceolidae MD01
    |         |    `--Microphasmatidae MD01
    |         `--Scinoidea MD01
    |              |--Archaeoscinidae MD01
    |              |--Mimonectidae MD01
    |              |--Proscinidae MD01
    |              `--Scinidae MD01
    `--Gammaridea [Haustorioidea] S86a
         |  i. s.: Pardaliscidae S86a
         |           |--Nicippe S86b
         |           `--Spelaeonicippe Stock & Vermeulen 1982 S86b
         |                |--S. buchi (Andres 1975) S86b
         |                `--S. provo Stovk & Vermeulen 1982 S86b
         |         Pygocrangonyx Karaman & Barnard 1979 R86
         |           `--P. remyi (Balazuc & Ruffo 1953) [=Metacrangonyx remyi] R86
         |         Talitroidea S86a
         |         Liljeborgioidea S86a
         |         Corophioidea M81
         |         Phoxocephaloidea S86a
         |         Lysianassoidea BV01
         |           |--Lysianassidae N39
         |           |--Uristes N38 [Uristidae MD01]
         |           |    `--U. gigas [incl. Tryphosa antennipotens] N38
         |           |--Aristias N38 [Aristiidae MD01]
         |           |    |--A. antarcticus N38
         |           |    |--A. collinus N38
         |           |    `--A. neglectus Hansen 1887 BD95
         |           |--Podoprion BD95 [Podoprionidae MD01]
         |           |    `--P. bolivari Chevreux 1891 BD95
         |           `--Scopelocheirus BD95 [Scopelocheiridae MD01]
         |                `--S. hopei (Costa 18510 BD95
         |         Stegocephalidae N38
         |         Ampeliscidae N38
         |           |--Ampelisca N38
         |           `--Haploops BD95
         |                |--H. dellavallei Chevreux 1900 BD95
         |                `--H. nirae Kaim-Malka 1976 BD95
         |         Leucothoe N38 [Leucothoidae B77]
         |           |--L. incisa Robertson 1892 BD95
         |           |--L. lilljeborgi Boeck 1861 BD95
         |           |--L. occulta Krapp-Schickel 1975 BD95
         |           |--L. pachycera Della Valle 1893 BD95
         |           |--L. richiardii Lessona 1865 BD95
         |           |--L. serraticarpa Della Valle 1893 BD95
         |           |--L. spinicarpa (Abildgaard 1789) BD95
         |           `--L. venetiarum Giordani Soika 1950 BD95
         |         Metopidae N38
         |         Pagetinidae N38
         |           |--Pagetina N38
         |           `--Heterocressa Nicholls 1938 N38
         |                `--*H. monodi Nicholls 1938 N38
         |         Phliantidae [Phliasidae] N39
         |           |--Iphinotus N39
         |           |--Pereionotus testudo (Montagu 1808) BD95
         |           |--Heterophlias seclusus N39
         |           |--Quasimodia barnardi N39
         |           `--Phlias [Phliantinae] N39
         |                `--P. serratus N39
         |         Eophliantidae N39
         |         Colomastix [Colomastigidae] N38
         |           |--C. brazieri N38
         |           |--C. fissilingua N38
         |           |--C. pusilla Grube 1861 BD95
         |           `--C. simplicicauda Nicholls 1938 N38
         |         Acanthonotozomatidae N38
         |         Oedicerotidae N38
         |         Dexaminidae N38
         |         Joubinella ciliata N38
         |         Thaumatelson N38
         |           |--T. cultricauda N38
         |           `--T. walkeri N38
         |         Prothaumatelson nasutum N38
         |         Cressidae N38
         |         ‘Iphimediopsis’ Schellenberg 1931 non Della Valla 1893 N38
         |         Caspicola Birstein 1945 [Caspicolidae, Caspiellidae] B77
         |           `--*C. knipovitschi (Derzhavin 1944) [=Caspiella knipovitschi] B77
         |         Acanthonotozomella N38 [Acanthonotozomellidae MD01]
         |           |--A. alata N38
         |           `--A. oatesi N38
         |         Amathillopsidae MD01
         |         Amphilochidae MD01
         |           |--Amphilochus BV01
         |           |    |--A. brunneus Della Valle 1893 BD95
         |           |    |--A. manudens BV01
         |           |    `--A. neapolitanus Della Valle 1893 BD95
         |           |--Amphilochoides serratipes (Norman 1869) [incl. A. longimanus (Chevreux 1888)] BD95
         |           |--Gitana sarsi Boeck 1871 BD95
         |           `--Peltocoxa marioni Catta 1875 BD95
         |         Ampithoidae MD01
         |           |--Ampithoe BD95
         |           |    |--A. ferox (Chevreux 1902) BD95
         |           |    |--A. gammaroides (Bate 1856) [=Pleonexes gammaroides] BD95
         |           |    |--A. helleri Karaman 1875 BD95
         |           |    |--A. ramondi Audouin 1826 BD95
         |           |    `--A. riedli Schickel 1968 BD95
         |           |--Cymadusa filosa Savigny 1816 BD95
         |           |--Grubia hirsuta (Chevreux 1900) BD95
         |           `--Sunamphithoe pelagica (Milne Edwards 1830) BD95
         |         Anamixidae MD01
         |         Bolttsiidae MD01
         |         Cardenioidae MD01
         |         Cheidae MD01
         |         Clarenciidae MD01
         |         Condukiidae MD01
         |         Cyphocarididae MD01
         |         Cyproideidae MD01
         |         Didymocheliidae MD01
         |         Dikwidae MD01
         |         Dulichiidae MD01
         |         Endevouridae MD01
         |         Exoedicerotidae MD01
         |         Gammaroporeiidae MD01
         |         Hyperiopsidae MD01
         |         Iciliidae MD01
         |         Ipanemidae MD01
         |         Iphimediidae MD01
         |           |--Coboldus nitior Krapp-Schickel 1974 BD95
         |           `--Iphimedia BD95
         |                |--I. eblanae Bate 1857 BD95
         |                |--I. gibbula Ruffo & Schiecke 1979 BD95
         |                `--I. minuta Sars 1882 [=Panoplea minuta] BD95
         |         Kuria Walker 1903 N39 [Kuriidae MD01]
         |           `--K. longimana Walker 1903 N39
         |         Laphystiidae MD01
         |         Laphystiopsidae MD01
         |         Maxillipiidae MD01
         |         Najna KBC03 [Najnidae MD01]
         |           `--N. consiliorum KBC03
         |         Nihotungidae MD01
         |         Ochlesis BV01 [Ochlesidae MD01]
         |           `--O. lewetzowi BV01
         |         Odius Lilljeborg 1866 C92 [Odiidae MD01]
         |         Opisa K-M02b [Opisidae MD01]
         |           `--O. eschrichti K-M02b
         |         Paracalliope W86 [Paracalliopidae MD01]
         |           |--P. fluviatilis H97
         |           `--P. novizelandiae HS01
         |         Phoxocephalopsidae MD01
         |         Platyischnopidae MD01
         |         Plioplateidae MD01
         |         Priscomilitaridae MD01
         |         Pseudamphilochidae MD01
         |         Sinurothoidae MD01
         |         Stenothoe BD95 [Stenothoidae B77]
         |           |--S. monoculoides (Montagu 1808) BD95
         |           |--S. spinimana Chevreux 1911 BD95
         |           `--S. tergestina (Nebeski 1880) BD95
         |         Stilipedidae MD01
         |         Temnophliantidae MD01
         |         Trischizostomatidae MD01
         |         Tulearidae MD01
         |         Urohaustoriidae MD01
         |         Valettidae MD01
         |         Vicmusiidae MD01
         |         Vitjazianidae MD01
         |         Wandinidae MD01
         |         Zobrachoidae MD01
         |--+--Pontoporeioidea VVP01
         |  `--+--Gammaroidea VVP01
         |     |--Melitoidea B77
         |     |--Crangonyctoidea B77
         |     `--Melphidippoidea B77
         `--Eusiroidea VVP01
              |--Eusiridae B77
              |--Pontogeneiidae B77
              |--Bateidae B77
              |--Pleustidae B77
              |--Paraleptamphopus Stebbing 1906 W86 [Paraleptamphopidae MD01]
              |    `--P. subterraneus (Chilton 1882) W86
              |--Parampithoidae N38
              |    |--Epimeriella walkeri N38
              |    `--Pseudepimeria grandirostris N38
              `--Epimeria VVP01 [Epimeriidae MD01]
                   |--E. georgiana VVP01
                   |--E. inermis N38
                   `--E. macrodonta N38

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BD95] Bakalem, A. & J.-C. Dauvin. 1995. Inventaire des crustacés amphipodes (Gammaridea, Caprellidea, Hyperiidea) des costes d'Algérie: essai de synthèse. Mésogée 54: 49-62.

[BK77] Barel, C. D. N., & P. G. N. Kramers. 1977. A survey of the echinoderm associates of the north-east Atlantic area. Zoologische Verhandelingen 156: 1-159.

[BV01] Berge, J., & W. Vader. 2001. Revision of the amphipod (Crustacea) family Stegocephalidae. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 133: 531-592.

[B26] Bigelow, H. B. 1926. Plankton of the offshore waters of the Gulf of Maine. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries 40 (2): 1-509.

[B77] Bousfield, E. L. 1977. A new look at the systematics of gammaroidean amphipods of the world. Crustaceana Suppl. 4: 282-316.

[CH97] Castro, P., & M. E. Huber. 1997. Marine Biology, 2nd ed. WCB McGraw-Hill: Boston.

[C92] Crawford, R. L. 1992. Catalogue of the genera and type species of the harvestman superfamily Phalangioidea (Arachnida). Burke Museum Contributions in Anthropology and Natural History 8: 1-60.

[DH90] Duffy, J. E., & M. E. Hay. 1990. Seaweed adaptations to herbivory. BioScience 40 (5): 368-375.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45-80.

[H97] Hicks, B. J. 1997. Food webs in forest and pasture streams in the Waikato region, New Zealand: A study based on analyses of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen, and fish gut contents. New Zealand Journal of Freshwater and Marine Research 31: 651-664.

[KBC03] Kashin, I. A., E. V. Bagaveeva & S. F. Chaplygina. 2003. Fouling communities of hydrotechnical constructions in Nakhodka Bay (Sea of Japan). Russian Journal of Marine Biology 29: 267-283.

[K-M02a] Klein-MacPhee, G. 2002a. Sculpins. Family Cottidae. In Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds) 3rd ed. pp. 346-357. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[K-M02b] Klein-MacPhee, G. 2002b. Righteye flounders. Family Pleuronectidae. In Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds) 3rd ed. pp. 560-587. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[MD01] Martin, J. W., & G. E. Davis. 2001. An updated classification of the Recent Crustacea. Natural History Museum Los Angeles County, Science Series 39: 1-124.

[M81] Myers, A. A. 1981. Amphipod Crustacea I. Family Aoridae. Memoirs of the Hourglass Cruises 5 (5): 1-75.

[N26] Nicholls, G. E. 1926. Description of a new genus and two new species of blind freshwater amphipods from Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 12 (12): 105-111.

[N38] Nicholls, G. E. 1938. Australasian Antarctic Expedition 1911-1914. Under the Leadership of Sir Douglas Mawson, O.B.E., B.E., D.Sc., F. R. S. Scientific Reports. Series C – Zoology and Botany vol. II, pt. 4. Amphipoda Gammaridea. David Harold Paisley, Government Printer: Sydney (Australia).

[N39] Nicholls, G. E. 1939. The Prophliantidae: a proposed new family of Amphipoda, with description of a new genus and four new species. Records of the South Australian Museum 6 (3): 309-334.

[R86] Ruffo, S. 1986. Amphipoda: Groupe Metacrangonyx. In Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) (L. Botosaneanu, ed.) pp. 550-552. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[S86a] Stock, J. H. 1986a. Order Amphipoda: An introduction. In Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) (L. Botosaneanu, ed.) pp. 494-496. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[S86b] Stock, J. H. 1986b. Amphipoda: Pardaliscidae. In Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) (L. Botosaneanu, ed.) p. 567. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[S86c] Stock, J. H. 1986c. Amphipoda: Ingolfiellidea. In Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) (L. Botosaneanu, ed.) pp. 581-584. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[VVP01] Väinölä, R., J. K. Vainio & J. U. Palo. 2001. Phylogeography of “glacial relict” Gammaracanthus (Crustacea, Amphipoda) from boreal lakes and the Caspian and White Seas. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 58: 2247-2257.

[W81] Watson, L. 1981. Sea Guide to Whales of the World. Hutchinson: London.

[W86] Williams, W. D. 1986. Amphipoda on land-masses derived from Gondwana. In Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) (L. Botosaneanu, ed.) pp. 553-559. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

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