Epimeria georgiana, photographed by Gauthier Chapelle.

Belongs within: Eumalacostraca.
Contains: Ingolfiellidae, Physocephalata, Physosomata, Pardaliscoidea, Phoxocephaloidea, Ampelisca, Oedicerotidae, Dexaminidae, Cyproideidae, Haustoroidea, Synopioidea, Eusiridae, Paramphithoidae, Melphidippoidea, Senticaudata, Leucothoidea, Liljeborgioidea, Stegocephalidae, Acanthonotozomatidae, Lysianassidae.

The Amphipoda are a large group of crustaceans found in both marine and fresh water with a relatively small number of terrestrial species. Most species are strongly laterally compressed and the legs are often divided between foreward-pointing anterior and backward-pointing posterior legs (from which are derived the name 'amphipod'). The classification of amphipods has long been uncertain with the planktonic Hyperiidea and stygofaunal Ingolfiellidea typically recognised as separate suborders whereas more generalised amphipods are commonly bundled into a poorly defined Gammaridea.

Characters (from Stock 1986a): Generally slender and laterally compressed body. Thoracomere I fused with cephalosome. Antennae well developed, antenna 1 may bear accessory flagellum, antenna 2 may bear sensory structures (calceoli). All mouthparts clustered beneath cephalosome. Seven pairs of uniramous legs; dactyls of P1-P4 directed posteriad, of P5-P7 directed anteriad. Coxal gills associated with several coxae; sternal gills may be present or absent. Brood-plates (oostegites) associated with certain coxae. Seven leg-bearing somites followed by three pleosomites bearing pleopods and (usually) lateral epimeral plates; pleopods generally biramous and multiarticulate (sometimes reduced). Posterior end of body with three urosomites (sometimes fused) with biramous uropods; uropods 1 and 2 with one-segmented rami; rami of uropod 3 one- or two-segmented or absent. Telson completely cleft, bifid, emarginate or entire.

    |--Ingolfiellidea LM13
    |    |--Ingolfiellidae W86
    |    |--Metaingolfiella Ruffo 1969 LM13 [Metaingolfiellidae S86b]
    |    |    `--M. mirabilis Ruffo 1969 S86b
    |    `--Pseudingolfiella Noodt 1965 [Pseudingolfiellidae] LM13
    |         |--*P. chilensis (Noodt 1959) [=Ingolfiella chilensis] B77
    |         `--P. soyeri Coineau 1977 CS86
    |--Hyperiidea LM13
    |    |  i. s.: Phronimella elongata B26
    |    |         Tryphaenidae N00a
    |    |           |--Tryphaena malmii Boeck 1870 (see below for synonymy) N00a
    |    |           |--Brachyscelus Spence Bate 1861 [incl. Thamyris Spence Bate 1862, Schnehagenia Claus 1871] N00a
    |    |           |    |--B. crustulum Spence Bate 1861 [=Thamyris crustulum; incl. T. mediterranea Claus 1887] N00a
    |    |           |    `--‘Thamyris’ globiceps N00a
    |    |           `--Lycaea robusta Claus 1887 N00a
    |    |--Physocephalata B83
    |    `--Physosomata B83
    `--Gammaridea [Haustorioidea] LM13
         |  i. s.: Pardaliscoidea S86a
         |         Phoxocephaloidea S86a
         |         Ampeliscidae [Ampeliscoidea] B83
         |           |--Ampelisca N38
         |           |--Triodos Barnard 1916 B69
         |           |    `--*T. insignis Barnard 1916 B69
         |           |--Byblis Boeck 1871 B69
         |           |    |--*B. gaimardii (Krøyer 1846) [=Ampelisia (l. c. for Ampelisca) gaimardii] B69
         |           |    |--B. erythrops Sars 1882 N00c
         |           |    `--B. longicornis S00
         |           |--Byblisoides Barnard 1931 B69
         |           |    |--*B. juxticornis Barnard 1931 B69
         |           |    `--B. arcillis B69
         |           `--Haploops Liljeborg 1856 B69
         |                |--*H. tubicola Liljeborg 1856 B69 [incl. H. carinata Lilljeborg 1855 N00]
         |                |--H. dellavallei Chevreux 1900 BD95
         |                |--H. nirae Kaim-Malka 1976 BD95
         |                `--H. setosa Boeck 1870 N00
         |         Oedicerotoidea B83
         |           |--Oedicerotidae B83
         |           `--+--Kanaloa B83
         |              `--Paracalliope Stebbing 1899 B83, B69 [Paracalliopidae MD01]
         |                   |--*P. fluviatilis (Thomson 1879) [=Calliope fluviatilis] B69
         |                   `--P. novizealandiae (Dana 1853) [=Oedicerus novizealandiae, Carolobatea novizealandiae] B69
         |         Dexaminoidea B83
         |           |--Dexaminidae B83
         |           |--Anatylus Bulycheva 1955 B69 [Anatylidae B83, Anatylinae]
         |           |    `--*A. pavlovskii Bulycheva 1955 B69
         |           `--Prophliantidae [Prophliantinae] B83
         |                |--Prophlias Nicholls 1939 N39
         |                |    `--*P. anomalus Nicholls 1939 N39
         |                `--Haustoriopsis Schellenberg 1938 B69
         |                     `--*H. reticulatus Schellenberg 1938 B69
         |         Acanthonotozomella Schellenberg 1926 B69 [Acanthonotozomellidae MD01]
         |           `--*A. alata Schellenberg 1926 B69
         |         Bolttsiidae MD01
         |         ‘Clarencia’ Barnard 1931 non Sloane 1917 B69 [Clarenciidae MD01]
         |           `--*C. chelata Barnard 1932 B69
         |         Cyphocaris Boeck 1871 B69 [Cyphocarididae MD01]
         |           `--*C. anonyx Boeck 1871 B69
         |         Cyproideidae MD01
         |         Didymocheila Barnard 1931 B69 [Didymocheliidae MD01]
         |           `--*D. spongicola Barnard 1931 B69
         |         Dikwidae MD01
         |         Endeavoura Chilton 1921 B69 [Endevouridae MD01]
         |           `--*E. mirabilis Chilton 1921 B69
         |         Iphimediidae MD01
         |           |--Coboldus nitior Krapp-Schickel 1974 BD95
         |           `--Iphimedia Rathke 1843 [incl. Iphimediopsis Della Valle 1893, Microcheles Krøyer 1846] B69
         |                |--*I. obesa Rathke 1843 B69
         |                |--I. eblanae Bate 1857 BD95 [=*Iphimediopsis eblanae N38, Panoploea eblanae N38]
         |                |--I. gibbula Ruffo & Schiecke 1979 BD95
         |                |--I. haurakiensis Hurley 1954 B69
         |                `--I. minuta Sars 1882 [=Panoplea minuta] BD95
         |         Odius Lilljeborg 1866 C92 [incl. Otus Bate 1862 non Pennant 1769 B69; Odiidae MD01]
         |           `--*O. carinatus (Bate 1862) [=Otus carinatus] B69
         |         Opisa Boeck 1876 B69 [incl. Opis Krøyer 1842 non Defrance 1825 B69; Opisidae MD01]
         |           `--*O. eschrichtii (Krøyer 1842) [=Opis eschrichtii; incl. Opis typica] B69
         |         Pseudamphilochus Schellenberg 1931 B69 [Pseudamphilochidae MD01]
         |           `--*P. shoemakeri Schellenberg 1931 B69
         |         Haustoroidea R99
         |         Trischizostoma Boeck 1861 B69 (see below for synonymy)
         |           `--*T. nicaeense (Costa 1853) [=Guerinia nicaeensis] B69
         |         Valettia Stebbing 1888 B69 [Valettidae MD01]
         |           `--*V. coheres Stebbing 1888 B69
         |         Vicmusiidae MD01
         |         Wandinidae MD01
         |         Synopioidea B83
         |         Eusiroidea VVP01
         |           |--Eusiridae B83
         |           |--Paramphithoidae B83
         |           |--Amathillopsis Heller 1875 B69 [incl. Acanthopleustes Holmes 1908 B69; Amathillopsidae B83]
         |           |    |--*A. spinigera Heller 1875 B69
         |           |    `--A. grevei Barnard 1961 B69
         |           |--Epimeria Costa 1851 B69 [incl. Vertumnus White 1847 (n. n.) B69; Epimeriidae MD01]
         |           |    |--*E. cornigera (Fabricius 1779) [=Gammarus corniger] B69
         |           |    |--E. georgiana VVP01
         |           |    |--E. inermis N38
         |           |    |--E. loricata Sars 1895 B69
         |           |    `--E. macrodonta N38
         |           `--Bateidae B83
         |                |--Carinobatea Shoemaker 1926 B69
         |                |    `--*C. cuspidata Shoemaker 1926 B69
         |                `--Batea Müller 1865 B69
         |                     |--*B. catharinensis Müller 1865 B69
         |                     |--B. rectangulata B69
         |                     `--B. transversa B69
         |         Melphidippoidea B83
         |         Sphaerophthalmus Spandl 1923 B69
         |           `--*S. grobbeni Spandl 1923 B69
         |--Senticaudata LM13
         |--Leucothoidea LM13
         |--Liljeborgioidea LM13
         |--Stegocephaloidea B83
         |    |--Stegocephalidae LM13
         |    |--Acanthonotozomatidae B83
         |    |--Lafystius Krøyer 1842 B69 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |    |--*L. sturionis Krøyer 1842 B69
         |    |    `--L. morhuanus K-M02
         |    `--Ochlesis Stebbing 1910 B69 [Ochlesidae B83]
         |         |--*O. innocens Stebbing 1910 B69
         |         |--O. lenticulosus Barnard 1940 B69
         |         `--O. levetzowi Schelleberg 1953 B69
         `--Lysianassoidea BV01
              |--Lysianassidae LM13
              `--Uristes Dana 1849 B69 (see below for synonymy)
                   |--*U. gigas Dana 1852 B69 [incl. Tryphosa antennipotens N38]
                   |--U. cansada PG98
                   |--U. lepidus Barnard 1964 B69
                   |--U. umbonatus (Sars 1895) B69 [=Ichnopus umbonata N00b, Pseudotryphosa umbonata N00b]
                   `--U. velia Barnard 1961 B69

Amphipoda incertae sedis:
  Unicola inermis K-M02
  Metope KBC03
  Pareurystheus KBC03
    |--P. anamae KBC03
    `--P. gurjanovae KBC03
  Waipirophoxus australis HS01
  Torridoharpinia hurleyi HS01
  Pseudamphithoides incurvaria DH90
  Themisto CS77
    |--T. gaudichaudi CS77
    `--T. libellula CS77
  Phaedra Bate 1858 B69
  Parvipalpus capillacea N00c

Lafystius Krøyer 1842 B69 [incl. Darwinia Bate 1857 B69, Dermophilus Beneden & Bessels 1870 B69, Ichthyomyzocus Hesse 1873 B69; Lafystiidae B83]

Trischizostoma Boeck 1861 B69 [incl. Guerina Della Valle 1893 B69, Guerinia Costa 1853 (preoc.) B69; Trischizostomatidae MD01]

Tryphaena malmii Boeck 1870 [=Tryphana malmii; incl. Tryphaena boecki Stebbing 1888, Tryphaena nordenskioeldi Bovallius 1887] N00a

Uristes Dana 1849 B69 [incl. Pseudotryphosa Sars 1895 B69, Uristoides Schellenberg 1931 B69; Uristidae B83]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BD95] Bakalem, A. & J.-C. Dauvin. 1995. Inventaire des crustacés amphipodes (Gammaridea, Caprellidea, Hyperiidea) des costes d'Algérie: essai de synthèse. Mésogée 54: 49–62.

[B69] Barnard, J. L. 1969. The families and genera of marine gammaridean Amphipoda. United States National Museum Bulletin 271: i–vi, 1–535.

[BV01] Berge, J., & W. Vader. 2001. Revision of the amphipod (Crustacea) family Stegocephalidae. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 133: 531–592.

[B26] Bigelow, H. B. 1926. Plankton of the offshore waters of the Gulf of Maine. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries 40 (2): 1–509.

[B77] Bousfield, E. L. 1977. A new look at the systematics of gammaroidean amphipods of the world. Crustaceana Suppl. 4: 282–316.

[B83] Bousfield, E. L. 1983. An updated phyletic classification and palaeohistory of the Amphipoda. In: Schram, F. R. (ed.) Crustacean Phylogeny pp. 257–277. A. A. Balkema.

[CS86] Coineau, N., & J. H. Stock. 1986. Amphipoda: Bogidiellidae. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 574–580. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[C92] Crawford, R. L. 1992. Catalogue of the genera and type species of the harvestman superfamily Phalangioidea (Arachnida). Burke Museum Contributions in Anthropology and Natural History 8: 1–60.

[DH90] Duffy, J. E., & M. E. Hay. 1990. Seaweed adaptations to herbivory. BioScience 40 (5): 368–375.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45–80.

[KBC03] Kashin, I. A., E. V. Bagaveeva & S. F. Chaplygina. 2003. Fouling communities of hydrotechnical constructions in Nakhodka Bay (Sea of Japan). Russian Journal of Marine Biology 29: 267–283.

[K-M02] Klein-MacPhee, G. 2002. Sculpins. Family Cottidae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 346–357. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[LM13] Lowry, J. K., & A. A. Myers. 2013. A phylogeny and classification of the Senticaudata subord. nov. (Crustacea: Amphipoda). Zootaxa 3610: 1–80.

[MD01] Martin, J. W., & G. E. Davis. 2001. An updated classification of the Recent Crustacea. Natural History Museum Los Angeles County, Science Series 39: 1–124.

[N38] Nicholls, G. E. 1938. Australasian Antarctic Expedition 1911–1914. Under the Leadership of Sir Douglas Mawson, O.B.E., B.E., D.Sc., F. R. S. Scientific Reports. Series C—Zoology and Botany vol. 2 pt 4. Amphipoda Gammaridea. David Harold Paisley, Government Printer: Sydney (Australia).

[N39] Nicholls, G. E. 1939. The Prophliantidae: a proposed new family of Amphipoda, with description of a new genus and four new species. Records of the South Australian Museum 6 (3): 309–334.

[N00a] Norman, A. M. 1900a. British Amphipoda of the tribe Hyperiidea and the families Orchestiidae and some Lysianassidae. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 5: 126–144.

[N00b] Norman, A. M. 1900b. British Amphipoda: fam. Lysianassidae (concluded). Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 5: 196–214, pl. 6.

[N00c] Norman, A. M. 1900c. British Amphipoda: families Pontoporeidae to Ampeliscidae. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 5: 326–346.

[PG98] Probert, P. K., & S. L. Grove. 1998. Macrobenthic assemblages of the continental shelf and upper slope off the west coast of South Island, New Zealand. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 28: 259–280.

[R99] Ren X.-Q. 1999. A new family of superfamily Haustoroidea (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Gammaridea) from the China Sea. Chinese Journal of Oceanology & Limnology 17: 344–349.

[S00] Stebbing, T. R. R. 1900. Arctic Crustacea: Bruce collection. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 5: 1–16.

[S86a] Stock, J. H. 1986a. Order Amphipoda: an introduction. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 494–496. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[S86b] Stock, J. H. 1986b. Amphipoda: Ingolfiellidea. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 581–584. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[VVP01] Väinölä, R., J. K. Vainio & J. U. Palo. 2001. Phylogeography of “glacial relict” Gammaracanthus (Crustacea, Amphipoda) from boreal lakes and the Caspian and White Seas. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 58: 2247–2257.

[W86] Williams, W. D. 1986. Amphipoda on land-masses derived from Gondwana. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 553–559. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

Last updated: 27 December 2021.

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