Red shrimp Aristeus antennatus, from Universitat de les Illes Balears.

Belongs within: Eumalacostraca.
Contains: Caridea, Reptantia, Sergestoidea, Solenoceridae, Penaeidae, Sicyonia.

The Decapoda are one of the most familiar groups of crustaceans, containing such animals as shrimps, crabs and crayfish. Decapods have been divided in the past between prawns and shrimps (Natantia, 'swimmers') and crabs, lobsters and crayfish (Reptantia, 'walkers'). However, the 'Natantia' appear to be paraphyletic with regard to the Reptantia. Instead, the basal division within the Decapoda is between the Dendrobrachiata, prawns with tree-like gills, and Pleocyemata, in which the eggs are brooded by the females attached to their pleopods rather than being cast free as in other crustaceans (Dixon et al. 2003). The sister group of the Reptantia is the Stenopodidea, a small group of prawns which differ from other decapods in having the third pereiopods enlarged rather than the first or second. Stenopodidea and Reptantia share a mandible with a curved palp and strong molar process, and have similar zoeal morphology (Dixon et al. 2003).

Synapomorphies (from Ax 2000): Body divided into cephalothorax and pleon: carapace covering and fused dorsally with first eight thoracomeres, reaching laterally down to leg bases and enclosing gill cavity; thoracopods with four gills and extra epipodite for gill cleaning; thoracopods 1 and 2 transformed into maxillipeds; scaphognathite (large lobe-shaped exopodite of second maxilla) present, used for pumping water through gill cavity.

<==Decapoda [Astacini, Macrouri, Natantia]
    |--Pleocyemata DAS03
    |    |--Caridea DAS03
    |    `--+--Reptantia DAS03
    |       `--Stenopodidea DAS03
    |            |--Spongicolidae MD01
    |            `--Stenopodidae MG-H11
    |                 |--Engystenopus palmipes Alcock & Anderson 1894 MG-H11
    |                 |--Odontozona sculpticaudata Holthuis 1946 MG-H11
    |                 `--Stenopus Latreille 1819 BR05
    |                      |--S. hispidus (Olivier 1811) DAS03
    |                      |--S. scaber PP64
    |                      `--S. spinosus Risso 1827 KK03
    `--Dendrobrachiata [Penaeidea] DAS03
         |  i. s.: Parapenaeopsis KW70
         |           |--P. cornuta KW70
         |           `--P. sculptilis G75
         |--Sergestoidea HC79
         `--Penaeoidea HC79
              |--Solenoceridae HC79
              |--Penaeidae DAS03
              |--Sicyonia HC79
              |--Benthesicymus MG-H11 [Benthesicymidae MD01]
              |    |--B. investigatoris Alcock & Anderson 1899 MG-H11
              |    `--B. libanensis (Brocchi 1875) BWW93
              |--Aeger [Aegeridae] BWW93
              |    |--A. lehmanni BWW93
              |    |--A. straeleni Glaessner 1929 BWW93
              |    `--A. tipularius (Schlotheim 1832) BWW93
              `--Aristeidae HC79
                   |--Pseudaristeus sibogae (de Man 1911) MG-H11
                   `--Aristeus KK03
                        |--A. antennatus (Risso 1816) KK03
                        |--A. pallicauda Komai 1993 MG-H11
                        |--A. semidentatus Bate 1881 MG-H11
                        `--A. virilis (Bate 1881) MG-H11

Decapoda incertae sedis:
  Cricoidoselosus aethus ZBH03
  Naushonia crangonoides Kingsley 1897 ML01
  Pisoides bidentata GAS03
  Catapaguroides timidus M62
  Lambrus tumefacta M62
  Loxorhynchus grandis GLT03
  Rithropanopeus harrisii GLT03
  Metopograpsus GLT03
    |--M. messor Forskål 1775 M88
    `--M. quadridentatus GLT03
  Anomalothir furcillatus GLT03
  Scleroplax granulata CH97
  Necora puber (Linnaeus 1767) PH03
  Aristaeomorpha foliacea (Risso 1827) KK03
  Gaetice depressus MG06
  Metopaulias depressus OMM08
  Homalopsis etheridgei [=Prosopon etheridgei] F71
  Paracyclois grandispinis Etheridge 1916 F71
  Thennus orientalis P71
  Cambrarellus shufeldti KP05
  Stereomastis MG-H11
    |--S. auriculatus MG-H11
    `--S. suhmi MG-H11
  Gecarcoidea natalis Pocock 1888 SB12
  Peltarium spinulosum WP99
  Athanas KK03
    |--A. amazone Holthuis 1951 KK03
    |--A. laevirrhynchus PP64
    `--A. nitescens (Leach 1814) KK03
  Brachycarpus biunguiculatus (Lucas 1846) KK03
  Gennadas elegans (Smith 1882) KK03
  Marsupenaeus japonicus (Bate 1888) KK03
  Richardina fredericii Lo Bianco 1903 KK03
  Thoralus KK03
    |--T. cranchii (Leach 1817) KK03
    `--T. sollaudi PP64
  Typton spongicola Costa 1844 KK03
  Bithynis ensiculus F15
  Cinetorhynchus rigens (Gordon 1936) CCS04
  Uncina [Euzygida, Uncinidae, Uncinidea] BWW93
    `--U. posidoniae BWW93
  Neopisosoma angustifrons (Benedict 1901) [=Pisosoma angustifrons] M88
  Aliaporcellana M88
    |--A. quadrilobata (Miers 1884) M88
    `--A. suluensis (Dana 1852) M88
  Iridopagurus M88
    |--I. caribbensis (Milne Edwards & Bonnier 1893) M88
    `--I. margaritensis García-Gómez 1983 M88
  Phyllosoma communis G20
  Cardina B50
    |--C. lanceolata B50
    |--C. lingkonae B50
    |--C. lothae B50
    |--C. masapi B50
    |--C. opaensis B50
    |--C. spinata B50
    |--C. tenuirostris B50
    `--C. towutensis B50
  Erymastacus hoerstgenensis SM84

*Type species of generic name indicated


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[BWW93] Briggs, D. E. G., M. J. Weedon & M. A. Whyte. 1993. Arthropoda (Crustacea excluding Ostracoda). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 321–342. Chapman & Hall: London.

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[CH97] Castro, P., & M. E. Huber. 1997. Marine Biology 2nd ed. WCB McGraw-Hill: Boston.

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[GLT03] Glenner, H., J. Lützen & T. Takahashi. 2003. Molecular and morphological evidence for a monophyletic clade of asexually reproducing Rhizocephala: Polyascus, new genus (Cirripedia). Journal of Crustacean Biology 23: 548–557.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[G75] Grant, E. M. 1975. Guide to Fishes. The Co-ordinator-General's Department: Brisbane (Australia).

[GAS03] Gulbin, V. V., I. S. Arzamastsev & V. M. Shulkin. 2003. Ecological monitoring of the water area of Port Vostochnyi (Wrangel Bay) in the Sea of Japan (1995–2002). Russian Journal of Marine Biology 29 (5): 284–295.

[HC79] Huff, J. A., & S. P. Cobb. 1979. Penaeoid and sergestoid shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda). Memoirs of the Hourglass Cruises 5 (4): 1–101.

[KW70] Kirkegaard, I., & R. H. Walker. 1970. Synopsis of biological data on the eastern king prawn Penaeus plebejus Hess, 1865. C.S.I.R.O. Fisheries and Oceanography Fisheries Synopsis 7.

[KP05] Kirubagaran, R., D. M. Peter, G. Dharani, N. V. Vinithkumar, G. Sreeraj & M. Ravindran. 2005. Changes in vertebrate-type steroids and 5-hydroxytryptamine during ovarian recrudescence in the Indian spiny lobster, Panulirus homarus. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 39 (3): 527–537.

[KK03] Kocataş, A., & T. Katağan. 2003. The decapod crustacean fauna of the Turkish seas. Zoology in the Middle East 29: 63–74.

[MG06] Mallatt, J., & G. Giribet. 2006. Further use of nearly complete 28S and 18S rRNA genes to classify Ecdysozoa: 37 more arthropods and a kinorhynch. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40: 772–794.

[M88] Markham, J. C. 1988. Descriptions and revisions of some species of Isopoda Bopyridae of the northwestern Atlantic Ocean. Zoologische Verhandelingen 246: 1–63.

[MD01] Martin, J. W., & G. E. Davis. 2001. An updated classification of the Recent Crustacea. Natural History Museum Los Angeles County, Science Series 39: 1–124.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O'Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[ML01] McLaughlin, P. A., & R. Lemaitre. 2001. A new family for a new genus and new species of hermit crab of the superfamily Paguroidea (Decapoda: Anomura) and its phylogenetic implications. Journal of Crustacean Biology 21 (4): 1062–1076.

[M62] Monniot, F. 1962. Recherches sur les graviers a Amphioxus de la région de Banyuls-sur-Mer. Vie et Milieu 13: 231–322.

[OMM08] Osses, F., E. G. Martins & G. Machado. 2008. Oviposition site selection by the bromeliad-dweller harvestman Bourguyia hamata (Arachnida: Opiliones). Journal of Ethology 26 (2): 233–241.

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d'Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[PH03] Pinheiro, M. A. A., & G. Y. Hattori. 2003. Embryology of the mangrove crab Ucides cordatus (Brachyura: Ocypodidae). Journal of Crustacean Biology 23 (3): 729–737.

[P71] Por, F. D. 1971. One hundred years of Suez Canal—a century of Lessepsian migration: retrospect and viewpoints. Systematic Zoology 20 (2): 138–159.

[SM84] Schram, F. R., & R. H. Mapes. 1984. Imocaris tuberculata, n. gen., n. sp. (Crustacea: Decapoda) from the upper Mississippian Imo Formation, Arkansas. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 20 (11): 165–168.

[SB12] Smith, M. J., C. R. J. Boland, D. Maple & B. Tiernan. 2012. The Christmas Island blue-tailed skink (Cryptoblepharus egeriae): a survey protocol and an assessment of factors that relate to occupancy and detection. Records of the Western Australian Museum 27 (1): 40–44.

[WP99] Walter, D. E., & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[ZBH03] Zhou, Z., P. M. Barrett & J. Hilton. 2003. An exceptionally preserved Lower Cretaceous ecosystem. Nature 421: 807–814.

Last updated: 27 December 2021.

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