Red shrimp Aristeus antennatus, from Universitat de les Illes Balears.

Belongs within: Eumalacostraca.
Contains: Caridea, Reptantia, Sergestoidea, Solenoceridae, Penaeidae, Sicyonia.

The Decapoda are one of the most familiar groups of crustaceans, containing such animals as shrimps, crabs and crayfish. Decapods have been divided in the past between prawns and shrimps (Natantia, 'swimmers') and crabs, lobsters and crayfish (Reptantia, 'walkers'). However, the 'Natantia' appear to be paraphyletic with regard to the Reptantia. Instead, the basal division within the Decapoda is between the Dendrobrachiata, prawns with tree-like gills, and Pleocyemata, in which the eggs are brooded by the females attached to their pleopods rather than being cast free as in other crustaceans (Dixon et al. 2003). The sister group of the Reptantia is the Stenopodidea, a small group of prawns which differ from other decapods in having the third pereiopods enlarged rather than the first or second (Dixon et al. 2003).

Synapomorphies (from Ax 2000): Body divided into cephalothorax and pleon: carapace covering and fused dorsally with first eight thoracomeres, reaching laterally down to leg bases and enclosing gill cavity; thoracopods with four gills and extra epipodite for gill cleaning; thoracopods 1 and 2 transformed into maxillipeds; scaphognathite (large lobe-shaped exopodite of second maxilla) present, used for pumping water through gill cavity.

<==Decapoda [Natantia]
    |--Pleocyemata DAS03
    |    |--Caridea DAS03
    |    `--+--Reptantia DAS03
    |       `--Stenopodidea DAS03
    |            |--Spongicolidae MD01
    |            `--Stenopodidae MG-H11
    |                 |--Engystenopus palmipes Alcock & Anderson 1894 MG-H11
    |                 |--Odontozona sculpticaudata Holthuis 1946 MG-H11
    |                 `--Stenopus Latreille 1819 BR05
    |                      |--S. hispidus (Olivier 1811) DAS03
    |                      `--S. spinosus Risso 1827 KK03
    `--Dendrobrachiata [Penaeidea] DAS03
         |  i. s.: Parapenaeopsis KW70
         |           |--P. cornuta KW70
         |           `--P. sculptilis G75
         |--Sergestoidea MD01
         `--Penaeoidea HC79
              |--Solenoceridae HC79
              |--Penaeidae DAS03
              |--Sicyonia HC79
              |--Benthesicymus MG-H11 [Benthesicymidae MD01]
              |    `--B. investigatoris Alcock & Anderson 1899 MG-H11
              `--Aristeidae HC79
                   |--Pseudaristeus sibogae (de Man 1911) MG-H11
                   `--Aristeus BRP03
                        |--A. antennatus (Risso 1816) BRP03
                        |--A. pallicauda Komai 1993 MG-H11
                        |--A. semidentatus Bate 1881 MG-H11
                        `--A. virilis (Bate 1881) MG-H11

Decapoda incertae sedis:
  Cricoidoselosus aethus ZBH03
  Naushonia crangonoides Kingsley 1897 ML01
  Pisoides bidentata GAS03
  Pugettia quadridens KBC03
  Catapaguroides timidus M62
  Eupagurus M62
    |--E. anachoretus M62
    |--E. bernhardus CS77
    `--E. prideauxi M62
  Lambrus tumefacta M62
  Loxorhynchus grandis GLT03
  Rithropanopeus harrisii GLT03
  Metopograpsus GLT03
    |--M. messor H09
    `--M. quadridentatus GLT03
  Anomalothir furcillatus GLT03
  Scleroplax granulata CH97
  Pachycheles monilifer (Dana 1852) PH03
  Necora puber (Linnaeus 1767) PH03
  Aristaeomorpha foliacea (Risso 1827) BRP03
  Palaeopinnixa Via 1966 CA04
  Gaetice depressus MG06
  Metopaulias depressus OMM08
  Homalopsis etheridgei [=Prosopon etheridgei] F71
  Paracyclois grandispinis Etheridge 1916 F71
  Thennus orientalis P71
  Cambrarellus shufeldti KP05
  Stereomastis MG-H11
    |--S. auriculatus MG-H11
    `--S. suhmi MG-H11
  Gecarcoidea natalis Pocock 1888 SB12
  Peltarium spinulosum WP99
  Athanas KK03
    |--A. amazone Holthuis 1951 KK03
    `--A. nitescens (Leach 1814) KK03
  Brachycarpus biunguiculatus (Lucas 1846) KK03
  Gennadas elegans (Smith 1882) KK03
  Marsupenaeus japonicus (Bate 1888) KK03
  Richardina fredericii Lo Bianco 1903 KK03
  Thoralus cranchii (Leach 1817) KK03
  Typton spongicola Costa 1844 KK03
  Bithynis ensiculus F15

*Type species of generic name indicated


Ax, P. 2000. Muticellular Animals: the phylogenetic system of the Metazoa vol. 2. Springer.

[BRP03] Bottari, T., P. Rinelli & A. Panebianco. 2003. Trawling lesions in some decapod crustaceans: considerations with regard to government inspections. Crustaceana 76 (8): 927–933.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[CA04] Casadío, S., A. de Angeli, R. M. Feldmann, A. Garassino, J. L. Hetler, A. Parras & C. E. Schweitzer. 2004. New decapod crustaceans (Thalassinidea, Galatheoidea, Brachyura) from the Middle Oligocene of Patagonia, Argentina. Annals of Carnegie Museum 73 (2): 25–47.

[CH97] Castro, P., & M. E. Huber. 1997. Marine Biology 2nd ed. WCB McGraw-Hill: Boston.

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[DAS03] Dixon, C. J., S. T. Ahyong & F. R. Schram. 2003. A new hypothesis of decapod phylogeny. Crustaceana 76: 935–975.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[F15] Fowler, H. W. 1915. Cold-blooded vertebrates from Florida, the West Indies, Costa Rica, and eastern Brazil. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (2): 243–269.

[GLT03] Glenner, H., J. Lützen & T. Takahashi. 2003. Molecular and morphological evidence for a monophyletic clade of asexually reproducing Rhizocephala: Polyascus, new genus (Cirripedia). Journal of Crustacean Biology 23: 548–557.

[G75] Grant, E. M. 1975. Guide to Fishes. The Co-ordinator-General's Department: Brisbane (Australia).

[GAS03] Gulbin, V. V., I. S. Arzamastsev & V. M. Shulkin. 2003. Ecological monitoring of the water area of Port Vostochnyi (Wrangel Bay) in the Sea of Japan (1995–2002). Russian Journal of Marine Biology 29 (5): 284–295.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[HC79] Huff, J. A., & S. P. Cobb. 1979. Penaeoid and sergestoid shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda). Memoirs of the Hourglass Cruises 5 (4): 1–101.

[KBC03] Kashin, I. A., E. V. Bagaveeva & S. F. Chaplygina. 2003. Fouling communities of hydrotechnical constructions in Nakhodka Bay (Sea of Japan). Russian Journal of Marine Biology 29: 267–283.

[KW70] Kirkegaard, I., & R. H. Walker. 1970. Synopsis of biological data on the eastern king prawn Penaeus plebejus Hess, 1865. C.S.I.R.O. Fisheries and Oceanography Fisheries Synopsis 7.

[KP05] Kirubagaran, R., D. M. Peter, G. Dharani, N. V. Vinithkumar, G. Sreeraj & M. Ravindran. 2005. Changes in vertebrate-type steroids and 5-hydroxytryptamine during ovarian recrudescence in the Indian spiny lobster, Panulirus homarus. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 39 (3): 527–537.

[KK03] Kocataş, A., & T. Katağan. 2003. The decapod crustacean fauna of the Turkish seas. Zoology in the Middle East 29: 63–74.

[MG06] Mallatt, J., & G. Giribet. 2006. Further use of nearly complete 28S and 18S rRNA genes to classify Ecdysozoa: 37 more arthropods and a kinorhynch. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40: 772–794.

[MD01] Martin, J. W., & G. E. Davis. 2001. An updated classification of the Recent Crustacea. Natural History Museum Los Angeles County, Science Series 39: 1–124.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O'Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[ML01] McLaughlin, P. A., & R. Lemaitre. 2001. A new family for a new genus and new species of hermit crab of the superfamily Paguroidea (Decapoda: Anomura) and its phylogenetic implications. Journal of Crustacean Biology 21 (4): 1062–1076.

[M62] Monniot, F. 1962. Recherches sur les graviers a Amphioxus de la région de Banyuls-sur-Mer. Vie et Milieu 13: 231–322.

[OMM08] Osses, F., E. G. Martins & G. Machado. 2008. Oviposition site selection by the bromeliad-dweller harvestman Bourguyia hamata (Arachnida: Opiliones). Journal of Ethology 26 (2): 233–241.

[PH03] Pinheiro, M. A. A., & G. Y. Hattori. 2003. Embryology of the mangrove crab Ucides cordatus (Brachyura: Ocypodidae). Journal of Crustacean Biology 23 (3): 729–737.

[P71] Por, F. D. 1971. One hundred years of Suez Canal—a century of Lessepsian migration: retrospect and viewpoints. Systematic Zoology 20 (2): 138–159.

[SB12] Smith, M. J., C. R. J. Boland, D. Maple & B. Tiernan. 2012. The Christmas Island blue-tailed skink (Cryptoblepharus egeriae): a survey protocol and an assessment of factors that relate to occupancy and detection. Records of the Western Australian Museum 27 (1): 40–44.

[WP99] Walter, D. E., & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[ZBH03] Zhou, Z., P. M. Barrett & J. Hilton. 2003. An exceptionally preserved Lower Cretaceous ecosystem. Nature 421: 807–814.

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