Individuals of Calantica spinosa, photographed by Peter E. Smith.

Belongs within: Thecostraca.
Contains: Balanomorpha.

The Thoracica are the barnacles, sessile crustaceans in which the legs have been modified into a filter-feeding fan, while the body is armoured with calcareous plates. The Thoracica have been divided into the Pedunculata (goose barnacles, etc.) in which the body is supported by a fleshy peduncle, and Sessilia (acorn barnacles, etc.) in which there is no peduncle between the body and the substrate; however, it seems likely that the Pedunculata is paraphyletic (Martin & Davis 2001).

    |  i. s.: Conopea C79
    |         Octolasmis C79
    |         Alepas minuta BK77
    |         Trilasmis kaempferi [incl. Poecilasma aurantium Richard 1903] BK77
    |         Euraphia withersi C03
    |         Tetraclitella karandei Ross 1971 C03
    |         Chamaesipho Y03
    |           |--C. brunnea Y03
    |           |--C. columna Y03
    |           `--C. tasmanica Y03
    |         Octomeris sulcata Y03
    |         Catomerus Y03
    |         Cryptolepas rachianecti W81
    |         Conchoderma auritum W81
    |         Xenobalanus W81
    |           |--X. globicipitis W81
    |           `--X. strictus W81
    |         Austrominius modestus HS01
    |         Striatobalanus amaryllis (Darwin 1854) WMJ09
    |         Austromegabalanus nigrescens WMJ09
    |--Sessilia MD01
    |    |--Neobrachylepadidae [Brachylepadomorpha] MD01
    |    |--Balanomorpha MD01
    |    `--Verrucomorpha MD01
    |         |--Neoverrucidae MD01
    |         `--Verrucidae MD01
    `--Pedunculata MD01
         |--Ibla [Iblidae, Iblomorpha] MD01
         |--Lepadomorpha MD01
         |    |--Oxynaspididae MD01
         |    |--Poecilasmatidae MD01
         |    `--Lepas R85 [Lepadidae MD01]
         |         |--L. anserifera Linnaeus 1767 WMJ09
         |         `--L. australis R85
         |--Heteralepadomorpha MD01
         |    |--Anelasmatidae MD01
         |    |--Heteralepadidae MD01
         |    |--Koleolepadidae MD01
         |    |--Malacolepadidae MD01
         |    |--Microlepadidae MD01
         |    `--Rhizolepadidae MD01
         `--Scalpellomorpha MD01 [Scalpelliformes]
              |--Calanticidae [Calanticinae] JH09
              |    |--Calantica Gray 1825 [incl. Protomitella Broch 1922] JH09
              |    |    |--C. villosa (Leach 1824) [incl. *C. homii Gray 1825] JH09
              |    |    |--C. darwini Jones & Hosie 2009 JH09
              |    |    |--C. moskalebi Zevina & Galkin 1989 JH09
              |    |    |--C. pusilla Utinomi 1970 JH09
              |    |    `--C. spinosa (Quoy & Gaimard 1834) JH09
              |    |--Scillaelepas Seguenza 1876 JH09
              |    |    `--S. ginginensis [=Calantica (Scillaelepas) ginginensis] W26
              |    |--Pisiscalpellum Utinomi 1958 JH09
              |    |--Euscalpellum Hoek 1907 JH09
              |    |--Paracalantica Utinomi 1949 JH09
              |    |--Smilium Gray 1825 JH09
              |    |    |--S. horridum Pilsbry 1912 JH09
              |    |    `--S. hypocrites (Barnard 1924) JH09
              |    |--Capitulum Oken 1815 JH09
              |    |    `--C. mitella C03
              |    |--Zeugmatolepas Withers 1913 JH09
              |    |--Titanolepas Withers 1913 JH09
              |    |--Aurivillialepas Newman 1980 JH09
              |    |--Gruvelialepas Newman 1980 JH09
              |    |--Newmanilepas Zevina & Yakhontov 1987 JH09
              |    |--Cretiscalpellum Withers 1922 JH09
              |    |--Pachyscalpellum Buckeridge 1991 JH09
              |    |--Virgiscalpellum Withers 1935 JH09
              |    |--Zeascalpellum Buckeridge 1983 JH09
              |    `--Crosnieriella Jones 1998 JH09
              |         `--C. acanthosubcarinae Jones 1998 JH09
              |--Pollicipes Leach 1817 JH09 [Pollicipedidae MD01, Pollicipinae]
              |    |--P. acuminatus Darwin 1851 W26
              |    |--P. cornucopia BBB-S95
              |    `--P. spinosus B79
              `--Scalpellum Leach 1817 W26 [Scalpellidae MD01]
                   |--*S. (Scalpellum) scalpellum BK77
                   `--S. (Neoscalpellum Pilsbry 1907) W26
                        |--S. (*N.) dicheloplax W26
                        `--S. (N.) glauerti Withers 1926 W26

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BK77] Barel, C. D. N., & P. G. N. Kramers. 1977. A survey of the echinoderm associates of the north-east Atlantic area. Zoologische Verhandelingen 156: 1-159.

[BBB-S95] Boubezari, K., G. Bitar & D. Bellan-Santini. 1995. Structure et organisation de trois moulières (Mytilus galloprovincialis et Perna perna) de la région d'Alger. Mésogée 54: 63-72.

[B79] Buss, L. W. 1979. Habitat selection, directional growth and spatial refuges: Why colonial animals have more hiding places. In Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms (G. Larwood & B. R. Rosen, eds) pp. 459-497. Academic Press: London.

[C03] Chan, B. K. K. 2003. Studies on Tetraclita squamosa and Tetraclita japonica (Cirripedia: Thoracica) II: Larval morphology and development. Journal of Crustacean Biology 23 (3): 522-547.

[C79] Crisp, D. J. 1979. Dispersal and re-aggregation in sessile marine invertebrates, particularly barnacles. In Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms (G. Larwood & B. R. Rosen, eds) pp. 319-327. Academic Press: London.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45-80.

[HJ08] Huisman, J. M., D. S. Jones, F. E. Wells & T. Burton. 2008. Introduced marine biota in Western Australian waters. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 1-44.

[JH09] Jones, D. S. & A. M. Hosie. 2009. A new species of Calantica from Western Australian waters (Thoracica: Scalpellomorpha: Calanticidae). Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (3): 239-246.

[MD01] Martin, J. W., & G. E. Davis. 2001. An updated classification of the Recent Crustacea. Natural History Museum Los Angeles County, Science Series 39: 1-124.

[R85] Robertson, C. J. R. (ed.) 1985. Reader’s Digest Complete Book of New Zealand Birds. Reader’s Digest: Sydney.

[W81] Watson, L. 1981. Sea Guide to Whales of the World. Hutchinson: London.

[WMJ09] Wells, F. E., M. Mulligan & D. S. Jones. 2009. Prevention of introduction of species brought into Geraldton Harbour, Western Australia, by the dredge Leonardo da Vinci. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (2): 153-158.

[W26] Withers, T. H. 1926. The crinoid Marsupites, and a new cirripede from the Upper Cretaceous of Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 12 (11): 97-104, pl. XI.

[Y03] Yan, Y. 2003. Larval development of the barnacle Chinochthmalus scutelliformis (Cirripedia: Chthmalidae) reared in the laboratory. Journal of Crustacean Biology 23 (3): 513-521.

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