Cytheroidea

Microcythere cf. nana, copyright Carol Dickson-Fisher.


Belongs within: Ostracoda.
Contains: Entocytherinae, Sphaeromicolinae, Cobanocythere, Cytherois, Cytherideinae, Xestoleberis, Loxoconchinae.

The Cytheroidea are a primarily marine group of ostracods that are first known from the Middle Ordovician (Benson et al. 1961). Many cytheroids are highly ornamented. Most are aquatic, though species of the genus Terrestricythere are known from supralittoral saline soils. Freshwater cytheroids are known from the families Cytherideidae, Entocytheridae, Kliellidae, Leptocytheridae, Limnocytheridae and Loxoconchidae.

Characters (from Benson et al. 1961): Three similar pairs of legs adapted for locomotion; antennules generally subpediform; exopodite of antennae developed as long, curved, rodlike flagellum containing ducts of glands lying on each side of body. Adductor muscle scars detectable on most carapaces, usually arranged in nearly vertical row of four elements, with one or two antennal scars and usually three mandibular scars in front. Usually a compound hinge characteristically divided into three or four elements, any or all of which may be dentate (hinge teeth absent in some species).

<==Cytheroidea [Cytheracea, Cytherocopina]
    |  i. s.: Gomphocythere M03
    |         Fernandinacythere Gottwald 1983 DH86
    |           `--*F. arenicola Gottwald 1983 G83
    |         Paracythere Müller 1894 G83
    |--Eucytheridae MD01
    |--Neocytherideidae MD01
    |--Pectocytheridae MD01
    |--Schizocytheridae MD01
    |--Thaerocytheridae MD01
    |--Mesocorallicythere Hartmann 1974 DH86 [Krithidae MD01]
    |    `--M. sagittaeformis Hartmann 1974 DH86
    |--Terrestricythere Schornikov 1969 DH86 [Terresticytheracea, Terrestricytheridae MD01]
    |    `--T. ivanovae Schornikov 1969 DH86
    |--Entocytheridae MD01
    |    |--Entocytherinae DH86
    |    `--Sphaeromicolinae DH86
    |--Protocythere RR03 [Protocytheridae MD01]
    |    |--P. paquieri RR03
    |    `--P. praetriplicata RR03
    |--Psammocythere Klie 1936 DH86 [incl. Bonaducecythere McKenzie 1977 G83; Psammocytheridae MD01]
    |    |--P. hartmanni (McKenzie 1977) [=*Bonaducecythere hartmanni] G83
    |    |--P. remanei Klie 1936 DH86
    |    `--P. santacruzensis Gottwald 1983 G83
    |--Cobanocytherinae [Cobanocytheridae] DH86
    |    |--Cobanocythere DH86
    |    `--Paracobanocythere Gottwald 1983 DH86
    |         `--*P. hawaiiensis Gottwald 1983 G83
    |--Paradoxostomatidae [Paradoxostomatinae] NT02
    |    |--Cytherois NT02
    |    |--Sclerochilus Sars 1866 G83
    |    `--Paradoxostoma variabile (Baird 1850) G83
    |--Trachyleberididae NT02
    |    |--Bicornucythere Schornikov & Shaytarov 1979 [Pterygocytherinae] NT02
    |    |    `--B. bisanensis (Okubo 1975) [=Leguminocythereis bisanensis, Ruggieria (Keijella) bisanensis] NT02
    |    `--Basslerites Howe 1937 [Campylocytherinae] S-VC91
    |         `--B. sonorensis Benson & Kaesler 1963 S-VC91
    |--Kliellidae MD01
    |    |--Kliella Schäfer 1945 DH86
    |    |    `--K. hyaloderma Schäfer 1945 DH86
    |    `--Nanokliella Schäfer 1945 DH86
    |         `--N. dictyoconcha Schäfer 1945 DH86
    |--Monoceratina Roth 1928 [Bythocytheridae] HM04
    |    |--M. ardmorensis (Harlton 1927) [=Cythereis ardmorensis] HM04
    |    |--M. celsalobata Cooper 1941 HM04
    |    |--M. lewisi Harris & Lalicker 1932 HM04
    |    |--M. macoupeni Scott & Borger 1941 HM04
    |    |--M. spina Cooper 1941 HM04
    |    `--M. youngiana (Jones & Kirby 1886) HM04
    |--Cytherideidae NT02
    |    |--Cytherideinae NT02
    |    `--Pontocythere Dubowsky 1939 [Cushmanideinae] NT02
    |         |--P. japonica (Hanai 1959) NT02
    |         |--P. kashiwarensis (Hanai 1959) NT02
    |         |--P. miurensis (Hanai 1959) [=Cushmanidea miurensis] NT02
    |         |--P. subjaponica (Hanai 1959) NT02
    |         `--P. xiphoidea Nakao & Tsukagoshi 2002 NT02
    |--Xestoleberididae MD01
    |    |--Xestoleberis S-VC91
    |    |--Aspidoconcha limnoriae de Vos 1953 G83
    |    |--Ornatoleberis Keij 1975 DH86
    |    |    `--O. parva Hartmann 1981 DH86
    |    `--Microxestoleberis Müller 1894 DH86
    |         |--M. nana Müller 1894 DH86
    |         `--M. rostrata Klie 1936 DH86
    |--Loxoconchidae NT02
    |    |  i. s.: Tuberoloxoconcha Hartmann 1973 DH86
    |    |           `--T. tuberosa Hartmann 1954 DH86
    |    |         Loxocorniculum Benson & Coleman 1963 S-VC91
    |    |           `--L. sculptoides Swain 1967 S-VC91
    |    |--Loxoconchinae NT02
    |    `--Pseudolimnocythere Klie 1938 [Pseudolimnocytherinae] DH86
    |         |--P. hartmanni Danielopol 1979 DH86
    |         `--P. hypogea Klie 1938 DH86
    |--Limnocytheridae M03
    |    |--Limnocythere M03
    |    |    |--L. fangxiensis NG13
    |    |    |--L. hubeiensis NG13
    |    |    |--L. mongolica Daday 1901 D01
    |    |    `--L. spinisalata NG13
    |    |--Kovalevskiella Klein 1963 [Timiriaseviinae] DH86
    |    |    |--K. bulgarica (Danielopol 1970) DH86
    |    |    |--K. evetkovi (Danielopol 1969) DH86
    |    |    |--K. phreaticola (Danielopol 1965) DH86
    |    |    `--K. rudjakovi (Danielopol 1969) DH86
    |    `--Gomphodella HA13
    |--Cytherurinae [Cytheruridae] NT02
    |    |--Cytherura Sars 1866 NT02
    |    |    `--C. johnsonoides Swain 1967 S-VC91
    |    |--Angulicytherura Schornikov & Dolgov 1995 NT02
    |    |    `--A. miii (Ishizaki 1969) [=Tetracytherura miii, Cytherura miii] NT02
    |    |--Semicytherura Wagner 1957 NT02
    |    |    `--S. wakamurasaki Yajima 1982 NT02
    |    |--Levocytherura Schornikov 1969 DH86
    |    |    |--L. pontica (Marinov 1962) DH86
    |    |    `--L. remanei (Marinov 1964) DH86
    |    `--Hemicytherura Elofson 1941 NT02
    |         |--H. kajiyamai Hanai 1957 NT02
    |         |--H. reticulata G83
    |         `--H. tricarinata Hanai 1957 NT02
    |--Parvocythere Hartmann 1959 [Parvocytheridae] DH86
    |    |  i. s.: P. striata Hartmann 1974 DH86
    |    |--+--P. elongata Hartmann 1959 G83
    |    |  |--P. fernandinensis Gottwald 1983 G83
    |    |  `--P. marginatocostata Hartmann 1974 G83
    |    `--+--*P. dentata Hartmann 1959 G83
    |       |--P. dimorpha Hartmann 1974 G83
    |       |--P. directocostata Hartmann 1974 G83
    |       |--P. galapagoensis Gottwald 1983 G83
    |       |--P. hartmanni Marinov 1962 G83
    |       |--P. psammophila Gottwald 1983 G83
    |       |--P. schmidti Gottwald 1983 G83
    |       |--P. subterranea Gottwald 1983 G83
    |       `--P. supralitoralis Gottwald 1983 G83
    |--Leptocytheridae Y03
    |    |--Cluthia NT02
    |    |--Callistocythere Ruggieri 1953 NT02
    |    |    `--C. pumila Hanai 1957 [incl. C. laevis Okubo 1979] NT02
    |    |--Palusleptocythere Nakao & Tsukagoshi 2002 NT02
    |    |    `--*P. migrans Nakao & Tsukagoshi 2002 NT02
    |    |--Leptocythere Y03
    |    |    |--*L. pellucida (Baird 1850) NT02
    |    |    `--L. lacertosa (Hirschmann 1912) Y03
    |    `--Ishizakiella McKenzie & Sudijono 1981 Y03
    |         |--*I. foveoreticulata McKenzie & Sudijono 1981 Y03
    |         |--I. miurensis (Hanai 1957) Y03 (see below for synonymy)
    |         |--I. novaezealandica (Hartmann 1982) [=Tanella novaezealandica] Y03
    |         |--I. ryukyuensis Tsukagoshi 1994 Y03
    |         `--‘Tanella’ supralittoralis Schornikov 1974 Y03
    |--Cytheromatidae MD01
    |    |--Microloxoconcha Hartmann 1954 [Microloxoconchinae] DH86
    |    |    |--*M. compressa Hartmann 1954 G83
    |    |    |--M. barralesi Hartmann 1965 DH86
    |    |    |--M. fragilis Hartmann 1974 DH86
    |    |    |--M. marinovi Schornikov 1969 DH86
    |    |    |--M. santacruzensis Gottwald 1983 DH86
    |    |    `--M. subterranea Gottwald 1983 DH86
    |    `--Cytheromatinae [Cytherominae] DH86
    |         |--Pontocytheroma Marinov 1963 G83
    |         |    `--P. arenaria Marinov 1963 DH86
    |         `--+--Paracytheroma Juday 1907 G83
    |            |--Pellucistoma Coryell & Fields 1937 G83
    |            `--Cytheroma Müller 1894 G83
    |                 |--C. karadaghiensis Dubowsky 1939 G83
    |                 |--C. similis Skogsberg 1950 G83
    |                 `--C. variabilis Müller 1894 G83
    |--Cytheridae NT02
    |    |  i. s.: Spinileberis Hanai 1961 NT02
    |    |           |--S. furuyaensis Ishizaki & Kato 1976 NT02
    |    |           |--S. pulchra Chen in Hou et al. 1982 NT02
    |    |           `--S. quadriaculeata (Brady 1880) [=Cythere quadriaculeata] NT02
    |    |         Nannocythere Schäfer 1953 DH86
    |    |           `--N. remanei Schäfer 1953 DH86
    |    |--Microcytherura Müller 1894 [Microcytherurini] DH86
    |    |    |--M. angulosa (Seguenza 1880) DH86
    |    |    |--M. cedunaensis Hartmann 1980 DH86
    |    |    |--M. fulva (Brady & Robertson 1874) DH86
    |    |    |--M. nigrescens Müller 1894 DH86
    |    |    `--M. reticulata Hartmann 1974 DH86
    |    `--Cytherini DH86
    |         |--Abditacythere Hartmann 1964 DH86
    |         |    `--A. subterranea Hartmann 1964 DH86
    |         |--Corallicythere Hartmann 1974 DH86
    |         |    `--C. verrucosa Hartmann 1974 DH86
    |         `--Delamarcythere Hartmann 1974 DH86
    |              `--D. elongata (Hartmann 1954) DH86
    |--Microcythere Müller 1894 DH86 [Microcytheridae MD01]
    |    |--M. bahusiensis Elofson 1944 DH86
    |    |--M. dentata Müller 1894 DH86
    |    |--M. depressa Müller 1894 DH86
    |    |--M. frigida Müller 1908 DH86
    |    |--M. gibba Müller 1894 DH86
    |    |--M. gottwaldi Hartmann 1978 DH86
    |    |--M. helgolandica Klie 1936 DH86
    |    |--M. hians Müller 1894 DH86
    |    |--M. inflexa Müller 1894 DH86
    |    |--M. levis Müller 1894 DH86
    |    |--M. minuta Klie 1936 DH86
    |    |--M. monstruosa Elofson 1944 DH86
    |    |--M. nana Müller 1894 DH86
    |    |--M. navicula (Norman 1869) DH86
    |    |--M. obliqua Müller 1894 DH86
    |    |--M. parallela Reys 1961 DH86
    |    |--M. parva Klie 1936 DH86
    |    |--M. producta Elofson 1944 DH86
    |    |--M. rara Müller 1894 DH86
    |    |--M. schuettei Hartmann 1957 DH86
    |    `--M. varnensis Marinov 1962 DH86
    `--Hemicytherinae [Hemicytheridae] NT02
         |--Radimella Pokorny 1969 S-VC91, G83
         |    `--R. palosensis (LeRoy 1943) S-VC91
         |--Aurila Pokorný 1955 NT02
         |    `--A. disparata Okubo 1980 NT02
         |--Robustaurila Yajima 1982 NT02
         |    `--R. ishizakii (Okubo 1980) [=Mutilus ishizakii] NT02
         |--Cativella Coryell & Fields 1937 S-VC91
         |    `--C. unitaria Swain 1967 S-VC91
         |--Caudites Coryell & Fields 1937 S-VC91
         |    `--C. rosaliensis Swain 1967 S-VC91
         |--Orionina Puri 1954 S-VC91
         |    `--O. pseudovaughani Swain 1967 S-VC91
         |--Anterocythere McKenzie & Swain 1967 S-VC91
         |    `--A. purii McKenzie & Swain 1967 S-VC91
         |--Puriana Coryell & Fields 1953 S-VC91
         |    `--P. pacifica Benson 1959 S-VC91
         |--Ambostracon Hazel 1962 S-VC91
         |    |--A. glauca (Skogsberg 1928) S-VC91
         |    `--A. vermillionensis Swain 1967 S-VC91
         `--Malzella Benson 1983 S-VC91
              `--M. conradi S-VC91
                   |--M. c. conradi S-VC91
                   `--M. c. californica Benson & Kaesler 1963 S-VC91

Ishizakiella miurensis (Hanai 1957) Y03 [=Tanella miurensis Y03; incl. Cythere inflata Brady 1890 (preoc.) NT02, Tanella pacifica Hanai 1957 NT02, Ishizakiella pacifica NT02]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Benson, R. H., J. M. Berdan et al. 1961. Systematic descriptions. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt Q. Arthropoda 3: Crustacea: Ostracoda pp. Q99-Q421. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press.

[D01] Daday, E. 1901. Édesvizi mikroszkópi állatok [Mikroskopische Süsswasserthiere]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 375–470. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[DH86] Danielopol, D. L., & G. Hartmann. 1986. Ostracoda. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 265–294. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[G83] Gottwald, J. 1983. Interstitielle Fauna von Galapagos. XXX. Podocopida 1 (Ostracoda). Mikrofauna des Meeresbodens 90: 1–187.

[HM04] Hoare, R. D., & G. K. Merrill. 2004. A Pennsylvanian (Morrowan) ostracode fauna from Texas. Journal of Paleontology 78 (1): 185–204.

[HA13] Humphreys, G., J. Alexander, M. S. Harvey & W. F. Humphreys. 2013. The subterranean fauna of Barrow Island, north-western Australia: 10 years on. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 145–158.

[M03] Martens, K. 2003. On a remarkable South African giant ostracod (Crustacea, Ostracoda, Cyprididae) from temporary pools, with additional appendages. Hydrobiologia 500: 115–130.

[MD01] Martin, J. W., & G. E. Davis. 2001. An updated classification of the Recent Crustacea. Natural History Museum Los Angeles County, Science Series 39: 1–124.

[NT02] Nakao, Y., & A. Tsukagoshi. 2002. Brackish-water Ostracoda (Crustacea) from the Obitsu River estuary, central Japan. Species Diversity 7 (1): 67–115.

[NG13] Ni, X., D. L. Gebo, M. Dagosto, J. Meng, P. Tafforeau, J. J. Flynn & K. C. Beard. 2013. The oldest known primate skeleton and early haplorhine evolution. Nature 498: 60–64.

[RR03] Rossi, A., J. Rey, B. Andreu & K. Taj-Eddine. 2003. Apport des ostracodes à l’interprétation séquentielle du Crétacé inférieur (Berriasien–Valanginien) du bassin d’Essaouira-Agadir (Maroc). Comptes Rendus Palevol 2: 133–141.

[S-VC91] Segura-Vernis, L. R., & A. L. Carreño. 1991. Foraminíferos y ostrácodos de la Laguna de La Paz, Baja California Sur, México. Inv. Mar. CICIMAR 6 (1): 195–224.

[Y03] Yamaguchi, S. 2003. Biogeographical history and morphological evolution of two closely related ostracod species, Ishizakiella ryukyuensis and I. miurensis. Journal of Crustacean Biology 23 (3): 623–632.

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