Aggregation of Balanus crenatus, photographed by Misjel Decleer.

Belongs within: Thoracica.
Contains: Tetraclita, Pyrgomatidae.

The Balanomorpha are the clade of barnacles containing the familiar acorn barnacles. Members of the clade are characterised by a symmetrical wall formed of 1, 4, 6 or 8 plates, and with the operculum usually formed from paired terga and scuta (Ross 1971).

See also: Reference review: Barnacles among the coral.

    |--Chionelasmatidae [Chionelasmatoidea] MD01
    |--Pachylasmatidae [Pachylasmatoidea] MD01
    |--Tetraclitoidea MD01
    |    |--Bathylasmatidae MD01
    |    `--Tetraclitidae C03
    |         |--Tetraclita C03
    |         |--Elminius plicatus Gray 1843 C03
    |         `--Tesseropora rosea (Krauss 1848) HJ08
    |--Coronuloidea MD01
    |    |--Platylepas C79 [Platylepadidae MD01]
    |    |--Chelonibia C79 [Chelonibiidae MD01]
    |    |    `--C. patula C79
    |    `--Coronula W81 [Coronulidae MD01]
    |         |--C. balaenaris W81
    |         |--C. diadema W81
    |         `--C. reginae W81
    |--Chthamaloidea MD01
    |    |--Catophragmidae MD01
    |    `--Chthamalidae Y03
    |         |--Chinochthamalus Foster 1980 Y03
    |         |    `--*C. scutelliformis (Darwin 1854) [=Chamaesipho scutelliformis] Y03
    |         `--Chthamalus Y03
    |              |--C. anisopoma R96
    |              |--C. challengeri Y03
    |              |--C. dalli Y03
    |              |--C. fissus Y03
    |              |--C. fragilis RS10
    |              |--C. malayensis Y03
    |              |--C. montagui Southward 1976 C03
    |              `--C. stellatus Poli 1971 C03
    `--Balanoidea MD01
         |--Balanidae MD01
         |    |--Semibalanus GEW01
         |    |    |--S. balanoides Linnaeus 1767 C03
         |    |    `--S. cariosus KBC03
         |    |--Balanus C03
         |    |    |--B. balanoides C79
         |    |    |--B. crenatus KBC03
         |    |    |--B. eburneus BB-S88
         |    |    |--B. hameri C79
         |    |    |--B. perforatus B79
         |    |    |--B. psittacus C79
         |    |    |--B. trigonus WMJ09
         |    |    `--B. venustus M02
         |    |--Amphibalanus HJ08
         |    |    |--A. albicostatus HJ08
         |    |    |--A. amphitrite (Darwin 1854) [=Balanus amphitrite] HJ08
         |    |    |--A. improvisus (Darwin 1854) [=Balanus improvisus] HJ08
         |    |    `--A. reticulatus (Utinomi 1967) [=Balanus reticulatus] HJ08
         |    `--Megabalanus Hoek 1913 C03
         |         |--M. ajax (Darwin 1854) HJ08
         |         |--M. coccopoma (Darwin 1854) WMJ09
         |         |--M. rosa (Pilsbry 1916) HJ08
         |         |--M. tintinnabulum (Linnaeus 1758) HJ08
         |         `--M. volcano HJ08
         `--+--Pyrgomatidae A92
            `--Armatobalanus Hoek 1913 [Archaeobalanidae, Archaeobalaninae] A92
                 |--A. allium (Darwin 1854) [=Balanus allium] A92
                 |--A. arcuatus (Hoek 1913) [=Balanus (Armatobalanus) arcuatus; incl. Cantellius tredecimus] A92
                 |--A. cepa (Darwin 1854) [=Balanus cepa] A92
                 |--A. circe (Kolosvary 1947) [=Balanus circe] A92
                 |--A. filigranus (Broxh 1916) [=Balanus filigranus] A92
                 |--A. funiculorum (Annandale 1906) [=Balanus funiculorum] A92
                 |--A. nefrens (Zullo 1963) [=Balanus (Armatobalanus) nefrens] A92
                 |--A. oryza (Broch 1931) [=Balanus (Armatobalanus) oryza] A92
                 |--A. palaoensis (Hiro 1937) [=Balanus (Armatobalanus) palaoensis] A92
                 |--A. quadrivittatus (Darwin 1854) [=Balanus quadrivittatus] A92
                 |--A. quinquevittatus (Hoek 1913) [=Balanus (Armatobalanus) quinquevittatus] A92
                 `--A. terebratus (Darwin 1854) [=Balanus terebratus] A92

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A92] Anderson, D. T. 1992. Structure, function and phylogeny of coral-inhabiting barnacles (Cirripedia, Balanoidea). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 106: 277-339.

[BB-S88] Boxshall, G. A., & R. Böttger-Schnack. 1988. Unusual ascothoracid nauplii from the Red Sea. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Zoology series 54 (6): 275-283.

[B79] Buss, L. W. 1979. Habitat selection, directional growth and spatial refuges: Why colonial animals have more hiding places. In Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms (G. Larwood & B. R. Rosen, eds) pp. 459-497. Academic Press: London.

[C03] Chan, B. K. K. 2003. Studies on Tetraclita squamosa and Tetraclita japonica (Cirripedia: Thoracica) II: Larval morphology and development. Journal of Crustacean Biology 23 (3): 522-547.

[C79] Crisp, D. J. 1979. Dispersal and re-aggregation in sessile marine invertebrates, particularly barnacles. In Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms (G. Larwood & B. R. Rosen, eds) pp. 319-327. Academic Press: London.

[GEW01] Giribet, G., G. D. Edgecombe & W. C. Wheeler. 2001. Arthropod phylogeny based on eight molecular loci and morphology. Nature 413: 157-161.

[HJ08] Huisman, J. M., D. S. Jones, F. E. Wells & T. Burton. 2008. Introduced marine biota in Western Australian waters. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 1-44.

[KBC03] Kashin, I. A., E. V. Bagaveeva & S. F. Chaplygina. 2003. Fouling communities of hydrotechnical constructions in Nakhodka Bay (Sea of Japan). Russian Journal of Marine Biology 29: 267-283.

[MD01] Martin, J. W., & G. E. Davis. 2001. An updated classification of the Recent Crustacea. Natural History Museum Los Angeles County, Science Series 39: 1-124.

[M02] Munroe, T. A. 2002. Herrings. Family Clupeidae. In Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds) 3rd ed. pp. 111-160. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[RS10] Regier, J. C., J. W. Shultz, A. Zwick, A. Hussey, B. Ball, R. Wetzer, J. W. Martin & C. W. Cunningham. 2010. Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences. Nature 463: 1079-1083.

[R96] Roff, D. A. 1996. The evolution of threshold traits in animals. Quarterly Review of Biology 71 (1): 3-35.

Ross, A. 1971. Antarctic Cirripedia: monographic account based on specimens collected chiefly under the United States Antarctic research program, 1962-1965. American Geophysical Union.

[W81] Watson, L. 1981. Sea Guide to Whales of the World. Hutchinson: London.

[WMJ09] Wells, F. E., M. Mulligan & D. S. Jones. 2009. Prevention of introduction of species brought into Geraldton Harbour, Western Australia, by the dredge Leonardo da Vinci. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (2): 153-158.

[Y03] Yan, Y. 2003. Larval development of the barnacle Chinochthmalus scutelliformis (Cirripedia: Chthmalidae) reared in the laboratory. Journal of Crustacean Biology 23 (3): 513-521.

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