Giant waterflea Leptodora kindtii, photographed by Wim van Egmond.

Belongs within: Branchiopoda.
Contains: Spinicaudata, Anomopoda.

The Diplostraca is a clade of freshwater crustaceans with the body enclosed within a bivalved carapace. The diplostracans have been divided in the past between the Cladocera (water fleas) and 'Conchostraca' (clam shrimps). However, current indications are that the clam shrimps are paraphyletic with regard to the Cladocera. The clam shrimps of the Lynceidae have a smooth carapace without growth lines, and a greatly reduced telson lacking a furca.

Synapomorphies (from Ax 2000): Median placement of compound eyes in close proximity; second antenna biramous, strongly developed with locomotory function; first thoracopod of male with hooks for copulation, movable finger differentiated from endopodite; eggs deposited in dorsal shell space between carapace and back of thorax, eggs attached onto dorsal structures of endopodite; abdomen short, legless, folded downwards; dorsal telson with pair of long setae; branches of furca differentiated into backward-directed claws.

<==Diplostraca [Cladoceromorpha, Conchostraca]
    |--Lynceus [Laevicaudata, Lyncaeidae, Lynceidae] RS10
    |    `--L. macleayanus T06
    `--+--Spinicaudata RS10
       `--Cladocera [Eucladocera] RS10
            |  i. s.: Diaphanosoma TDC06
            |           |--D. bachyurum B68
            |           `--D. unguiculatum TDC06
            |         Latonopsis brehmi TDC06
            |         Ceriodaphnia GH01
            |           |--C. cornuta R96
            |           `--C. reticulata GH01
            |         Evadne B26
            |           |--E. nordmani B26
            |           `--E. spinifera B26
            |         Bythotrephes longimanus B68
            |--Anomopoda S-FD03
            |--Ctenopoda S-FD03
            |    |--Holopedium [Holopedidae, Holopediidae] MD01
            |    `--Sida B68 [Sididae MD01]
            |         `--S. crystallina B68
            `--Gymnomera MD01
                 |--Leptodora [Haplopoda, Leptodoridae] MD01
                 |    `--L. kindtii B01
                 `--Onychopoda MD01
                      |--Cercopagididae MD01
                      |--Podonidae MD01
                      `--Polyphemus Müller 1776 BR05 [Polyphemidae MD01]

Diplostraca incertae sedis:
  Bairdestheria S02
  Eosestheria S81
    |  i. s.: E. brevis S81
    |         E. chijinpuensis S81
    |         E. crassa S81
    |         E. filaris S81
    |         E. jiufotangensis S81
    |         E. jiuquanensis S81
    |         E. middendorfii S81
    |         E. oblonga S81
    |         E. ovata S81
    |--E. (Alloestheria) striata S81
    `--E. (Yumenestheria) S81
         |--E. (Y.) delicatula S81
         `--E. (Y.) lepida S81
  Diestheria S81
    |--D. gansuensis S81
    |--D. jiayuguanensis S81
    |--D. ovalis S81
    |--D. xiagouensis S81
    |--D. yixianensis S81
    `--D. zhoulangensis S81
  Gansulimnadia S81
    |--G. ovata S81
    `--G. quadrata S81
  Pseudestherites qinghemensis S81
  Yanjiestheria S81
    |--Y. fusiformis S81
    |--Y. hanhsiaensis S81
    |--Y. minor S81
    |--Y. sinensis S81
    |--Y. venulosa S81
    `--Y. yumenensis S81
  Neodiestheria S81
    |--N. changmaensis S81
    `--N. dalaziensis S81
  Orthesteriopsis liupanshanensis S81
  Cyclestheria MD01 [Cyclestherida WZK06, Cyclestheriidae]
    `--C. hislopi MD01

*Type species of generic name indicated


Ax, P. 2000. Muticellular Animals: the phylogenetic system of the Metazoa vol. 2. Springer.

[B26] Bigelow, H. B. 1926. Plankton of the offshore waters of the Gulf of Maine. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries 40 (2): 1-509.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, J. Frýda, B. Hausdorf, W. Ponder, Á. Valdés & A. Warén. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1-2): 1-397.

[B01] Brancelj, A. 2001. Male of Moraria radovnae Brancelj, 1988 (Copepoda: Crustacea), and notes on endemic and rare copepod species from Slovenia and neighbouring countries. Hydrobiologia 453/454: 513-524.

[B68] Brooks, J. L. 1968. The effects of prey size selection by lake planktivores. Systematic Zoology 17 (3): 273-291.

[GH01] Garrity, G. M., & J. G. Holt. 2001. Phylum BXI. Chlorobi phy. nov. In Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd ed., vol. 1. The Archaea and the Deeply Branching and Phototrophic Bacteria (Boone, D. R., R. W. Castenholz & G. M. Garrity, eds) pp. 601-623. Springer.

[MD01] Martin, J. W., & G. E. Davis. 2001. An updated classification of the Recent Crustacea. Natural History Museum Los Angeles County, Science Series 39: 1-124.

[RS10] Regier, J. C., J. W. Shultz, A. Zwick, A. Hussey, B. Ball, R. Wetzer, J. W. Martin & C. W. Cunningham. 2010. Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences. Nature 463: 1079-1083.

[R96] Roff, D. A. 1996. The evolution of threshold traits in animals. Quarterly Review of Biology 71 (1): 3-35.

[S-FD03] Santos-Flores, C. J., & S. I. Dodson. 2003. Dumontia oregonensis n. fam., n. gen., n. sp., a cladoceran representing a new family of ‘water-fleas’ (Crustacea, Anomopoda) from U.S.A., with notes on the classification of the order Anomopoda. Hydrobiologia 500: 145-155.

[S81] Shen Y.-B. 1981. Fossil conchostracans from the Chijinpu Formation (Upper Jurassic) and the Xinminpu group (Lower Cretaceous) in Hexi Corridor, Gansu. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 20 (3): 266-272.

[S02] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002. Ecological history of the aquatic insects. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 388-426. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[T06] Timms, B. V. 2006. The large branchiopods (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) of gnammas (rock holes) in Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 89 (4): 163-173.

[TDC06] Timms, B. V., B. Datson & M. Coleman. 2006. The wetlands of the Lake Carey catchment, northeast Goldfields of Western Australia, with special reference to large branchiopods. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 89 (4): 175-183.

[WZK06] Weeks, S. C., M. Zofkova & B. Knott. 2006. Limnadiid clam shrimp distribution in Australia (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Spinicaudata). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 89 (4): 155-161.

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