Lynceus brachyurus, from here.

Belongs within: Branchiopoda.
Contains: Eosestheria, Spinicaudata, Anomopoda, Gymnomera.

The Diplostraca is a clade of freshwater crustaceans with the body enclosed within a bivalved carapace. The diplostracans have been divided in the past between the Cladocera (water fleas) and 'Conchostraca' (clam shrimps). However, current indications are that the clam shrimps are paraphyletic with regard to the Cladocera. The clam shrimps of the Lynceidae have a smooth carapace without growth lines, and a greatly reduced telson lacking a furca. The Cladocera differ from other Diplostraca in lacking appendages on the posterior part of the body, and having a more or less reduced carapace that does not cover the head.

Synapomorphies (from Ax 2000): Median placement of compound eyes in close proximity; second antenna biramous, strongly developed with locomotory function; first thoracopod of male with hooks for copulation, movable finger differentiated from endopodite; eggs deposited in dorsal shell space between carapace and back of thorax, eggs attached onto dorsal structures of endopodite; abdomen short, legless, folded downwards; dorsal telson with pair of long setae; branches of furca differentiated into backward-directed claws.

<==Diplostraca [Cladoceromorpha, Conchostraca]
    |--Lynceidae [Laevicaudata, Lyncaeidae] RS10
    |    |--Camptocercus lilljeborgii D01
    |    |--Acroperus leucocephalus D01
    |    |--Duvenhedia setigera D01
    |    |--Pleuroxus D01
    |    |    |--P. aduncus D01
    |    |    |--P. csikii Daday 1901 D01
    |    |    |--P. excisus D01
    |    |    |--P. hastatus D01
    |    |    |--P. personatus D01
    |    |    |--P. trigonellus D01
    |    |    `--P. truncatus D01
    |    `--Lynceus RS10
    |         |--L. brachyurus [=Monoculus brachyurus] L02
    |         |--L. lamellatus [=Monoculus lamellatus] L02
    |         |--L. longirostris [=Monoculus longirostris] L02
    |         |--L. macleayanus T06
    |         |--L. macrourus [=Monoculus macrourus] L02
    |         |--L. quadrangularis [=Monoculus quadrangularis] L02
    |         |--L. socors [=Monoculus socors] L02
    |         |--L. sphaericus [=Monoculus sphaericus] L02
    |         |--L. trigonellus [=Monoculus trigonellus] L02
    |         `--L. truncatus [=Monoculus truncatus] L02
    `--+--Spinicaudata RS10
       `--+--Cyclestheria [Cyclestherida, Cyclestheriidae] LSE13
          |    `--C. hislopi MD01
          `--Cladocera [Eucladocera] RS10
               |  i. s.: Latonopsis brehmi TDC06
               |         Evadne B26
               |           |--E. nordmani B26
               |           `--E. spinifera B26
               |         Bythotrephes longimanus B68
               |         Lathonura [Lyncodaphniidae] D01
               |           `--L. rectirostris D01
               |         Australospilus elongatus PH10
               |         Penilia avirostris ZS10
               |--Anomopoda S-FD03
               |--Gymnomera MD01
               `--Ctenopoda S-FD03
                    |--Holopedium [Holopedidae, Holopediidae] MD01
                    `--Sididae MD01
                         |--Sida crystallina D01
                         `--Diaphanosoma D01
                              |--D. bachyurum [incl. D. brachyurum var. brandtianum] D01
                              |--D. excisum D01
                              |--D. sarsi D01
                              |--D. singalense [incl. D. singalense var. intermedium Daday 1901] D01
                              `--D. unguiculatum TDC06

Diplostraca incertae sedis:
  Bairdestheria S02
  Eosestheria S81
  Diestheria S81
    |--D. gansuensis S81
    |--D. jiayuguanensis S81
    |--D. ovalis S81
    |--D. xiagouensis S81
    |--D. yixianensis S81
    `--D. zhoulangensis S81
  Gansulimnadia S81
    |--G. ovata S81
    `--G. quadrata S81
  Pseudestherites qinghemensis S81
  Yanjiestheria S81
    |--Y. fusiformis S81
    |--Y. hanhsiaensis S81
    |--Y. minor S81
    |--Y. sinensis S81
    |--Y. venulosa S81
    `--Y. yumenensis S81
  Neodiestheria S81
    |--N. changmaensis S81
    `--N. dalaziensis S81
  Orthesteriopsis liupanshanensis S81
  Lepidilla Matthew 1886 BB61
    `--*L. anaomala Matthew 1886 BB61
  Lepiditta Matthew 1886 BB61
    `--*L. alata Matthew 1886 BB61
  Laxitextella laxitexta (Jones 1890) DS16
  Leaia SC17
    |--L. chinensis SC17
    |--L. collinsi Mitchell 1925 F71
    |--L. compta Mitchell 1925 F71
    |--L. elliptica Mitchell 1925 F71
    |--L. latissima Mitchell 1925 F71
    |--L. oblongata Mitchell 1925 F71
    |--L. paraleidyi Mitchell 1925 F71
    |--L. pincombei Mitchell 1925 F71
    `--L. quadrata Mitchell 1925 F71

*Type species of generic name indicated


Ax, P. 2000. Muticellular Animals: the phylogenetic system of the Metazoa vol. 2. Springer.

[BB61] Benson, R. H., J. M. Berdan, W. A. van den Bold, T. Hanai, I. Hessland, H. V. Howe, R. V. Kesling, S. A. Levinson, R. A. Reyment, R. C. Moore, H. W. Scott, R. H. Shaver, I. G. Sohn, L. E. Stover, F. M. Swain & P. C. Sylvester-Bradley. 1961. Systematic descriptions. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt Q. Arthropoda 3: Crustacea: Ostracoda pp. Q99–Q421. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press.

[B26] Bigelow, H. B. 1926. Plankton of the offshore waters of the Gulf of Maine. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries 40 (2): 1–509.

[B68] Brooks, J. L. 1968. The effects of prey size selection by lake planktivores. Systematic Zoology 17 (3): 273–291.

[D01] Daday, E. 1901. Édesvizi mikroszkópi állatok [Mikroskopische Süsswasserthiere]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 375–470. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[DS16] Dzik, J., & T. Sulej. 2016. An early Late Triassic long-necked reptile with a bony pectoral shield and gracile appendages. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 61 (4): 805–823.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 4. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[LSE13] Legg, D. A., M. D. Sutton & G. D. Edgecombe. 2013. Arthropod fossil data increase congruence of morphological and molecular phylogenies. Nature Communications 4 (2485): 1-7.

[MD01] Martin, J. W., & G. E. Davis. 2001. An updated classification of the Recent Crustacea. Natural History Museum Los Angeles County, Science Series 39: 1–124.

[PH10] Pinder, A. M., S. A. Halse, R. J. Shiel & J. M. McRae. 2010. An arid zone awash with diversity: patterns in the distribution of aquatic invertebrates in the Pilbara region of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 78 (1): 205–246.

[RS10] Regier, J. C., J. W. Shultz, A. Zwick, A. Hussey, B. Ball, R. Wetzer, J. W. Martin & C. W. Cunningham. 2010. Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences. Nature 463: 1079–1083.

[S-FD03] Santos-Flores, C. J., & S. I. Dodson. 2003. Dumontia oregonensis n. fam., n. gen., n. sp., a cladoceran representing a new family of ‘water-fleas’ (Crustacea, Anomopoda) from U.S.A., with notes on the classification of the order Anomopoda. Hydrobiologia 500: 145–155.

[SC17] Schwentner, M., D. J. Combosch, J. P. Nelson & G. Giribet. 2017. A phylogenomic solution to the origin of insects by resolving crustacean-hexapod relationships. Current Biology 27: 1818–1824.

[S81] Shen Y.-B. 1981. Fossil conchostracans from the Chijinpu Formation (Upper Jurassic) and the Xinminpu group (Lower Cretaceous) in Hexi Corridor, Gansu. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 20 (3): 266–272.

[S02] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002. Ecological history of the aquatic insects. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 388–426. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[T06] Timms, B. V. 2006. The large branchiopods (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) of gnammas (rock holes) in Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 89 (4): 163–173.

[TDC06] Timms, B. V., B. Datson & M. Coleman. 2006. The wetlands of the Lake Carey catchment, northeast Goldfields of Western Australia, with special reference to large branchiopods. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 89 (4): 175–183.

[ZS10] Zhang, G.-T., S. Sun, Z.-L. Xu & Q.-L. Zhang. 2010. Unexpected dominance of the subtropical copepod Temora turbinata in the temperate Changjiang River estuary and its possible causes. In: China-Russia Bilateral Symposium: Proceedings of the China-Russia Bilateral Symposium of "Comparison on Marine Biodiversity in the Northwest Pacific Ocean", 10–11 October 2010, Qingdao (China) pp. 100–102. Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; A. V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Last updated: 5 November 2017.

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