Black howler monkeys Alouatta caraya, from Formiga Tours (only the adult males are black).

Belongs within: Anthropoidea.
Contains: Callitrichinae, Cebinae, Pitheciidae, Ateles.

The clade Platyrrhini contains the New World monkeys of South and Central America. The name ('flat nose') refers to the position of the nostrils, widely separated and facing outwards, as opposed to the closely-positioned and downwards-pointing nostrils of members of their sister group, the Catarrhini (Old World monkeys and apes). Past classifications often divided the Platyrrhini between the families Callitrichidae (including the marmosets and tamarins) and Cebidae (including the larger New World monkeys). However, it is now well established that Cebidae in this sense is paraphyletic with regard to the callitrichids, and its members are divided between a number of families.

Synapomorphies (from Horovitz 1999): Ossification present in tentorium cerebelli; canal connecting subarcuate fossa and sigmoid sinus; zygomatic-parietal contact in pterion region; M3 and P4 subequal in length.

Platyrrhini [Aotinae, Ateloidea, Ceboidea, Platyrrhina]
    |  i. s.: Chilecebus carracoensis TT06
    |         Carlocebus Fleagle 1990 G91
    |         Lagonimico conclucatus TT06
    |--Branisella [Branisellinae] OW06
    |    `--B. boliviana OW06
    `--+--Homunculus [Homunculidae] NG13
       |    `--H. patagonicus NG13
       `--+--Cebidae OW06
          |    |--Callitrichinae OW06
          |    `--+--Cebinae OW06
          |       `--Aotidae G91
          |            |--Tremacebus harringtoni G91, TT06
          |            `--Aotus Illiger 1811 OW06, C57 (see below for synonymy)
          |                 |--*A. trivirgatus (Humboldt 1811) (see below for synonymy) C57
          |                 |    |--A. t. trivirgatus (see below for synonymy) C57
          |                 |    |--A. t. boliviensis Elliot 1907 [incl. A. bidentatus Lönnberg 1941] C57
          |                 |    |--A. t. griseimembra Elliot 1912 (see below for synonymy) C57
          |                 |    |--A. t. lemurinus (Geoffroy 1843) (see below for synonymy) C57
          |                 |    |--A. t. microdon Dollman 1909 C57
          |                 |    `--A. t. roberti Dollman 1909 C57
          |                 |--A. azarae (Humboldt 1812) G91, C57 (see below for synonymy)
          |                 |--A. brumbacki IT07
          |                 |--A. hershkovitzi IT07
          |                 |--A. infulatus (Kuhl 1820) G91, C57 [=Callithrix infulatus C57, Saguinus infulatus C57]
          |                 |--A. nancymaae [=A. nancymai] G91
          |                 |--A. nigriceps Dollman 1909 G91, C57 (see below for synonymy)
          |                 `--A. vociferans (Spix 1823) G91, C57 (see below for synonymy)
          `--+--Pitheciidae OW06
             `--Atelidae OW06
                  |--Atelinae C57
                  |    |--Ateles OW06
                  |    `--+--Brachyteles Spix 1823 OW06, C57 (see below for synonymy)
                  |       |    `--B. arachnoides (Geoffroy 1806) (see below for synonymy) C57
                  |       `--Lagothrix Geoffroy in Humboldt 1812 OW06, C57 (see below for synonymy)
                  |            |--L. lagothricha (Humboldt 1812) (see below for synonymy) C57
                  |            |    |--L. l. lagothricha G91
                  |            |    `--L. l. lugens Elliot 1907 G91, C57 [=L. cana lugens C57]
                  |            |--L. cana (Geoffroy ex Humboldt 1812) C57 (see below for synonymy)
                  |            |    |--L. c. cana [incl. L. geoffroyi Pucheran 1857] C57
                  |            |    |--L. c. olivacea (Spix 1823) (see below for synonymy) C57
                  |            |    `--L. c. poeppigii Schinz 1844 [incl. L. castelnaui Geoffroy 1848] C57
                  |            |--L. flavicauda (Humboldt 1812) J84, C57 (see below for synonymy)
                  |            `--L. hendeei Thomas 1927 [=L. (Oreonax) hendeei] C57
                  `--Alouattinae G91
                       |--Stirtonia Hershkovitz 1970 [incl. Kondous Setoguchi 1985] G91
                       `--Alouatta Lacépéde 1799 OW06, C57 (see below for synonymy)
                            |--*A. belzebul (Linné 1766) (see below for synonymy) C57
                            |    |--A. b. belzebul [incl. Mycetes rufimanus Kuhl 1820, M. flavimanus (l. c.)] C57
                            |    |--A. b. discolor (Spix 1823) (see below for synonymy) C57
                            |    |--A. b. mexianae (Hagmann 1908) [=Mycetes belzebul mexianae] C57
                            |    |--A. b. nigerrima Lönnberg 1941 C57
                            |    `--A. b. ululata Elliot 1912 C57
                            |--A. caraya (Humboldt 1812) (see below for synonymy) C57
                            |--A. coibensis IT07
                            |--A. fusca (Geoffroy 1812) G91, C57 [=Stentor fuscus C57, Mycetes fuscus C57]
                            |    |--A. f. fusca G91
                            |    `--A. f. beniensis Lönnberg 1941 G91, C57 [=A. guariba beniensis C57]
                            |--A. guariba (Humboldt 1812) [=Simia guariba, Stentor guariba] C57
                            |    |--A. g. guariba [incl. Mycetes bicolor Gray 1845] C57
                            |    `--A. g. clamitans Cabrera 1940 (see below for synonymy) C57
                            |--A. palliata J84
                            |    |--A. p. palliata C57
                            |    `--A. p. aequatorialis Festa 1903 (see below for synonymy) C57
                            |--A. pigra IT07
                            |--A. seniculus (Linné 1766) (see below for synonymy) C57
                            |    |--A. s. seniculus (see below for synonymy) C57
                            |    |--A. s. arctoidea Cabrera 1940 (see below for synonymy) C57
                            |    |--A. s. sara Elliot 1910 C57
                            |    `--A. s. straminea (Humboldt 1812) (see below for synonymy) C57
                            `--A. villosa J84
                                 |--A. v. villosa G69
                                 `--A. v. mexicana G69

Alouatta Lacépéde 1799 OW06, C57 [=Alouata Trouessart 1897 C57, Aluatta Fischer 1813 C57; incl. Mycetes Illiger 1811 C57, Stentor Geoffroy in Humboldt 1812 C57]

*Alouatta belzebul (Linné 1766) [=Simia sapajus belzebul, Alouata belzebul, Alouatta beelzebul, Cebus belzebul, Mycetes beelzebul, Simia beelzebub] C57

Alouatta belzebul discolor (Spix 1823) [=Mycetes discolor; incl. A. belzebul tapajozensis Lönnberg 1941] C57

Alouatta caraya (Humboldt 1812) [=Simia caraya, Cebus caraya, Mycetes caraya; incl. M. barbatus Spix 1823, Stentor niger Geoffroy in Humboldt 1812, Alouata nigra, Alouatta nigra, Aluatta nigra, M. seniculus niger] C57

Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera 1940 [=A. fusca clamitans; incl. A. fusca iheringi Lönnberg 1941] C57

Alouatta palliata aequatorialis Festa 1903 [=Alouata aequatorialis; incl. Alouatta inclamax Thomas 1913, Alouatta palliata inconsonns Goldman 1913, Alouatta palliata quicha Thomas 1913] C57

Alouatta seniculus (Linné 1766) [=Simia seniculus, A. senicula, Cebus seniculus, Mycetes seniculus, Stentor seniculus] C57

Alouatta seniculus arctoidea Cabrera 1940 [incl. Simia ursina Humboldt 1805 nec Kerr 1792 nec Bechstein 1800, Alouatta seniculus ursina, Mycetes ursinus, Stentor ursinus] C57

Alouatta seniculus seniculus (Linné 1766) [incl. A. seniculus bogotensis Allen 1914, A. seniculus caaucensis Allen 1904, A. seniculus caquetensis Allen 1914, Stentor chrysurus Geoffroy 1829, Mycetes chrysurus, Alouatta seniculus juara Elliot 1910, A. seniculus juruana Lönnberg 1941, M. laniger Gray 1845, A. seniculus puruensis Lönnberg 1941, A. seniculus rubicunda Allen 1904, A. seniculus rubiginosa (l. c.)] C57

Alouatta seniculus straminea (Humboldt 1812) [=Simia straminea, A. senicula stramineus, Cebus stramineus, Mycetes stramineus, Stentor stramineus; incl. Alouatta seniculus amazonica Lönnberg 1941, Mycetes auratus Gray 1845, Stentor fulvus Geoffroy in Humboldt 1812 (n. n.), Alouatta seniculus macconnelli Elliot 1910, A. senicula macconnelli] C57

Aotus Illiger 1811 OW06, C57 [=Aotes Jardine 1833 C57; incl. Chirogaleus Vigors & Horsfield 1829 C57, Gliscebus Lesson 1840 C57, Nocthora Cuvier 1824 C57, Nyctipithecus Spix 1823 C57]

Aotus azarae (Humboldt 1812) G91, C57 [=Simia azarae C57, Aotes azarae C57, Aotus azarai C57, Aotus trivirgatus azarae C57, Nyctipithecus azarae C57, N. azarai C57; incl. Pithecia miqouina Geoffroy 1812 C57, Aotus miriqouina C57, Nyctipithecus miriqouina C57]

Aotus nigriceps Dollman 1909 G91, C57 [=A. trivirgatus nigriceps C57; incl. A. miconax Thomas 1927 C57]

*Aotus trivirgatus (Humboldt 1811) [=Simia trivirgata, Aotes trivirgatus, Cebus trivirgatus, Nocthora trivirgata, Nyctipithecus trivirgatus, Simia trivergata] C57

Aotus trivirgatus griseimembra Elliot 1912 [incl. A. bipunstatus Bole 1937, A. zonalis Goldman 1914] C57

Aotus trivirgatus lemurinus (Geoffroy 1843) [=Nyctipithecus lemurinus; incl. A. aversus Elliot 1913, N. hirsutus Gray 1870 (n. n.), Aotus lanius Dollman 1909, A. perviglis Elliot 1913, Nyctipithecus villosus Gray 1847] C57

Aotus trivirgatus trivirgatus (Humboldt 1811) [incl. Chirogaleus commersoni Vigors & Horsfield 1829, Nyctipithecus commersoni, N. duruculi Lesson 1840, N. felinus Spix 1823, Cebus felinus, Aotus humboldti Illiger in Humboldt 1812, Nyctipithecus humboldtii, Nyctipithecus rufipes Sclater 1872, Gliscebus rufus Lesson 1840, Scartes rufus] C57

Aotus vociferans (Spix 1823) G91, C57 [=Nyctipithecus vociferans C57, A. trivirgatus vociferans C57, Cebus vociferans C57; incl. Aotus gularis Dollman 1909 C57, N. oseryi Geoffroy & Deville 1848 C57, A. senex Dollman 1909 C57, N. spixi Pucheran 1857 C57]

Brachyteles Spix 1823 OW06, C57 [=Brachyteleus Elliot 1913 C57; incl. Eriodes Geoffroy 1829 C57]

Brachyteles arachnoides (Geoffroy 1806) [=Ateles arachnoides, Brachyteleus arachnoides, Cebus arachnoides, Eriodes arachnoides, Simia arachnoides; incl. Ateles eriodes Brehm 1876, Eriodes hemidactylus Geoffroy 1829, A. hemidactylus, A. hypoxanthus Kuhl 1820, Cebus hypoxanthus, *Brachyteles macrotarsus Spix 1823, Eriodes tuberifer Geoffroy 1829] C57

Lagothrix Geoffroy in Humboldt 1812 OW06, C57 [incl. Gastrimargus Spix 1823 C57, Oreonax Thomas 1927 C57]

Lagothrix cana (Geoffroy ex Humboldt 1812) C57 [=Simia cana C57, Cabus canus C57, Lagothrix canus C57, L. lagotricha cana BP87]

Lagothrix cana olivacea (Spix 1823) [=Gastrimargus olivaceus; incl. L. lagothricha puruensis Lönnberg 1940, L. tachudii Pucheran 1857, L. thomasi Elliot 1909, L. ubericola Elliot 1909] C57

Lagothrix flavicauda (Humboldt 1812) J84, C57 [=Simia flavicauda C57, Stentor flavicaudatus C57]

Lagothrix lagothricha (Humboldt 1812) [=Simia lagothricha, Cebus lagothrix, Lagothrix lagothrix; incl. L. capparo Lesson 1840, L. caroarensis Lömberg 1931, *L. humboldtii Geoffroy 1812, Gastrimargus infumatus Spix 1823, L. infumata, L. infumatus] C57

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BP87] Burton, J. A., & B. Pearson. 1987. Collins Guide to the Rare Mammals of the World. Collins: London.

[C57] Cabrera, A. 1957. Catalogo de los mamiferos de America del Sur. I (Metatheria—Unguiculata—Carnivora). Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia” e Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de Las Ciencias Naturales, Ciencias Zoológicas 4 (1): 1–307.

[G69] Goodwin, G. G. 1969. Mammals from the State of Oaxaca, Mexico, in the American Museum of Natural History. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 141 (1): 1–269, 40 pls.

[G91] Groves, C. P. 1991. A Theory of Human and Primate Evolution, revised ed. Clarendon Press: Oxford.

Horovitz, I. 1999. A phylogenetic study of living and fossil platyrrhines. American Museum Novitates 3269: 1-40.

[IT07] Isaac, N. J. B., S. T. Turvey, B. Collen, C. Waterman & J. E. M. Baillie. 2007. Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny. PloS One 2 (3): e296.

[J84] Janson, C. H. 1984. Capuchin-like monkeys. In: Macdonald, D. (ed.) All the World’s Animals: Primates pp. 56–65. Torstar Books: New York.

[NG13] Ni, X., D. L. Gebo, M. Dagosto, J. Meng, P. Tafforeau, J. J. Flynn & K. C. Beard. 2013. The oldest known primate skeleton and early haplorhine evolution. Nature 498: 60–64.

[OW06] Opazo, J. C., D. E. Wildman, T. Prychitko, R. M. Johnson & M. Goodman. 2006. Phylogenetic relationships and divergence times among New World monkeys (Platyrrhini, Primates). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40 (1): 274–280.

[TT06] Tejedor, M. F., A. A. Tauber, A. L. Rosenberger, C. C. Swisher, III & M. E. Palacios. 2006. New primate genus from the Miocene of Argentina. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103: 5437–5441.

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