Dasypodidae

Nine-banded armadillos Dasypus novemcinctus, photographed by Charlie Bittner.


Belongs within: Xenarthra.

The Dasypodidae are the armadillos, a family found in South America and southern North America distinguished by modification of the skin to form an armour of bone and keratin.

Characters (from Nowak 1999): Skull dorsoventrally flattened; lower jaw elongate; tongue long and protrusible; teeth small, ever-growing, peglike, numerous (up to forty in each jaw). Double-layered covering of bone and horn over most of upper surface and sides: shield on top of head; quadrate or polygonal scutes on back and sides, usually arranged into shoulder and hip shields divided by movable rings; irregular horny shields on outer or exposed margins of limbs, which can be withdrawn into space between body and shoulder and hip shields; tail usually encased by bony rings or plates; undersurface of body, inner surfaces of limbs and spaces between scutes with soft, haired skin. Lower bones of legs united proximally and distally. Hands with three to five digits with powerful, curved claws; feet with five digits with claws. Mammae usually located in chest region, abdominal pair occasionally present.

Dasypodidae
    |  i. s.: Astegotheriini BAA04
    |           |--Riostegotherium yanei Oliveira & Bergqvist 1998 BAA04
    |           |--Astegotherium Ameghino 1902 BAA04
    |           |--Stegosimpsonia Vizcaíno 1994 BAA04
    |           |--Nanoastegotherium Carlini, Vizcaíno & Scillato-Yané 1997 BAA04
    |           `--Prostegotherium Ameghino 1902 BAA04
    |                `--P. astrifer Ameghino 1902 BAA04
    |--Chlamyphorinae [Chlamyphorini] C57
    |    |--Chlamyphorus Harlan 1825 BR05 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    `--*C. truncatus Harlan 1825 (see below for synonymy) C57
    |    `--Burmeisteria Gray 1865 C57
    |         `--*B. retusa (Burmeister 1863) (see below for synonymy) C57
    |              |--B. r. retusa C57
    |              `--B. r. clorindae Yepes 1939 C57
    `--+--Dasypus Linnaeus 1758 DSD03, BAA04 (see below for synonymy)
       |    |--*D. novemcinctus Linné 1758 [=Cachicamus novemcinctus, Praopus novemcinctus, Tatusia novemcincta] C57
       |    |    |--D. n. novemcinctus (see below for synonymy) C57
       |    |    |--D. n. aequatorialis Lönnberg 1913 [incl. Tatusia granadiana Gray 1873 (n. d.)] C57
       |    |    |--D. n. mexianae (Hagmann 1908) [=Tatusia novemcincta mexianae] C57
       |    |    `--D. n. mexicanus Peters 1864 MB86
       |    |--D. hybridus (Desmarest 1804) (see below for synonymy) C57
       |    |--D. kappleri Krauss 1862 [=Tatusia kappleri] C57
       |    |    |--D. k. kappleri [incl. D. pentadactylus Peters 1865] C57
       |    |    `--D. k. pastasae (Thomas 1901) (see below for synonymy) C57
       |    |--D. mazzai Yepes 1933 C57
       |    |--D. pilosus (Fitzinger 1856) (see below for synonymy) C57
       |    |--D. sabanicola DSD03
       |    `--D. septemcinctus Linné 1758 (see below for synonymy) C57
       `--+--Tolypeutinae DSD03
          |    |--Tolypeutes Illiger 1811 DSD03, BAA04 (see below for synonymy)
          |    |    |--*T. tricinctus (Linné 1758) (see below for synonymy) C57
          |    |    `--T. matacus (Desmarest 1804) (see below for synonymy) C57
          |    `--Priodontini [Priodontina] DSD03
          |         |--Priodontes Cuvier 1825 (see below for synonymy) C57
          |         |    |--P. giganteus (Geoffroy 1803) (see below for synonymy) C57
          |         |    `--P. maximus Cuvier 1827 BAA04
          |         `--Cabassous McMurtrie 1831 DSD03, BAA04 (see below for synonymy)
          |              |--*C. unicinctus (Linné 1758) (see below for synonymy) C57
          |              |--C. centralis BP87
          |              |--C. chacoensis IT07
          |              |--C. hispidus (Burmeister 1854) (see below for synonymy) C57
          |              |--C. loricatus (Wagner 1855) (see below for synonymy) C57
          |              `--C. tatouay (Desmarest 1819) (see below for synonymy) C57
          `--Euphractinae [Euphractini] DSD03
               |--Zaedyus Ameghino 1889 DSD03, C57 [=Zaedipus (l. c.) C57]
               |    |--Z. pichiy (Desmarest 1804) [=Loricatus pichiy] C57
               |    |    |--Z. p. pichiy (see below for synonymy) C57
               |    |    `--Z. p. caurinus Thomas 1928 C57
               |    `--Z. ciliatus (Fischer 1814) M94, C57 [=Dasypus ciliatus C57]
               `--+--Chaetophractus Fitzinger 1871 DSD03, C57 [incl. Dasyphractus Fitzinger 1871 C57]
                  |    |--*C. villosus (Desmarest 1804) (see below for synonymy) C57
                  |    |--C. nationi (Thomas 1894) [=Dasypus nationi] C57
                  |    `--C. vellerosus (Gray 1865) [=Dasypus vellerosus] C57
                  |         |--C. v vellerosus [incl. Dasyphractus brevirostris Fitzinger 1871] C57
                  |         `--C. v. pannosus (Thomas 1902) [=Dasypus vellerosus pannosus] C57
                  `--Euphractus Wagler 1830 DSD03, C57 (see below for synonymy)
                       `--*E. sexcinctus (Linné 1758) C57 [=Dasypus sexcinctus C57, Chaetophractus sexcinctus ANG03]
                            |--E. s. sexcinctus C57
                            |--E. s. boliviae (Thomas 1907) [=Dasypus sexcinctus boliviae] C57
                            |--E. s. flavimanus (Desmarest 1804) (see below for synonymy) C57
                            |--E. s. setosus (Wied 1826) (see below for synonymy) C57
                            `--E. s. tucumanus (Thomas 1907) (see below for synonymy) C57

*Burmeisteria retusa (Burmeister 1863) [=Chlamydophorus retusus, Calyptophractus retusus, Chlamyphorus retusus] C57

Cabassous McMurtrie 1831 DSD03, BAA04 [incl. Arizostus Gloger 1841 C57, Lysiurus Ameghino 1891 C57, Tatoua Gray 1865 C57, Ziphila Gray 1873 C57]

Cabassous hispidus (Burmeister 1854) [=Dasypus hispidus, Tatoua (Tatoua) hispida; incl. Xenurus latirostris Gray 1873] C57

Cabassous loricatus (Wagner 1855) [=Dasypus gymnurus var. loricatus, Lysiurus loricatus, Xenurus loricatus] C57

Cabassous tatouay (Desmarest 1819) [=Dasypus tatouay, Tatusia tatouay, Xenurus tatouay; incl. Ziphila lugubris Gray 1873] C57

*Cabassous unicinctus (Linné 1758) [=Dasypus unicinctus, Lysiurus unicinctus, Tatoua unicincta, Xenurus (Tatoua) unicinctus; incl. D. dudodecimcinctus Schreber 1774, D. gymnurus Wied 1826, Arizostus gymnurus, Tatusia gymnura, Xenurus gymnurus, Dasypus multicinctus Thumberg 1818, X. nudicaudus Turner 1851, D. octodecimcinctus Erxleben 1777, D. undecimcinctus Illiger 1815 (n. n.), D. verrucosus Wagner 1844, D. xenurus Krauss 1862] C57

*Chaetophractus villosus (Desmarest 1804) [=Loricatus villosus, Dasypus villosus, Euphractus villosus, Tatusia villosa] C57

Chlamyphorus Harlan 1825 BR05 [=Chlamydephorus Lenz 1831 (nom. inv.) non Binney 1879 BR05, Chlamydophorus Wagler 1830 C57]

*Chlamyphorus truncatus Harlan 1825 [=Chlamydophorus truncatus; incl. Chlamydophorus truncatus minor Lahille 1895, Chlamyphorus truncatus minor, Chlamydophorus truncatus ornatus Lahille 1895, Chlamyphorus truncatus patquiensis Yepes 1932, Chlamydophorus truncatus typicus Lahille 1895] C57

Dasypus Linnaeus 1758 DSD03, BAA04 [incl. Cachicama Geoffroy 1835 C57, Cachicamus McMurtrie 1831 C57, Cataphractus Storr 1780 C57, Cryptophractus Fitzinger 1856 C57, Hyperoambon Peters 1864 C57, Loricatus Desmarest 1804 C57, Muletia Gray 1874 C57, Praopus Burmeister 1854 C57, Tatu Blumenbach 1799 C57, Tatus Fermin 1769 C57, Tatusia Lesson 1827 C57, Zonoplites Gloger 1841 C57; Dasypodinae, Dasypodini]

Dasypus hybridus (Desmarest 1804) [=Loricatus hybridus, Cachicama hybridus, Praopus hybridus, Tatu hybridus, Tatusia hybrida, T. hybridus; incl. Dasypus brevicauda Larrañaga 1923] C57

Dasypus kappleri pastasae (Thomas 1901) [=Tatu pastasae; incl. D. kappleri beniensis Lönnberg 1942, D. kappleri peruvianus Lönnberg 1928] C57

*Dasypus novemcinctus novemcinctus Linné 1758 [incl. Tatusia boliviensis Gray 1873, Tatusia brevirostris Gray 1873, Tatusia leptocephala Gray 1873, Tatusia leptorhynchus Gray 1873, Tatusia leptorhinus (l. c.), Dasypus longicaudatus Kerr 1792, D. longicaudus, Praopus longicaudatus, Tatus longicaudatus, Dasypus lundii Fitzinger 1871, Tatus minor Fermin 1769, Loricatus niger Desmarest 1804, Dasypus octocinctus Schreber 1774, D. peba Desmarest 1819, D. (Praopus) peba, Tatusia peba, Tatusia platycercus Hensel 1873, Dasypus serratus Fischer 1814, D. uroceras Lund 1841] C57

Dasypus pilosus (Fitzinger 1856) [=Cryptophractus pilosus, D. (Chryptophractus) pilosus, Tatu pilosa; incl. D. (Praopus) hirsutus Burmeister 1862] C57

Dasypus septemcinctus Linné 1758 [incl. Tatusia megalolepis Cope 1889, D. megalolepe, Tatu megalolepis, Tatusia (Muletia) propalatum Rhoads 1895, Dasypus propalatus] C57

Euphractus Wagler 1830 DSD03, C57 [incl. Encoubertus McMurtrie 1831 C57, Pseudotroctes Gloger 1841 C57, Scleropleura Milne-Edwards 1872 C57]

Euphractus sexcinctus flavimanus (Desmarest 1804) [=Loricatus flavimanus; incl. Dasypus encoubert Desmarest 1820, D. flavipes Fischer 1814, D. sexcinctus gilvipes Lichtenstein 1818, Euphractus sexcinctus gilvipes, D. poyu Larrañaga 1923] C57

Euphractus sexcinctus setosus (Wied 1826) [=Dasypus sexcinctus setosus; incl. Scleropleura bruneti Milne-Edwards 1872, D. mustelinus Fitzinger 1871] C57

Euphractus sexcinctus tucumanus (Thomas 1907) [=Dasypus sexcinctus tucumanus, E. s. tucamanus (l. c.)] C57

Priodontes Cuvier 1825 [=Priodon McMurtrie 1831, Priodonta Gray 1843, Prionodon Gray 1843, Prionodontes Schinz 1845, Prionodos Gray 1865; incl. Cheloniscus Wagler 1830, Polygomphius Gleger 1841] C57

Priodontes giganteus (Geoffroy 1803) [=Dasypus giganteus, Loricatus giganteus, Priodon giganteus; incl. Dasypus gigas Cuvier 1822, Cheloniscus gigas, Priodon gigas, Priodonta gigas, *Priodontes gigas, Prionodontes gigas, Prionodos gigas] C57

Tolypeutes Illiger 1811 DSD03, BAA04 [=Tolypuetes (l. c.) C57; incl. Apar Geoffroy 1847 C57, Apara McMurtrie 1831 C57, Matacus Rafinesque 1815 C57, Sphaerocormus Fitzinger 1871 C57, Tolypoides Neveu-Lemaire & Grandidier 1905 C57; Tolypeutini]

Tolypeutes matacus (Desmarest 1804) [=Loricatus matacus, Tolypeutes mataca, Tolypeutes matacos, Tolypeutes tricinctus matacus, Tolypuetes tricinctus matacos; incl. Dasypus aparoides Bravard in Gervais 1869 (n. n.), Tolypoides bicinctus Grandidier & Neveu-Lemaire 1905, Tolypeutes conurus Geoffroy 1847, Dasypus (Tolypeutes) conurus fossilis Burmeister 1867, Tolypeutes globulus Illiger 1815 (n. n.), Tolypeutes tricinctus muriei Garrod 1878, Tolypuetes tricinctus muriei] C57

*Tolypeutes tricinctus (Linné 1758) [=Dasypus tricinctus, Tolypuetes tricinctus; incl. D. apar Desmarest 1819, Tatusia apar, D. quadricinctus Linné 1758] C57

Zaedyus pichiy pichiy (Desmarest 1804) [incl. Euphractus marginatus Wagler 1830, Dasypus minutus Desmarest 1822, Chaetophractus minutus, Euphractus minutus, Tatusia minuta, *Zaedyus minutus, Dasypus patagonicus Desmarest 1819] C57

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[ANG03] Asher, R. J., M. J. Novacek & J. H. Geisler. 2003. Relationships of endemic African mammals and their fossil relatives based on morphological and molecular evidence. Journal of Mammalian Evolution 10 (1-2): 131-194.

[BAA04] Bergqvist, L. P., E. A. L. Abrantes & L. dos S. Avilla. 2004. The Xenarthra (Mammalia) of São José de Itaboraí Basin (upper Paleocene, Itaboraian), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Geodiversitas 26 (2): 323-337.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, J. Frýda, B. Hausdorf, W. Ponder, Á. Valdés & A. Warén. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1-2): 1-397.

[BP87] Burton, J. A., & B. Pearson. 1987. Collins Guide to the Rare Mammals of the World. Collins: London.

[C57] Cabrera, A. 1957. Catalogo de los mamiferos de America del Sur. I (Metatheria - Unguiculata - Carnivora). Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia” e Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de Las Ciencias Naturales, Ciencias Zoológicas 4 (1): 1-307.

[DSD03] Delsuc, F., M. J. Stanhope & E. J. P. Douzery. 2003. Molecular systematics of armadillos (Xenarthra, Dasypodidae): Contribution of maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 28: 261-275.

[IT07] Isaac, N. J. B., S. T. Turvey, B. Collen, C. Waterman & J. E. M. Baillie. 2007. Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny. PLoS One 2 (3): e296.

[M94] MacPhee, R. D. E. 1994. Morphology, adaptations, and relationships of Plesiorycteropus, and a diagnosis of a new order of eutherian mammals. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 220: 1-214.

[MB86] Matson, J. O. & R. H. Baker. 1986. Mammals of Zacatecas. Special Publications, Museum of Texas Tech University 24: 1-88.

Nowak, R. M. 1999. Walker's Mammals of the World vol. 2. JHU Press.

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