Paranebalia sp., from the Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History.

Belongs within: Euarthropoda.
Contains: Archaeostraca, Eumalacostraca, Nebaliidae.

The Malacostraca are a clade of crustaceans characterised by the possession of fourteen or fifteen trunk segments with the trunk divided into two sections bearing functionally distinct appendages. The anterior section of eight segments bears leaf-like phyllopods or rod-shaped stenopods whereas the following six segments bear swimming pleopods (there may be a terminal limbless segment). Those taxa with phyllopods have historically been recognised as the Phyllocarida but recent analysis have indicated this group is paraphyletic to the stenopod-bearing Eumalacostraca. 'Phyllocarida' are represented in the modern fauna by the Leptostraca which also bear a movable rostrum, a scale-like ramus on the first antenna, and a uniramous second antenna (Walker-Smith & Poore 2001).

<==Malacostraca [Phyllocarida]
    |--+--Archaeostraca AC17
    |  `--+--Cinerocaris magnifica AC17, SC17
    |     `--Eumalacostraca AC17
    `--Leptostraca [Nebaliacea] AC17
         |  i. s.: Rhabdouraea Malzahn 1962 [Rhabdouraeidae] W-SP01
         |           `--*R. bentzi (Malzahn 1958) [=Nebalia bentzi) SM84
         |         Douglasocaris [Douglasocaridae] G88
         |--Nebaliopsis Sars 1887 [Nebaliopsidae, Nebaliopsididae] W-SP01
         |    `--*N. typica Sars 1887 W-SP01
         `--+--Nebaliidae W-SP01
            `--Paranebaliidae W-SP01
                 |--Paranebalia Claus 1880 W-SP01
                 |    |--*P. longipes (Willemöes-Suhm 1875) [=Nebalia longipes] W-SP01
                 |    `--P. belizensis Modlin 1991 W-SP01
                 `--Levinebalia Walker-Smith 2000 W-SP01
                      |--*L. maria Walker-Smith 2000 W-SP01
                      `--L. fortunata (Wakabara 1976) W-SP01

Malacostraca incertae sedis:
  Litopenaeus vannamei TL03
  Shinkaia crosnieri WS10
  Callizoe Barrande 1872 (n. d.) M61
  Orozoe Barrande 1872 (n. d.) M61
  Hymenocaris Salter 1853 B95 [Hymenocarididae, Hymenostraca FGS04]
    |--H. oelandica O68
    `--H. vermicauda Salter 1853 BWW93
  Sairocarididae [Hoplostraca] G88
    |--Sairocaris elongata (Peach 1882) BWW93
    `--Kellibrooksia macrogaster Schram 1973 BWW93
  Mytocaris Chlupáč 1970 BT04
    |--M. klouceki Chlupáč 1970 BT04
    `--‘Buffalopterus’ verrucosus Kjellesvig-Waering & Heubusch 1962 BT04
  Galenocaris Wells 1944 BT04
    `--G. campbelli Wells 1944 BT04
  Lebesconteia Jones & Woodward 1899 BT04
  Nothozoe Barrande 1872 (n. d.) BT04
    |--*N. pollens Barrande 1872 BB61
    `--N. barrandei Chlupáč 1970 BT04
  Saccocaris Salter 1873 BT04
    |--S. major Salter 1873 BT04
    |--S. minor Jones & Woodward 1891 BT04
    `--S. tetragona Chapman 1903 BT04
  Trigonocarys Barrois 1891 BT04
  Peltocaris Salter 1862 [incl. Coronagraptus Hundt 1951] M14

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AC17] Aria, C., & J.-B. Caron. 2017. Burgess Shale fossils illustrate the origin of the mandibulate body plan. Nature 545: 89–92.

[BB61] Benson, R. H., J. M. Berdan, W. A. van den Bold, T. Hanai, I. Hessland, H. V. Howe, R. V. Kesling, S. A. Levinson, R. A. Reyment, R. C. Moore, H. W. Scott, R. H. Shaver, I. G. Sohn, L. E. Stover, F. M. Swain & P. C. Sylvester-Bradley. 1961. Systematic descriptions. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt Q. Arthropoda 3: Crustacea: Ostracoda pp. Q99–Q421. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press.

[B95] Bousfield, E. L. 1995. A contribution to the natural classification of Lower and Middle Cambrian arthropods: food-gathering and feeding mechanisms. Amphipacifica 2: 3–34.

[BT04] Braddy, S. J., V. P. Tollerton Jr, P. R. Racheboeuf & R. Schallreuter. 2004. Eurypterids, phyllocarids, and ostracodes. In: Webby, B. D., F. Paris, M. L. Droser & I. G. Percival (eds) The Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event pp. 255–265. Columbia University Press.

[BWW93] Briggs, D. E. G., M. J. Weedon & M. A. Whyte. 1993. Arthropoda (Crustacea excluding Ostracoda). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 321–342. Chapman & Hall: London.

[FGS04] Feldmann, R. M., A. A. Garassino & C. E. Schweitzer. 2004. The presumed decapod, Palaeopemphix Gemmellaro, 1890, is a unique member of the Phyllocarida (Palaeopemphicida: Palaeopemphidae). Journal of Palaeontology 78: 340–348.

[G88] Gray, J. 1988. Evolution of the freshwater ecosystem: the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 62: 1–214.

[M14] Maletz, J. 2014. The classification of the Pterobranchia (Cephalodiscida and Graptolithina). Bulletin of Geosciences 89 (3): 477–540.

[M61] Moore, R. C. 1961. Editorial note. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt Q. Arthropoda 3: Crustacea: Ostracoda pp. Q429. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press.

[O68] Öpik, A. A. 1968. Ordian (Cambrian) Crustacea Bradoriida of Australia. Commonwealth of Australia, Bureau of National Development, Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics, Bulletin 103: 1–45.

[SM84] Schram, F. R., & E. Malzahn. 1984. The fossil leptostracan Rhabdouraea bentzi (Malzahn, 1958). Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 20 (6): 95–98.

[SC17] Schwentner, M., D. J. Combosch, J. P. Nelson & G. Giribet. 2017. A phylogenomic solution to the origin of insects by resolving crustacean-hexapod relationships. Current Biology 27: 1818–1824.

[TL03] Thompson, F. L., Y. Li, B. Gomez-Gil, C. C. Thompson, B. Hoste, K. Vandemeulebroecke, G. S. Rupp, A. Pereira, M. M. De Bem, P. Sorgeloos & J. Swings. 2003. Vibrio neptunius sp. nov., Vibrio brasiliensis sp. nov. and Vibrio xuii sp. nov., isolated from the marine aquaculture environment (bivalves, fish, rotifers and shrimps). International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 245–252.

[W-SP01] Walker-Smith, G. K., & G. C. B. Poore. 2001. A phylogeny of the Leptostraca (Crustacea) with keys to families and genera. Memoirs of Museum Victoria 58 (2): 383–410.

[WS10] Wang, M., S. Sun, C. Li & X. Shen. 2010. Distinctive mitochondrial genome of the calanoid copepod Calanus sinicus, a useful molecular marker for phylogenetic and population studies. In: China-Russia Bilateral Symposium: Proceedings of the China-Russia Bilateral Symposium of "Comparison on Marine Biodiversity in the Northwest Pacific Ocean", 10–11 October 2010, Qingdao (China) pp. 187–192. Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; A. V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Last updated: 13 March 2022.

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