Bythocypris sp., copyright UC Regents.

Belongs within: Pancrustacea.
Contains: Paleodarwinula, Paraparchitidae, Aparchitidae, Myodocopida, Halocyprida, Leperditiidae, Metacopina, Cytheroidea, Darwinulidae, Cypridocopina, Bairdiidae, Beyrichiacea, Drepanellacea, Kirkbyoidea, Primitiopsidae, Youngiellacea, Eurychilinidae, Graviidae, Hollinidae, Leperditellidae, Bassleratiidae, Piretellidae, Quadrijugatoridae, Sigmoopsidae, Tetradellidae.

The Ostracoda are a class of mostly aquatic (both freshwater and marine) crustaceans in which the body is enclosed between a pair of calcified lateral valves. Most ostracods are relatively small (1.5 mm or less), though there are some larger species. Living ostracods are divided between the Myodocopa, which generally have a distinct rostrum and rostral incisure, and the Podocopida, in which the second antenna is modified for walking rather than swimming.

Further groups are known from the fossil record, including the Lower Ordovician to Middle Permian Palaeocopida, which had a generally straight dorsal margin and muscle scars formed as circular spots (Benson et al. 1961), and exhibited (presumed sexual) dimorphism with swellings (probably brooding pouches) developing in the valves of heteromorphs. The Leiocopa, another Palaeozoic group, resembled the palaeocopids in general apperance but did not show the development of pouches. The Leperditicopida are an Ordovician to Devonian group of ostracods with large, thick shells and a unique muscle scar pattern in which the adductor muscle scar is large and composed of numerous secondary elements (Benson et al. 1961).

Characters (from Benson et al. 1961): Laterally compressed Crustacea with bivalve carapace, more or less calcified, hinged along dorsal margin, enclosing bi-segmented body with head undifferentiated, bearing four pairs of cephalic appendages, one to three thoracic appendages and pair of furcal rami, but no abdominal appendages.

<==Ostracoda [Beyrichicopina, Kloedenellocopina, Ostrachoda, Ostrapoda]
    |--Leiocopa HM04
    |    |--Paraparchitidae HM04
    |    `--Aparchitidae HM04
    |--Myodocopa RS10
    |    |  i. s.: Skogsbergia lerneri RS10
    |    |         Harbansus paucichelatus RS10
    |    |--Myodocopida LSE13
    |    `--Halocyprida MD01
    |--Leperditicopida [Leperditacea, Leperditiida] S61a
    |    |  i. s.: Herrmannia welleri S61a
    |    |--Leperditiidae WL04
    |    `--Isochilinidae [Isochilininae] M61a
    |         |--Dihogmochilina Teichert 1937 [incl. Dihogmochilus Neave 1950] BB61
    |         |    `--*D. latimarginata (Jones 1891) [=Isochilina grandis var. latimarginata] BB61
    |         |--Swartzochilina Scott 1956 BB61
    |         |    `--*S. straitcreekensis (Swartz 1949) [=Dihogmochilina straitcreekensis] BB61
    |         |--Teichochilina Swartz 1949 BB61
    |         |    `--*T. jonesi (Wetherby 1881) [=Isochilina jonesi] BB61
    |         `--Isochilina Jones 1858 (see below for synonymy) BB61
    |              |--*I. ottawa (Jones 1858) [=Leperditia (*Isochilina) ottawa] BB61
    |              `--I. ampla BB61
    |--Podocopida [Podocopa] HM04
    |    |  i. s.: Sigilliidae (see below for synonymy) MD01
    |    |           |--Sigillium Kuznetsova 1960 BB61
    |    |           |    `--*S. procerum Kuznetsova 1960 BB61
    |    |           `--Saipanetta McKenzie 1967 DH86
    |    |                |--S. brooksi Maddocks 1973 DH86
    |    |                |--S. cloudi McKenzie 1967 DH86
    |    |                |--S. kelloughae Maddocks 1972 DH86
    |    |                |--S. mckenziei Teeter 1975 DH86
    |    |                `--S. tumida (Brady 1890) DH86
    |    |         Abursus Loranger 1954 BB61
    |    |           `--*A. beaumontensus Loranger 1954 BB61
    |    |         Altha Neckaja 1958 BB61 [incl. Neckajatia Schallreuter 1974 A03a]
    |    |           `--*A. modesta Neckaja 1958 A03a
    |    |         Macrocyproides Spivey 1939 BB61
    |    |           `--*M. clermontensis Spivey 1939 BB61
    |    |         Punctaparchites Kay 1934 BB61
    |    |           `--*P. rugosus (Jones 1858) [=Cytheropsis rugosus] BB61
    |    |--Metacopina S61b
    |    `--Podocopina HM04
    |         |--Cytheroidea S61b
    |         `--+--+--Darwinulidae S61b
    |            |  `--Cypridocopina S61b
    |            `--Bairdiacea [Bairdiocopina] S61b
    |                 |  i. s.: Pseudophanasymmetria Sohn & Berdan 1952 BB61
    |                 |           `--*P. foveata (van Veen 1936) [=Phanassymetria foveata] BB61
    |                 |--Bairdiidae HM04
    |                 |--Macrocyprididae [Macrocypridae, Macrocypridoidea, Macrocyprinae] BB61
    |                 |    |--Macrocypris Brady 1867 CB86
    |                 |    |    `--*M. minna (Baird 1850) [=Cythere minna] BB61
    |                 |    `--Macrocypria Sars 1923 BB61
    |                 |         `--*M. sarsi (Müller 1912) (see below for synonymy) BB61
    |                 |--Bythocypris Brady 1880 BB61 [Bythocyprididae MD01]
    |                 |    |--*B. bosquetiana (Brady 1866) [=Bairdia bosquetiana; incl. *By. reniformis Brady 1880] BB61
    |                 |    |--B. actites B61
    |                 |    |--B. arcuata S61a
    |                 |    |--B. cuisensis S61a
    |                 |    `--B. truncata Cooper 1941 HM04
    |                 `--Beecherellidae [Alanellidae] M61a
    |                      |--Beecherella Ulrich 1891 BB61
    |                      |    `--*B. carinata Ulrich 1891 BB61
    |                      |--Ulrichella Bouček 1936 BB61
    |                      |    `--*U. remesi Bouček 1936 BB61
    |                      |--Rhysomagis Kesling, Kavary et al. 1959 LH61
    |                      |    `--*R. dichelomota Kesling, Kavary et al. 1959 LH61
    |                      `--Acanthoscapha Ulrich & Bassler 1923 [incl. Alanella Bouček 1936] BB61
    |                           |--*A. navicula (Ulrich 1891) [=Beecherella navicula] BB61
    |                           `--A. bohemica BB61
    `--Palaeocopida [Beyrichiida, Beyrichiocopa, Paleocopa] HM04
         |  i. s.: Karinutia Schallreuter 1978 [Monotiopleuridae] A03b
         |         Kozlowskiella Přibyl 1953 BB61
         |           `--*K. kozlowskii (Přibyl 1953) [=Ulrichia (*Kozlowskiella) kozlowskii] BB61
         |         Acanthobolbina Harris 1957 BB61
         |           `--*A. loeblichi Harris 1957 BB61
         |         Dicranella Ulrich 1894 non (Müll.Hal.) Schimp. 1856 (ICBN) BB61
         |           |--*D. bicornis Ulrich 1894 BB61
         |           `--D. marginata BB61
         |         Haplobolbina Harris 1957 BB61
         |           `--*H. arcuata Harris 1957 BB61
         |         Karlsteinella Bouček 1936 BB61
         |           `--*K. reticulata Bouček 1936 BB61
         |         Nanopsis Henningsmoen 1954 BB61
         |           `--*N. nanella (Moberg & Segerberg 1906) [=Beyrichia nanella] BB61
         |--Beyrichiacea M61a
         |--Drepanellacea M61a
         |--Kirkbyoidea M61a
         |--Primitiopsidae M61a
         |--Youngiellacea BB61
         |--Eurychilinoidea [Oepikellacea] TM02
         |    |--Eurychilinidae BB61
         |    |--Graviidae M61b
         |    |--Oepikellidae TM02
         |    |    |--Lavachilina Tinn & Meidla 2002 TM02
         |    |    |    `--*L. evae Tinn & Meidla 2002 TM02
         |    |    `--Oepikella Thorslund 1940 BB61 [=Oepickella (l. c.) M61b]
         |    |         |--*O. tvaerensis Thorslund 1940 [incl. O. asklundi] BB61
         |    |         `--O. frequens BB61
         |    `--Pribylitidae M61a
         |         |--Pribylites Pokorný 1950 [incl. Parapribylites Pokorný 1950] BB61
         |         |    `--*P. moravicus Pokorný 1950 BB61
         |         |--Mirochilina Bouček 1936 BB61
         |         |    `--*M. jarovensis Bouček 1936 BB61
         |         `--Sphenicibysis Kesling 1952 [=Sphenicibys (l. c.)] BB61
         |              `--*S. hypoderota Kesling 1952 BB61
         `--Hollinoidea [Hollinacea] M61a
              |  i. s.: Echinoprimitia Harris 1957 BB61
              |           `--*E. imputata Harris 1957 BB61
              |--Hollinidae HM04
              |--Leperditellidae HM04
              |--Bassleratiidae M61a
              |--Piretellidae M61a
              |--Quadrijugatoridae M61a
              |--Sigmoopsidae M61a
              |--Tetradellidae M61a
              |--Oepikium Agnew 1942 BB61 (see below for synonymy)
              |    |--*O. tenerum (Öpik 1935) [=Biflabellum tenerum] BB61
              |    `--O. novum TM02
              |--Tvaerenellidae [Tvaerenellinae] M61a
              |    |--Tvaerenella Jaanusson 1957 BB61
              |    |    `--*T. carinata (Thorslund 1940) [=Primitiella carinata] BB61
              |    `--Levisulculus Jaanusson 1957 BB61
              |         `--*L. lineatus Jaanusson 1957 BB61
              `--Chilobolbinidae [Chilobolbininae] BB61
                   |--Cystomatochilina Jaanusson 1957 BB61
                   |    `--*C. umbonata (Krause 1892) [=Primitia (Ulrichia) umbonata] BB61
                   `--Chilobolbina Ulrich & Bassler 1923 [incl. Chilobolba Bonnema 1938] BB61
                        |--*C. dentifera (Bonnema 1909) [=Primitia dentifera] BB61
                        `--C. hartfordensis BB61

Ostracoda incertae sedis:
  Sarscypridopsis ochracea PH10
  Mandocythere entremontensis [=Costacythere entremontensis] RR03
  Rehacythereis RR03
  Tschernovia Samoilova in Samoilova & Smirnova 1972 A03b
    `--T. tabovensis Samoilova in Samoilova & Smirnova 1972 A03b
  Punctoprimtia Stewart & Hendrix 1945 A03a
  Metavargula mazeri B88
  Eocarinabeyrichia carinata Wang 1983 WL04
  Repandocypris austinensis TDC06
  Trigonocypris globulosa TDC06
  Paleodarwinula TT05
  Prasuchonella TT05
    |--P. belebeica TT05
    |--P. nasalis TT05
    |--P. onega TT05
    |--P. stelmachovi TT05
    `--P. tichvinskaja TT05
  Garjainovula lija TT05
  Wjatkellina fragilina TT05
  Diasterope grisea HS01
  Leuroleberis zelandica HS01
  Schleroconcha arcuata HS01
  Acanthocythereis dunelmensis (Norman 1865) G83
  Tourconcha lapidiscola (Hartmann 1959) G83
  Kimsella EL11
  Sinocypris reticulata NG13
  Sinometacypris dongyuemiaoensis NG13
  Deeveya spiralis KIY04
  Battus Dalman 1826 (preoc.) S61b
  Nymphatelina LSE13
  Acrossula Kummerow 1953 BB61
    `--*A. u-scripta Kummerow 1953 BB61
  Ampuloides Polenova 1952 BB61
    `--*A. verrucosa Polenova 1952 BB61
  Arcuaria Neckaja 1958 BB61
    `--*A. sineclivula Neckaja 1958 BB61
  Ballardina Harris 1957 BB61
    `--*B. concentrica Harris 1957 BB61
  Craspedopyxion Jaanusson 1957 BB61
    `--*C. undulosum (Öpik 1937) [=Primitia undulosa] BB61
  Hemiaechminoides Morris & Hill 1952 BB61
    `--*H. monospinosus Morris & Hill 1952 BB61
  Hupehella Hou 1955 BB61
    `--*H. lunata Hou 1955 BB61
  Parapyxion Jaanusson 1957 BB61
    `--*P. subovatum (Thorslund 1948) [=Primitia subovata] BB61
  Platyrhomboides Harris 1957 BB61
    `--*P. quadratus Harris 1957 BB61
  Pyxion Thorslund 1948 BB61
    `--*P. carinatum (Hadding 1913) [=Primitia carinata] BB61
  Rectella Neckaja 1958 [=Mica Neckaja 1952 non Budde-Lund 1908] BB61
    `--*R. inaequalis (Neckaja 1952) [=*Mica inaequalis] BB61
  Antitomis Gürich 1896 (n. d.) BB61
    `--*A. bisulcata Gürich 1896 BB61
  Bernix Jones 1884 (n. d.) BB61
    `--*B. tatei (Jones 1864) [=Beyrichia tatei] BB61
  Bohemia Skajdr 1951 (n. d.) BB61
  Bryocypris Røen 1956 (n. d.) BB61
  Budnianella Bouček 1936 (n. d.) BB61
    `--*B. caroli Bouček 1936 BB61
  Caryon Barrande 1872 (n. d.) BB61
    `--*C. bohemicum Barrande 1872 BB61
  Colpos Moberg 1895 (n. d.) BB61
    `--*C. insignis Moberg 1895 BB61
  Cornia Lutkevich 1939 (n. d.) BB61
    `--*C. papillaria Lutkevich 1939 BB61
  Ctenentoma Schmidt 1941 (n. d.) BB61
    `--*C. umbonata (Steusloff 1894) [=Entomis umbonata] BB61
  Cuselina Ammon in Reis, Schuster et al. 1910 (n. d.) BB61
    `--*C. impressa Ammon in Reis, Schuster et al. 1910 BB61
  Cyclocytheridea Mandelstam in Lyubimova 1955 (n. d.) BB61
    `--C. nordvikensis [=Camptocythere nordvikensis] BB61
  Entomidella Jones 1873 (n. d.) BB61
    `--*E. buprestris (Jones in Hicks 1872) (see below for synonymy) BB61
  Eocytherella Bonnema 1933 BB61
    |--E. smithi (Jones 1887) [=Cytherella smithi] BB61
    `--E. troedssoni (Bonnema 1933) [=Cytherella troedssoni, Primitia tenera Troedsson 1918 (preoc.)] BB61
  Gibba Fuchs 1920 (n. d.) BB61
    `--*G. ‘spinosa’ (Fuchs 1920) [=Beyrichia (*Gibba) spinosa non Cytherina spinosa Hall 1852] BB61
  Glyptolichwinella Posner in Samoilova 1951 (n. d.) BB61
  Golcondella Croneis & Gale 1938 (n. d.) BB61
    `--*G. sulcata Croneis & Gale 1938 BB61
  Huarpina Rusconi 1954 (n. d.) BB61
  Isocythere Terquem 1885 (n. d.) BB61
    `--*I. nova Terquem 1885 BB61
  Junctocytheretta Anonymous in Mandelstam et al. 1956 BB61
    `--*J. signata [=Eucytherura signata] BB61
  Leioprimitia Kummerow 1939 (n. d.) BB61
    `--*L. punctata Kummerow 1939 BB61
  Leptoprimita Kummerow 1953 (n. d.) BB61
    `--*L. compressa Kummerow 1953 BB61
  Lichwinella Posner 1948 (n. d.) BB61
  Monoculus Linnaeus 1758 BB61
    |--M. conchaceus BB61 [=Cypris conchacea L02]
    |--M. foliaceus Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--M. lenticularis Linnaeus 1758 L58
    `--M. telemus Linnaeus 1758 L58
  Neochilina Matern 1929 (n. d.) BB61
    `--*N. binsenbachensis Matern 1929 BB61
  Nezamyslia Přibyl 1955 (n. d.) BB61
  Nothozoe Barrande 1872 (n. d.) BB61
    `--*N. pollens Barrande 1872 BB61
  Opisthoplax Kummerow 1943 (n. d.) BB61
    `--*O. compressa Kummerow 1943 BB61
  Orthoconchoecia Granata & Caporiacco 1949 (n. d.) BB61
  Paradoxorhyncha Chapman 1904 (n. d.) BB61
    `--*P. foveolata Chapman 1904 BB61
  Pulvillites Öpik 1937 (n. d.) BB61
    `--*P. triangulum Öpik 1937 BB61
  Quadricollina Öpik 1953 (n. d.) BB61
    `--*Q. initialis Öpik 1953 BB61
  Russia Polenova 1952 (n. d.) BB61
    `--*R. unicostata (Polenova 1952) [=Gravia (Russia) unicostata] BB61
  Sulcatia Polenova 1952 (n. d.) BB61
  ‘Synaphe’ Chapman 1914 (n. d.) nec Huebner 1825 nec Jones & Kirkby 1896 BB61
    `--*S. mesozoica Chapman 1914 BB61
  Tetrasulcata Matern 1929 (n. d.) BB61
    `--*T. fluens Matern 1929 BB61
  Zonozoe Barrande 1872 BB61
    `--*Z. drabowiensis Barrande 1872 BB61
  ‘Pseudocypris’ Herbst 1958 non Daday 1908 LH61
    `--*P. dietzi Herbst 1958 LH61
  Ostpreussensia Schallreuter 1993 TM02
  Rabilimis YE77
    |--R. mirabilis Brady 1874 YE77
    |--R. paramirabilis Swain 1963 YE77
    `--R. septentrionalis YE77

*Entomidella buprestris (Jones in Hicks 1872) [=Entomis buprestris, Leperditia buprestris Salter in Hick 1865 (n. n.)] BB61

Isochilina Jones 1858 [incl. Hogmochilina Solle 1935, Holtedahlina Solle 1935 non Foerste 1925, Holtedahlites Solle 1936, Paenaequina Solle 1935] BB61

*Macrocypria sarsi (Müller 1912) [=Macrocypris sarsi, Bairdia angusta Sars 1866 non Cythere (Bairdia) angusta Jones 1850] BB61

Oepikium Agnew 1942 BB61 [incl. Biflabellum Öpik 1935 non Döderlein 1913 BB61; Oepikiidae TM02, Oepikiumidae]

Sigilliidae [Sigiliidacea, Sigillidae, Sigilliocopina, Sigillioidea, Sigilliumidae, Sigilliuminae] MD01

*Type species of generic name indicated


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