Right view of Acanthoscapha bohemica, from Benson et al. (1961).

Belongs within: Oligostraca.
Contains: Paleodarwinula, Bradoriida, Cypridinida, Halocypridida, Leperditicopida, Healdiocopina, Sigilliocopina, Cytherocopina, Darwinulocopina, Cypridocopina, Bairdiidae, Palaeocopida, Platycopida.

The Ostracoda are a class of mostly aquatic (both freshwater and marine) crustaceans in which the body is enclosed within a bivalved, usually calcified carapace. Most ostracods are relatively small (1.5 mm or less) though there are some larger species. The body is short and laterally compressed, and lacks signs of external segmentation. There are four pairs of head appendages (the antennules, antennae, mandibles and maxillae), one to three pairs of thoracic appendages and a terminal pair of furcae/furcal rami (Benson et al. 1961). The antennae function as the primary locomotory organs.

Living ostracods are divided between the Myodocopomorpha, which generally have a distinct rostrum and rostral incisure, and the Podocopomorpha, in which the antenna is modified for walking rather than swimming. Plesiomorphic features retained by living myodocopomorphs include the presence of lateral eyes and a heart (Liebau 2005) with the loss of a heart in podocopomorphs probably being related to their reduction in body size. The podocopomorphs are uniformly calcified but myodocopomorphs may be weakly or not calcified. The earliest definite representatives of the ostracods are known from the Ordovician; earlier arthropod groups with bivalved but non-calcified carapaces, such as the Archaeocopida and Phosphatocopida, have commonly been assigned to the ostracods but their affinities remain debated (Liebau 2005).

Ostracoda [Beyrichicopina, Kloedenellocopina, Ostrachoda, Ostracodoidea, Ostrapoda]
    |--Myodocopomorpha [Entomidacea, Entomozoacea, Myodocopa, Myodocopida, Myodocopina] L05
    |    |  i. s.: Skogsbergia lerneri RS10
    |    |         Harbansus paucichelatus RS10
    |    |         Nasunaris LSE13
    |    |         Deloris laevis A99
    |    |         Cyprosina Jones 1881 BB61 [Cyprosinidae WSB93]
    |    |           `--*C. whidbornei Jones 1881 BB61
    |    |--Cypridinida L05
    |    |--Halocypridida L05
    |    `--Leperditicopida L05
    `--Podocopomorpha L05
          |--Podocopida [Podocopa] HM04
          |    |  i. s.: Abursus Loranger 1954 BB61
          |    |           `--*A. beaumontensus Loranger 1954 BB61
          |    |         Altha Neckaja 1958 BB61
          |    |           `--*A. modesta Neckaja 1958 A03a
          |    |         Macrocyproides Spivey 1939 BB61
          |    |           `--*M. clermontensis Spivey 1939 BB61
          |    |         Punctaparchites Kay 1934 BB61
          |    |           `--*P. rugosus (Jones 1858) [=Cytheropsis rugosus] BB61
          |    |         Calcaribeyrichia JB12
          |    |         Londinia JB12
          |    |         Risona [Rishonidae] WSB93
          |    |           `--R. sarcinula Reynolds 1978 WSB93
          |    |         Balticella Thorslund 1940 BB61 [Balticellidae, Balticelloidea L05]
          |    |           `--*B. oblonga Thorslund 1940 BB61
          |    |--Healdiocopina BB61
          |    `--Podocopina HM04
          |         |  i. s.: Sigilliocopina WSB93
          |         |--Cytherocopina L05
          |         `--+--+--Darwinulocopina S61
          |            |  `--Cypridocopina S61
          |            `--Bairdioidea [Bairdiacea, Bairdiocopina] S61
          |                 |  i. s.: Pseudophanasymmetria Sohn & Berdan 1952 BB61
          |                 |           `--*P. foveata (van Veen 1936) [=Phanassymetria foveata] BB61
          |                 |--Bairdiidae HM04
          |                 |--Beecherellidae BB61
          |                 |    |--Beecherella Ulrich 1891 BB61
          |                 |    |    `--*B. carinata Ulrich 1891 BB61
          |                 |    |--Ulrichella Bouček 1936 BB61
          |                 |    |    `--*U. remesi Bouček 1936 BB61
          |                 |    |--Rhysomagis Kesling, Kavary et al. 1959 LH61
          |                 |    |    `--*R. dichelomota Kesling, Kavary et al. 1959 LH61
          |                 |    `--Platyrhomboides Harris 1957 WSB93, BB61
          |                 |         |--*P. quadratus Harris 1957 BB61
          |                 |         `--P. virginiensis Kraft 1962 WSB93
          |                 `--Acanthoscapha Ulrich & Bassler 1923 BB61 [incl. Alanella Bouček 1936 BB61; Alanellidae L05]
          |                      |--*A. navicula (Ulrich 1891) [=Beecherella navicula] BB61
          |                      |--A. blessi Kozur 1989 WSB93
          |                      `--A. bohemica BB61
          |--Palaeocopida L05
          `--Platycopida L05

Ostracoda incertae sedis:
  Sarscypridopsis ochracea PH10
  Mandocythere entremontensis [=Costacythere entremontensis] RR03
  Rehacythereis RR03
  Tschernovia Samoilova in Samoilova & Smirnova 1972 A03b
    `--T. tabovensis Samoilova in Samoilova & Smirnova 1972 A03b
  Metavargula mazeri B88
  Eocarinabeyrichia carinata Wang 1983 WL04
  Repandocypris austinensis TDC06
  Trigonocypris globulosa TDC06
  Paleodarwinula TT05
  Prasuchonella TT05
    |--P. belebeica TT05
    |--P. nasalis TT05
    |--P. onega TT05
    |--P. stelmachovi TT05
    `--P. tichvinskaja TT05
  Garjainovula lija TT05
  Wjatkellina fragilina TT05
  Diasterope grisea HS01
  Leuroleberis zelandica HS01
  Schleroconcha arcuata HS01
  Acanthocythereis dunelmensis (Norman 1865) G83
  Tourconcha lapidiscola (Hartmann 1959) G83
  Kimsella EL11
  Sinocypris reticulata NG13
  Sinometacypris dongyuemiaoensis NG13
  Deeveya spiralis KIY04
  Battus Dalman 1826 (preoc.) S61
  Nymphatelina LSE13
  Acrossula Kummerow 1953 BB61
    `--*A. u-scripta Kummerow 1953 BB61
  Ampuloides Polenova 1952 BB61
    `--*A. verrucosa Polenova 1952 BB61
  Ballardina Harris 1957 BB61
    `--*B. concentrica Harris 1957 BB61
  Craspedopyxion Jaanusson 1957 BB61
    `--*C. undulosum (Öpik 1937) [=Primitia undulosa] BB61
  Hemiaechminoides Morris & Hill 1952 BB61
    `--*H. monospinosus Morris & Hill 1952 BB61
  Hupehella Hou 1955 BB61
    `--*H. lunata Hou 1955 BB61
  Parapyxion Jaanusson 1957 BB61
    `--*P. subovatum (Thorslund 1948) [=Primitia subovata] BB61
  Pyxion Thorslund 1948 BB61
    `--*P. carinatum (Hadding 1913) [=Primitia carinata] BB61
  Rectella Neckaja 1958 [=Mica Neckaja 1952 non Budde-Lund 1908] BB61
    `--*R. inaequalis (Neckaja 1952) [=*Mica inaequalis] BB61
  Antitomis Gürich 1896 (n. d.) BB61
    `--*A. bisulcata Gürich 1896 BB61
  Bernix Jones 1884 (n. d.) BB61
    `--*B. tatei (Jones 1864) [=Beyrichia tatei] BB61
  Bohemia Skajdr 1951 (n. d.) BB61
  Bryocypris Røen 1956 (n. d.) BB61
  Budnianella Bouček 1936 (n. d.) BB61
    `--*B. caroli Bouček 1936 BB61
  Caryon Barrande 1872 (n. d.) BB61
    `--*C. bohemicum Barrande 1872 BB61
  Colpos Moberg 1895 (n. d.) BB61
    `--*C. insignis Moberg 1895 BB61
  Ctenentoma Schmidt 1941 (n. d.) BB61
    `--*C. umbonata (Steusloff 1894) [=Entomis umbonata] BB61
  Cuselina Ammon in Reis, Schuster et al. 1910 (n. d.) BB61
    `--*C. impressa Ammon in Reis, Schuster et al. 1910 BB61
  Cyclocytheridea Mandelstam in Lyubimova 1955 (n. d.) BB61
    `--C. nordvikensis [=Camptocythere nordvikensis] BB61
  Entomidella Jones 1873 (n. d.) BB61
    `--*E. buprestris (Jones in Hicks 1872) (see below for synonymy) BB61
  Gibba Fuchs 1920 (n. d.) BB61
    `--*G. ‘spinosa’ (Fuchs 1920) [=Beyrichia (*Gibba) spinosa non Cytherina spinosa Hall 1852] BB61
  Glyptolichwinella Posner in Samoilova 1951 (n. d.) BB61
  Golcondella Croneis & Gale 1938 (n. d.) BB61
    `--*G. sulcata Croneis & Gale 1938 BB61
  Huarpina Rusconi 1954 (n. d.) BB61
  Isocythere Terquem 1885 (n. d.) BB61
    `--*I. nova Terquem 1885 BB61
  Junctocytheretta Anonymous in Mandelstam et al. 1956 BB61
    `--*J. signata [=Eucytherura signata] BB61
  Leioprimitia Kummerow 1939 (n. d.) BB61
    `--*L. punctata Kummerow 1939 BB61
  Leptoprimita Kummerow 1953 (n. d.) BB61
    `--*L. compressa Kummerow 1953 BB61
  Lichwinella Posner 1948 (n. d.) BB61
  Monoculus Linnaeus 1758 BB61
    |--M. conchaceus BB61 [=Cypris conchacea L02]
    |--M. foliaceus Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--M. lenticularis Linnaeus 1758 L58
    `--M. telemus Linnaeus 1758 L58
  Neochilina Matern 1929 (n. d.) BB61
    `--*N. binsenbachensis Matern 1929 BB61
  Nezamyslia Přibyl 1955 (n. d.) BB61
  Opisthoplax Kummerow 1943 (n. d.) BB61
    `--*O. compressa Kummerow 1943 BB61
  Orthoconchoecia Granata & Caporiacco 1949 (n. d.) BB61
  Pulvillites Öpik 1937 (n. d.) BB61
    `--*P. triangulum Öpik 1937 BB61
  Quadricollina Öpik 1953 (n. d.) BB61
    `--*Q. initialis Öpik 1953 BB61
  Russia Polenova 1952 (n. d.) BB61
    `--*R. unicostata (Polenova 1952) [=Gravia (*Russia) unicostata] BB61
  Sulcatia Polenova 1952 (n. d.) BB61
  ‘Synaphe’ Chapman 1914 (n. d.) nec Huebner 1825 nec Jones & Kirkby 1896 BB61
    `--*S. mesozoica Chapman 1914 BB61
  Tetrasulcata Matern 1929 (n. d.) BB61
    `--*T. fluens Matern 1929 BB61
  Zonozoe Barrande 1872 BB61
    `--*Z. drabowiensis Barrande 1872 BB61
  ‘Pseudocypris’ Herbst 1958 non Daday 1908 LH61
    `--*P. dietzi Herbst 1958 LH61
  Ostpreussensia Schallreuter 1993 TM02
  Rabilimis YE77
    |--R. mirabilis Brady 1874 YE77
    |--R. paramirabilis Swain 1963 YE77
    `--R. septentrionalis YE77
  Goranella JB12
  Ohesaarina JB12
  Arculicythere G12
    |--A. defluxa Grékoff 1963 G12
    |--A. dubia Dingle 1984 G12
    |--A. kroemmelbeini Rosenfeld & Raab 1984 G12
    |--A. modica Grékoff 1963 G12
    |--A. semilunata Singh 1997 G12
    `--A. tumida Dingle 1971 [incl. Pseudobythocythere kallakkudiensis Jain 1976] G12
  Fistulosacythere Lord et al. 2006 G12
  Bringocythere Lord et al. 2006 G12
  Aitkenicythere G12
    |--A. gracilis (Bate 1975) G12
    `--A. striosulcata Dingle 1984 G12
  Procytherura G12
    |--P. aerodynamica Bate 1975 G12
    |--P. amygdala Ballent & Whatley 2009 G12
    |--P. beerae Brenner & Oertli 1976 G12
    |--P. brenneri Valicenti & Stephens 1984 G12
    |--P. dinglei Brenner & Oertli 1976 G12
    |--P. kroemmelbeini Musacchio 1979 G12
    |--P. maculata Brenner & Oertli 1976 G12
    `--P. tintinnabulum Valicenti & Stephens 1984 G12
  Rostrocytheridea opisthorhynchus Ballent & Whatley 2007 G12
  Parahemingwayella dalzieli Dingle 1984 G12
  Collisarboris stanleyensis Dingle 1984 G12
  Pirileberis mkuzensis Dingle 1984 G12
  Bradoriida WSB93
  Harperopsis ohensis Schallreuter et al. 2000 BT04
  Cymbicopia PG98
    |--C. hanseni PG98
    `--C. hispida PG98
  Bathyleberis oculata PG98
  Dolasterope johansoni PG98

*Entomidella buprestris (Jones in Hicks 1872) [=Entomis buprestris, Leperditia buprestris Salter in Hick 1865 (n. n.)] BB61

*Type species of generic name indicated


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