The dusky titi Callicebus moloch, from Cultour.it.

Belongs within: Platyrrhini.

The Pitheciidae is a family of South American monkeys containing the genera Callicebus (titis), Cacajao (uakaris) and Pithecia and Chiropotes (sakis). As well as being supported by molecular analysis (Opazo et al. 2006), the clade is supported by the subequal height of the talonid and trigonid, and the presence of a prehypocrista on M1 (Horovitz 1999).

    |  i. s.: Cebupithecia OW06
    |         Nuciruptor OW06
    |         Soriacebus OW06
    |--Pitheciinae C57
    |    |--Pithecia Desmarest 1804 OW06, C57 [incl. Yarkea Lesson 1840 C57]
    |    |    |--*P. pithecia (Linné 1766) (see below for synonymy) C57
    |    |    |--P. aequatorialis IT07
    |    |    `--P. monachus (Geoffroy ex Humboldt 1812) (see below for synonymy) C57
    |    |         |--P. m. monachus (see below for synonymy) C57
    |    |         `--P. m. capillamentosa Spix 1823 [=P. monacha capillamentosa] C57
    |    `--+--Chiropotes Lesson 1840 OW06, C57 [=Cheiropotes Reichenbach 1862 C57]
    |       |    |--C. satanas (Hoffmannsegg 1807) [=Cebus satanas, Pithecia satanas, Simia satanas] C57
    |       |    |    |--C. s. satanas (see below for synonymy) C57
    |       |    |    `--C. s. chiropotes (Humboldt 1811) (see below for synonymy) C57
    |       |    `--C. albinasus (Geoffroy & Deville 1848) (see below for synonymy) C57
    |       `--Cacajao Lesson 1840 OW06, C57 (see below for synonymy)
    |            |--*C. melanocephalus (Humboldt 1811) (see below for synonymy) C57
    |            |--C. calvus (Geoffroy 1847) (see below for synonymy) C57
    |            `--C. rubicundus (Geoffroy & Deville 1848) (see below for synonymy) C57
    |                 |--C. r. rubicundus C57
    |                 `--C. r. ucayalii Thomas 1928 C57
    `--Callicebus Thomas 1903 OW06, C57
         |--*C. personatus (Geoffroy ex Humboldt 1812) (see below for synonymy) C57
         |    |--C. p. personatus [incl. Pithecia melanops Vigors 1828] C57
         |    `--C. p. brunello Thomas 1913 C57
         |--C. brunneus (Wagner 1842) [=Callithrix brunneus; incl. Callicebus ollallae Lönnberg 1939] C57
         |--C. cinerascens (Spix 1823) [=Callithrix cinerascens] C57
         |--C. cupreus (Spix 1823) [=Callithrix cuprea, Callithrix cupreus, Cebus cupreus] C57
         |    |--C. c. cupreus (see below for synonymy) C57
         |    |--C. c. caligatus (Wagner 1842) (see below for synonymy) C57
         |    |--C. c. egeria Thomas 1908 C57
         |    |--C. c. leucometopa Cabrera 1900 [=C. cupreus leucometopus; incl. C. cupreus napoleon Lönnberg 1922] C57
         |    |--C. c. subrufus Elliot 1907 [incl. C. rutteri Thomas 1923] C57
         |    `--C. c. toppini Thomas 1914 [incl. C. cupreus acreanus Vieira 1954] C57
         |--c. dubius IT07
         |--C. melanochir (Kuhl 1820) (see below for synonymy) C57
         |--C. moloch (Hoffmannsegg 1807) [=Cebus moloch, Callithrix moloch, Saguinus moloch, Simia moloch] C57
         |    |--C. m. moloch [incl. C. emiliae Thomas 1911, C. remulus Thomas 1908] C57
         |    |--C. m. baptista Lönnberg 1939 C57
         |    |--C. m. donacophilus (D’Orbigny 1847) (see below for synonymy) C57
         |    |--C. m. hoffmannsi Thomas 1908 C57
         |    |--C. m. oenanthe Thomas 1924 C57
         |    `--C. m. pallescens Thomas 1907 C57
         |--C. nigrifrons (Spix 1823) [=Callithrix nigrifrons] C57
         |--C. olallae IT07
         |--C. ornatus (Gray 1866) [=Callithrix ornata, Callithrix ornatus] C57
         `--C. torquatus (Hoffmannsegg 1807) (see below for synonymy) C57
              |--C. t. torquatus C57
              |--C. t. amicta (Geoffroy ex Humboldt 1812) (see below for synonymy) C57
              |--C. t. lucifer Thomas 1914 [incl. C. torquatus ignitus Thomas 1927] C57
              `--C. t. lugens (Humboldt 1811) (see below for synonymy) C57

Inorganic: Cacajao calvus protominilorientalus Okamura 1987 O87

Cacajao Lesson 1840 OW06, C57 [incl. Cercoptochus Gloger 1841 C57, Neocothurus Palmer 1903 C57, Ouakaria Gray 1849 C57, Uacaria Flower & Lydekker 1891 C57]

Cacajao calvus (Geoffroy 1847) [=Brachyurus calvus, Ouakaria calva, O. calvus, Pithecia calva; incl. P. alba Sclegel 1876] C57

*Cacajao melanocephalus (Humboldt 1811) [=Simia melanocephala, Brachyurus melanocephalus, Cebus melanocephalus, Ouakaria melanocephala, Pithecia melanocephala; incl. Brachyurus ouakary Spix 1823, Cebus ouakary, Ouakaria spixii Gray 1849] C57

Cacajao rubicundus (Geoffroy & Deville 1848) [=Brachyurus rubicundus, C. calvus rubicundus, Ouakaria rubicunda, Pithecia rubicunda] C57

Callicebus cupreus caligatus (Wagner 1842) [=Callithrix caligata; incl. Callithrix castaneoventris Gray 1866, Callicebus castaneoventris] C57

Callicebus cupreus cupreus (Spix 1823) [incl. Callithrix discolor Geoffroy 1848, Callicebus cupreus paenulatus Elliot 1909, Callicebus cupreus ustofuscus Elliot 1907] C57

Callicebus melanochir (Kuhl 1820) [=Callithrix melanochir, Cebus melanochir, Saguinus melanochir; incl. Callithrix gigot Spix 1823, Callicebus gigot, Callithrix gigo] C57

Callicebus moloch donacophilus (D’Orbigny 1847) [=Callithrix donacophilus; incl. Callicebus geoffroyi Miranda Ribeiro 1914 (n. n.), Callicebus modestus Lönnberg 1939] C57

*Callicebus personatus (Geoffroy ex Humboldt 1812) [=Simia personata, Callithrix personatus, Cebus personatus, Saguinus personatus] C57

Callicebus torquatus (Hoffmannsegg 1807) [=Cebus torquatus, Callithrix torquata, Callithrix torquatus, Saguinus torquatus, Simia torquata] C57

Callicebus torquatus amicta (Geoffroy ex Humboldt 1812) [=Simia amicta, Callicebus amictus, Callithrix amicta, Callithrix amictus, Saguinus amictus; incl. Callicebus torquatus purinus Thomas 1927, Callicebus torquatus regulus Thomas 1927] C57

Callicebus torquatus lugens (Humboldt 1811) [=Simia lugens, Callithrix lugens, Saguinus lugens; incl. Callicebus lugens duida Allen 1914, Sa. vidua Lesson 1840] C57

Chiropotes albinasus (Geoffroy & Deville 1848) [=Pithecia albinasa, Yarkea albinasa; incl. Cacajao roosevelti Allen 1914] C57

Chiropotes satanas chiropotes (Humboldt 1811) [=Simia chiropotes, Pithecia chiropotes; incl. P. satanas var. fuscofulva Wagner 1855, Brachyurus israelita Spix 1823, Cheiropotes israelita, Pithecia israelita, Simia sagulata Traill 1821, Cheiropotes sagulata] C57

Chiropotes satanas satanas (Hoffmannsegg 1807) [incl. C. ater Gray 1870, *C. couxio Lesson 1840, Pithecia satanas var. nigra Wagner 1855] C57

Pithecia monachus (Geoffroy ex Humboldt 1812) [=Simia monachus, Callithrix monachus, Cebus monachus, Pithecia monacha, Yarkea monacha] C57

Pithecia monachus monachus (Geoffroy ex Humboldt 1812) [incl. P. albicans Gray 1860, Callithrix albicans, Yarkea albicans, Pithecia guapo Poeppig 1830, P. monachus hirsuta Spix 1823, Yarkea hirsuta, P. monachus inusta Spix 1823, Cebus inustus, Yarkea inusta, Pithecia irrorata Gray 1844, Y. irrorata, P. milleri Allen 1914, P. monachus napensis Lönnberg 1938] C57

*Pithecia pithecia (Linné 1766) [=Simia pithecia, Callithrix (Yarkea) pithecia, Cebus pithecia; incl. Simia adusta Illiger 1804, Pithecia pithecia chrysocephala Geoffroy 1850, Callithrix (Yarkea) chrysocephala, Simia leucocephala Audebert 1797, Cebus leucocephalus, Pithecia leucocephala, Yarkea leucocephala, P. monachus lotochiusi Mertens 1925, P. pithecia lotochiusi, Simia nocturna Illiger 1804, P. nocturna, P. ochrocephala Kuhl 1820, Yarkea ochrocephala, P. pogonias Gray 1844, Yarkea pogonias, P. rufibarbata Kuhl 1820, P. rufibarba, Simia rufiventer Humboldt 1812, P. rufiventer] C57

*Type species of generic name indicated


[C57] Cabrera, A. 1957. Catalogo de los mamiferos de America del Sur. I (Metatheria - Unguiculata - Carnivora). Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia” e Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de Las Ciencias Naturales, Ciencias Zoológicas 4 (1): 1-307.

Horovitz, I. 1999. A phylogenetic study of living and fossil platyrrhines. American Museum Novitates 3269: 1-40.

[IT07] Isaac, N. J. B., S. T. Turvey, B. Collen, C. Waterman & J. E. M. Baillie. 2007. Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny. PLoS One 2 (3): e296.

[O87] Okamura, C. 1987. New facts: Homo and all Vertebrata were born simultaneously in the former Paleozoic in Japan. Original Report of the Okamura Fossil Laboratory 15: 347-573.

[OW06] Opazo, J. C., D. E. Wildman, T. Prychitko, R. M. Johnson & M. Goodman. 2006. Phylogenetic relationships and divergence times among New World monkeys (Platyrrhini, Primates). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40 (1): 274-280.

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