The bearded emperor tamarin Saguinus imperator subgrisescens, photographed by Jitka Vokurková.

Belongs within: Platyrrhini.

The Callitrichinae are the marmosets and tamarins, a clade of small monkeys (including some of the smallest of all primates) found in northern South America. Many members of the clade are ornately coloured.

Characters (from Rylands 1984): Size small; claws (rather than nails) on all digits except big toe; two molar teeth in each side of each jaw (three in Callimico goeldii, rear inner cusp absent on upper molars; uterus simple, twin births usual (single births in C. goeldii).

<==Callitrichinae [Callitrichidae]
    |  i. s.: Cebuella Gray 1866 C57
    |           `--*C. pygmaea (Spix 1823) [=Jacchus pygmaeus, Callithrix pygmaea, Hapale (Cebuella) pygmaea] C57
    |                |--C. p. pygmaea C57
    |                `--C. p. niveiventris Lönnberg 1940 C57
    |--+--Leontopithecus Lesson 1840 OW06, C57 [incl. Leontideus Cabrera 1956 C57]
    |  |    |--L. caissara IT07
    |  |    `--L. rosalia (Linné 1766) R84, C57 (see below for synonymy)
    |  |         |--L. r. rosalia R84
    |  |         |--L. r. chrysomelas (Kuhl 1820) R84, C57 (see below for synonymy)
    |  |         `--L. r. chrysopygus (Mikan 1823) R84, C57 (see below for synonymy)
    |  `--+--Callimico Miranda Ribeiro 1911 OW06, C57 [Callimiconinae]
    |     |    `--C. goeldii (Thomas 1904) (see below for synonymy) C57
    |     `--Callithrix Erxleben 1777 OW06, C57 (see below for synonymy)
    |          |--*C. jacchus (Linnaeus 1758) (see below for synonymy) C57
    |          |--C. argentata (Linné 1766) (see below for synonymy) C57
    |          |    |--C. a. argentata R84
    |          |    |--C. a. emiliae (Thomas 1920) [=Hapale emiliae] C57
    |          |    |--C. a. leucippe (Thomas 1922) R84, C57 [=Mico leucippe C57]
    |          |    `--C. a. melanura (Geoffroy ex Humboldt 1812) (see below for synonymy) C57
    |          |--C. aurita (Geoffroy ex Humboldt 1812) C57 (see below for synonymy)
    |          |    |--C. a. aurita [incl. Hapale petronius Miranda Ribeiro 1924] C57
    |          |    `--C. coelestis (Miranda Ribeiro 1824) [=Hapale coelestis] C57
    |          |--C. flaviceps (Thomas 1903 C57 [=Hapale flaviceps C57, C. jacchus flaviceps BP87]
    |          |--C. geoffroyi (Humboldt 1812) C57 (see below for synonymy)
    |          |--C. humeralifer (Geoffroy ex Humboldt 1812) R84, C57 (see below for synonymy)
    |          |    |--C. h. humeralifer R84
    |          |    |--C. h. chrysoleuca (Wagner 1842) R84, C57 (see below for synonymy)
    |          |    `--C. h. intermedius R84
    |          |--C. penicillata (Geoffroy ex Humboldt 1812) C57 (see below for synonymy)
    |          |    |--C. p. penicillata (Geoffroy ex Humboldt 1812) C57 (see below for synonymy)
    |          |    |--C. p. jordani Thomas 1904 C57
    |          |    `--C. p. kuhlii R84
    |          `--C. santaremensis (Matschie 1893) [=Hapale santaremensis] C57
    `--Saguinus Hoffmannsegg 1807 OW06, C57
         |--S. (Saguinus) [incl. Leontocebus Wagner 1839, Mystax Gray 1870, Tamarin Gray 1870, Tamarinus Gray 1899] C57
         |    |--‘Hapale’ devillei Geoffroy 1851 (see below for synonymy) C57
         |    |--S. (S.) fuscicollis (Spix 1823) R84, C57 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |    |--S. f. fuscicollis R84
         |    |    |--S. f. acrensis R84
         |    |    |--S. f. avilapiresi R84
         |    |    |--S. f. crandalli R84
         |    |    |--S. f. cruzlimai R84
         |    |    |--S. f. fuscus (Lesson 1840) R84, C57 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |    |--S. f. illigeri (Pucheran 1845) R84, C57 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |    |--S. f. lagonotus (Espada 1870) R84, C57 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |    |--S. f. leucogenys (Gray 1865) R84, C57 [=Midas leucogenys C57]
         |    |    |--S. f. melanoleucus (Miranda Ribeiro 1912) R84, C57 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |    |--S. f. nigrifrons (Geoffroy 1851) R84, C57 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |    |--S. f. primitivus R84
         |    |    |--S. f. tripartitus (Milne-Edwards 1878) R84, C57 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |    `--S. f. weddelli (Deville 1849) R84, C57 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--S. (S.) imperator (Goeldi 1907) R84, C57 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |    |--S. i. imperator R84
         |    |    `--S. i. subgrisescens (Lönnberg 1940) R84, C57 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--S. (S.) inustus (Schwarz 1951) R84, C57 [=Leontocebus midas inustus C57]
         |    |--S. (S.) labiatus (Geoffroy ex Humboldt 1812) R84, C57 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |    |--S. l. labiatus R84 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |    |--‘Leontocebus’ l. griseovertex (Goeldi 1907) (see below for synonymy) C57
         |    |    `--S. l. thomasi (Goeldi 1907) R84, C57 [=Midas thomasi C57, Leontocebus thomasi C57]
         |    |--S. (S.) midas (Linnaeus 1758) R84, C57 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |    |--S. m. midas R84 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |    `--S. m. niger (Schinz 1844) R84 , C57 [=Hapale nigra C57]
         |    |--S. (S.) mystax (Spix 1823) R84, C57 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |    |--S. m. mystax R84
         |    |    |--S. m. pileatus (Geoffroy & Deville 1848) R84, C57 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |    `--S. m. pluto (Lönnberg 1926) R84, C57 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--S. (S.) nigricollis (Spix 1823) R84, C57 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |    |--S. n. nigricollis R84
         |    |    `--S. n. graellsi (Espada 1870) R84, C57 (see below for synonymy)
         |    `--S. (S.) tamarin (Link 1794) JP84, C57 (see below for synonymy)
         |--S. (Marikina Lesson 1840) [incl. Seniocebus Gray 1870] C57
         |    |--S. (*M.) bicolor (Spix 1823) R84, C57 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |    |--S. b. bicolor R84
         |    |    |--S. b. martinsi (Thomas 1912) R84, C57 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |    `--S. b. ochraceous R84
         |    `--S. (M.) leucopus (Günther 1876) R84, C57 (see below for synonymy)
         `--S. (Oedipomidas Reichenbach 1862) [incl. Hapanella Gray 1870] C57
              |--S. (*O.) oedipus (Linnaeus 1758) R84, C57 (see below for synonymy)
              `--S. (O.) geoffroyi (Pucheran 1845) R84, C57 (see below for synonymy)

Callimico goeldii (Thomas 1904) [=Midas goeldii, Callithrix goeldii; incl. *Callimico suethlageri Miranda Ribeiro 1912, Callimidas snethlageri (l. c.)] C57

Callithrix Erxleben 1777 -, C57 [incl. Arctopithecus Virey 1819 C57, Cuistitis Burnett 1826 C57, Hapale Illiger 1811 C57, Jacchus Geoffroy in Humboldt 1812 C57, Liocephalus Wagner 1840 C57, Mico Lesson 1840 C57, Micoella Gray 1870 C57, Sagoinus Kerr 1792 C57, Sagouin Lacépede 1799 C57, Sylvanus Rafinesque 1815 non Latreille 1807 C57]

Callithrix argentata (Linné 1766) [=Simia argentata, Hapale argentata, Jacchus argentatus, Mico argentatus, Midas argentatus, Sagouin argentatus] C57

Callithrix argentata melanura (Geoffroy ex Humboldt 1812) [=Simia melanurus, Hapale melanura, Jacchus melanurus, Mico melanurus; incl. J. leucomeros Gray 1846, Callithrix argentata leucomerus] C57

Callithrix aurita (Geoffroy ex Humboldt 1812) C57 [=Simia aurita C57, C. jacchus aurita BP87, Hapale aurita C57, H. auritus C57, Jacchus auritus C57]

Callithrix geoffroyi (Humboldt 1812) C57 [=Simia geoffroyi C57, C. jacchus geoffroyi BP87, Hapale geoffroyi C57; incl. Jacchus leucocephalus Geoffroy 1812 C57, Hapale leucocephala C57, Callithrix leucocephala C57, H. leucocephalus C57, Jacchus maximiliani Reichenbach 1862 C57]

Callithrix humeralifer (Geoffroy ex Humboldt 1812) R84, C57 [=Simia humeralifera C57, Hapale humeralifer C57, Jacchus humeralifer C57]

Callithrix humeralifer chrysoleuca (Wagner 1842) R84, C57 [=Hapale chrysoleucos C57, C. chrysoleucus C57, H. chrysoleuca C57, Mico chrysoleucus C57, Micoella chrysoleucos C57; incl. Mico sericeus Gray 1868 C57, Micoella sericeus C57]

*Callithrix jacchus (Linnaeus 1758) [=Simia jacchus, Hapale jacchus, S. jaccus; incl. Jacchus albicollis Spix 1823, Callithris albicollis, Hapale albicollis, H. leucotis Lesson 1840, Simia (Sagoinus) jacchus moschatus Kerr 1792, Jacchus vulgaris rufus Fischer 1829, J. vulgaris Geoffroy 1812] C57

Callithrix penicillata (Geoffroy ex Humboldt 1812) C57 [=Simia penicillata C57, Hapale penicillata C57, H. penicillatus C57, Jacchus penicillatus C57]

Callithrix penicillata penicillata (Geoffroy ex Humboldt 1812) C57 [=C. jacchus penicillata BP87; incl. Hapale melanotis Lesson 1840 C57, H. trigonifer Reichenbach 1862 C57]

‘Hapale’ devillei Geoffroy 1851 [=Leontocebus (Leontocebus) devillei, L. devillii, Marikina devillei, Midas devillei, Mystax devillei, Tamarin devilli; incl. My. devillei micans Thomas 1928, Tamarin devilli micans] C57

‘Leontocebus’ labiatus griseovertex (Goeldi 1907) [=Midas griseovertex, Mi. griseoventris (l. c.), Mystax griseovertex] C57

Leontopithecus rosalia (Linné 1766) R84, C57 [=Simia rosalia C57, Callithrix rosalia C57, Hapale rosalia C57, Jacchus rosalia C57, *Leontideus rosalia C57, Leontocebus rosalia C57, Marikina rosalia C57, Midas rosalia C57; incl. Jacchus rosalia brasiliensis Fischer 1829 C57, Jacchus rosalia guyanensis Fischer 1829 C57, Simia leonina Shaw 1800 C57, Leontopithecus marikina Lesson 1840 C57]

Leontopithecus rosalia chrysomelas (Kuhl 1820) R84, C57 [=Midas chrysomelas C57, Hapale chrysomelas C57, Jacchus chrysomelas C57, Leontideus chrysomelas C57, Leontocebus chrysomelas C57, Marikina chrysomelas C57]

Leontopithecus rosalia chrysopygus (Mikan 1823) R84, C57 [=Jacchus chrysopygus C57, Hapale chrysopyga C57, Leontideus chrysopygus C57, Leontocebus chrysopygus C57, Marikina chrysopygus C57, Midas chrysopygus C57; incl. Leontopithecus ater Lesson 1840 C57]

Saguinus (*Marikina) bicolor (Spix 1823) R84, C57 [=Midas bicolor C57, Hapale bicolor C57, Jacchus bicolor C57, Leontocebus (Marikina) bicolor C57, Seniocebus bicolor C57, Tamarin (Oedipomidas) bicolor C57]

(Marikina) bicolor martinsi (Thomas 1912) R84, C57 [=Leontocebus martinsi C57, L. (Marikina) martinsi C57, Seniocebus martinsi C57, Tamarin (Oedipomidas) martinsi C57]

Saguinus (Marikina) leucopus (Günther 1876) R84, C57 [=Hapale leucopus C57, Callithrix leucopus C57, Leontocebus (Marikina) bicolor C57, Oedipomidas leucopus C57; incl. O. pegasis Elliot 1913 C57]

Saguinus (Oedipomidas) geoffroyi (Pucheran 1845) R84, C57 [=Hapale geoffroyi C57, Leontocebus (Oedipomidas) geoffroyi C57, Marikina geoffroyi C57, Midas geoffroyi C57, Oedipus geoffroyi C57, Saguinus oedipus geoffroyi C57; incl. Oedipomidas salaquiensis Elliot 1912 C57, Jacchus spixii Reichenbach 1862 C57, Oedipomidas spixi C57]

Saguinus (*Oedipomidas) oedipus (Linnaeus 1758) R84, C57 [=Simia oedipus C57, Callithrix oedipus C57, Hapale oedipus, Jacchus oedipus C57, Jaccus oedipus C57, Leontocebus (Oedipomidas) oedipus C57, Leontopithecus oedipus C57, Marikina oedipus C57, Midas oedipus C57; incl. Simia albifrons Thunberg 1819 non Humboldt 1812 (n. d.) C57, Jacchus albifrons C57, Seniocebus meticulosus Elliot 1912 C57, Oedipus titi Lesson 1840]

Saguinus (Saguinus) fuscicollis (Spix 1823) R84, C57 [=Midas fuscicollis C57, Leontocebus (Leontocebus) fuscicollis C57, Marikina fuscicollis C57, Tamarin fuscicollis C57; incl. Midas flavifrons Geoffroy 1848 C57, T. nigricollis Cruz Lima 1945 C57, Mystax nigrifons pebilis Thomas 1928 C57, T. nigrifrons pebilis C57]

Saguinus (Saguinus) fuscicollis fuscus (Lesson 1840) R84, C57 [=Leontopithecus fuscus C57, Leontocebus (Leontocebus) fuscus C57; incl. Simia leonina Humboldt 1805 non Shaw 1800 C57, Hapale leonina C57 Jacchus leoninus C57, Midas leoninus C57, *Leontocebus leoninus C57, Leontopithecus leoninus C57]

Saguinus (Saguinus) fuscicollis illigeri (Pucheran 1845) R84, C57 [=Hapale illigeri C57, Midas illigeri C57, Leontocebus (Leontocebus) illigeri C57, Marikina illigeri C57, Oedipomidas illigeri C57, Tamarin illigeri C57; incl. Midas apiculatus Thomas 1904 C57, Leontocebus apiculatus C57, Tamarin apiculatus C57, L. mounseyi Thomas 1920 C57]

Saguinus (Saguinus) fuscicollis lagonotus (Espada 1870) R84, C57 [=Midas lagonotus C57, Leontocebus (Leontocebus) lagonotus C57, Mystax lagonotus C57, Tamarin lagonotus C57; incl. My. bluntschlii Matschie 1915 C57, Tamarin bluntschlii C57]

Saguinus (Saguinus) fuscicollis melanoleucus (Miranda Ribeiro 1912) R84, C57 [=Mico melanoleucus C57, Callithrix melanoleucus C57, Hapale melanoleucus C57, Leontocebus (Leontocebus) melanoleucus C57, Marikina melanoleuca C57, Mystax melanoleucus C57, Tamarin melanoleucus C57; incl. Leontocebus hololeucus Pinto 1937 C57]

Saguinus (Saguinus) fuscicollis nigrifrons (Geoffroy 1851) R84, C57 [=Midas nigrifrons C57, Hapale nigrifrons C57, Leontocebus nigrifrons C57, Tamarin nigrifrons C57]

Saguinus (Saguinus) fuscicollis tripartitus (Milne-Edwards 1878) R84, C57 [=Midas tripartitus C57, Leontocebus tripartitus C57, Tamarin tripartitus C57]

Saguinus (Saguinus) fuscicollis weddelli (Deville 1849) R84, C57 [=Midas weddelli C57, Leontocebus (Leontocebus) weddelli C57, Marikina weddelli C57; incl. Mystax imberbis Lönnberg 1940 C57, Leontocebus purillus Thomas 1914 C57]

Saguinus (Saguinus) imperator (Goeldi 1907) R84, C57 [=Midas imperator C57, Leontocebus (Leontocebus) imperator C57, Marikina imperator C57, Tamarin imperator C57]

Saguinus (Saguinus) imperator subgrisescens (Lönnberg 1940) R84, C57 [=Mystax imperator subgrisescens C57, Marikina imperator subgrisescens C57, Tamarin imperator subgrisescens C57]

Saguinus (Saguinus) labiatus (Geoffroy ex Humboldt 1812) R84, C57 [=Simia labiata C57, Hapale labiata C57, Jacchus labiatus C57, Leontocebus (Leontocebus) labiatus C57, Marikina labiata C57, Ma. labiatus C57, Midas labiatus C57, Tamarin labiatus C57]

Saguinus (Saguinus) labiatus labiatus (Geoffroy ex Humboldt 1812) R84, C57 [incl. Mi. elegantulus Slack 1861 C57, Mi. erythrogaster Reichenbach 1862 C57, Hapale erythrogaster C57, Jacchus rufiventer Gray 1843 C57, Midas rufiventer C57, Mi. rufoventer C57]

Saguinus (Saguinus) midas (Linnaeus 1758) R84, C57 [=Simia midas C57, Callithrix midas C57, Cercopithecus midas C57, Hapale midas C57, Jacchus midas C57, Leontocebus (Leontocebus) midas C57, Marikina midas C57, Midas midas C57, Mystax midas C57, Tamarin (Tamarin) midas C57]

Saguinus (Saguinus) midas midas (Linnaeus 1758) R84, C57 [incl. Leontocebus midas egens Thomas 1912 C57, Cercopithecus midas egens C57, Tamarin (Tamarin) midas egens C57, Callithrix lacepede Fischer 1806 C57, Midas lacepedii C57, M. rufimanus Geoffroy 1812 C57, Cercopithecus rufimanus C57, Jacchus rufimanus C57, Tamarin rufimanus C57]

Saguinus (Saguinus) mystax (Spix 1823) R84, C57 [=Midas mystax C57, Hapale mystax C57, Leontocebus (Leontocebus) mystax C57, Marikina mystax C57, Tamarin mystax C57]

Saguinus (Saguinus) mystax pileatus (Geoffroy & Deville 1848) R84, C57 [=Midas pileatus C57, Hapale pileata C57, Leontocebus (Leontocebus) pileatus C57, Marikina pileata C57, Tamarin pileatus C57; incl. Midas pileatus juruanus Ihering 1904 C57, Marikina pileata juruana C57]

Saguinus (Saguinus) mystax pluto (Lönnberg 1926) R84, C57 [=Mystax pluto C57, Leontocebus (Leontocebus) pluto C57, Marikina pluto C57, Tamarin pluto C57]

Saguinus (Saguinus) nigricollis (Spix 1823) R84, C57 [=Midas nigricollis C57, Hapale nigricollis C57, Leontocebus (Leontocebus) nigricollis C57, Marikina nigricollis C57, Tamarin nigricollis C57; incl. Leontocebus ater Lesson 1840 C57, L. pacator Thomas 1914 C57, Mystax devillei pacator C57, Tamarin devilli pacator C57, Midas rufoniger Geoffroy & Deville 1848 C57]

Saguinus (Saguinus) nigricollis graellsi (Espada 1870) R84, C57 [=Midas graellsi C57, Leontocebus (Leontocebus) graellsi C57, Marikina graellsi C57, Tamarin graellsi C57]

Saguinus (Saguinus) tamarin (Link 1794) JP84, C57 [=Cebus tamarin C57, Leontocebus (Leontocebus) tamarin C57, Marikina (Tamarin) tamarin C57, Midas tamarin C57; incl. Mystax ursulus umbratus Thomas 1922 C57, Marikina tamarin umbrata C57, Tamarin tamarin umbratus C57, Saguinus ursula Hoffmannsegg 1807 C57, Cercopithecus ursulus C57, Hapale ursula C57, H. ursulus C57, Jacchus ursulus C57, Midas ursulus C57, Simia ursula C57]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BP87] Burton, J. A., & B. Pearson. 1987. Collins Guide to the Rare Mammals of the World. Collins: London.

[C57] Cabrera, A. 1957. Catalogo de los mamiferos de America del Sur. I (Metatheria - Unguiculata - Carnivora). Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia” e Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de Las Ciencias Naturales, Ciencias Zoológicas 4 (1): 1-307.

[IT07] Isaac, N. J. B., S. T. Turvey, B. Collen, C. Waterman & J. E. M. Baillie. 2007. Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny. PLoS One 2 (3): e296.

[JP84] Jolicoeur, P., P. Pirlot, G. Baron & H. Stephan. 1984. Brain structure and correlation patterns in Insectivora, Chiroptera, and Primates. Systematic Zoology 33 (1): 14-29.

[OW06] Opazo, J. C., D. E. Wildman, T. Prychitko, R. M. Johnson & M. Goodman. 2006. Phylogenetic relationships and divergence times among New World monkeys (Platyrrhini, Primates). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40 (1): 274-280.

[R84] Rylands, A. B. 1984. Marmosets and tamarins. In All the World’s Animals: Primates (D. Macdonald, ed.) pp. 46-51. Torstar Books: New York.

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