Brachypodium distachyon, photographed by Neil Harris.

Belongs within: Poaceae.
Contains: Festuca, Meliceae, Stipa, Poa, Avena, Agrostis, Bromus, Triticum, Hordeum.

The Pooideae is a clade of grasses characterised by the loss of stylar fusion (Grass Phylogeny Working Group 2001). Many pooids also possess multiple florets per spikelet and lack multicellular microhairs. Members of the clade include a number of significant grain species, such as wheat (Triticum), rye (Secale cereale), oats (Avena) and barley (Hordeum), and a number of major pasture grasses. In contrast, some species of Nassella (needle grasses) are regarded as weeds in pasture because of their low palatability for livestock.

Characters (from Grass Phylogeny Working Group 2001): Plants annual or perennial (rhizomatous, stoloniferous, or neither), herbaceous. Culms hollow (rarely solid). Leaves distichous; abaxial ligule absent; adaxial ligule scarious or membranous, the margin not or infrequently short ciliate fringed (rarely long ciliate); blades somewhat broad to usually narrow, rarely pseudopetiolate, venation parallel; sheaths sometimes auriculate. Inflorescences spicate, racemose, or paniculate, bracts outside of the spikelets absent or rarely present. Spikelets bisexual, infrequently unisexual or mixed, usually with two glumes (rarely without glumes or the first absent except on terminal spikelets), 1 to many female-fertile florets with apical or infrequently basal reductions, compressed laterally, infrequently not or dorsally compressed, disarticulating above the glumes (infrequently below the glumes or at the nodes of the inflorescence); lemma lacking uncinate macrohairs, if awned, the awn single; palea usually present and well developed, but variable and sometimes very reduced or absent; lodicules 2 (rarely 3, fused, or absent), usually lanceolate, broadly membranous apically (sometimes fleshy, truncate), often lobed, obscurely few-nerved, or infrequently more or less distinctly few-nerved, not or conspicuously ciliate on the margins; stamens usually 3 (infrequently 1 or 2); ovary glabrous or pubes- cent, rarely with an apical appendage or rostellum, haustorial synergids absent, styles usually 2, close, stigmas 2 (rarely 1 or 3). Caryopsis with the hilum linear and up to as long as the fruit, or subbasal and punctiform, linear, ellipsoidal, ovate, or circular and less than 1/3 the length of the fruit; endosperm hard or sometimes soft or liquid, with or without lipids, containing compound starch grains, or simple starch grains; embryo small, epiblast present (rarely absent), scutellar cleft absent (rarely present, but not deeply incised), mesocotyl internode absent (rarely short), embryonic leaf margins meeting (infrequently margins overlapping). Basic chromosome numbers: x = 7, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13. Foliar anatomy: Mesophyll nonradiate, adaxial palisade layer absent, fusoid cells absent, arm cells absent; Kranz anatomy absent; midrib simple; adaxial bulliform cells present. Foliar micromorphology: Stomata with parallel-sided subsidiary cells; bicellular microhairs absent (rarely present, where chloridoid or panicoid), unicellular microhairs absent (rarely present); papillae usually absent, when present rarely more than one per long cell. Photosynthetic pathway C3.

<==Pooideae (see below for synonymy)
    |--Brachyelytrum [Brachyelytreae] GPWG01
    |    `--B. erectum GPWG01
    `--+--+--Nardus [Nardeae] GPWG01
       |  |    `--N. stricta GPWG01
       |  `--Lygeum [Lygeeae] GPWG01
       |       `--L. spartum GPWG01
       `--+--Meliceae GPWG01
          `--+--+--+--Anisopogon avenaceus GPWG01
             |  |  `--Phaenosperma [Phaenospermatideae] GPWG01
             |  |       `--P. globosum GPWG01
             |  `--+--Ampelodesmos [Ampelodesmeae] GPWG01
             |     |    `--A. mauritanica GPWG01
             |     `--+--+--Stipa GPWG01
             |        |  `--Nassella GPWG01
             |        |       |--N. leucotricha GPWG01
             |        |       |--N. trichotoma HE80
             |        |       `--N. viridula GPWG01
             |        `--+--Piptatherum GPWG01
             |           |    |--P. coerulescens (Desfontaines) Beauvois 1812 PL04
             |           |    |--P. miliaceum GPWG01
             |           |    `--P. songaricum GPWG01
             |           `--Oryzopsis GPWG01
             |                |--O. hymenoides CL86
             |                |--O. lateralis O88
             |                |--O. miliacea AGF98
             |                |--O. munroi O88
             |                `--O. racemosa [=Piptatherum racemosum] GPWG01
             `--+--Diarrhena [Diarrheneae] GPWG01
                |    |--D. americana GPWG01
                |    `--D. obovata GPWG01
                `--+--+--Trachynia Link 1827 GR98
                   |  |    `--T. platystachya (Balansa) Scholz in Greuter & Raus 1998 (see below for synonymy) GR98
                   |  `--Brachypodium [Brachypodieae] GPWG01
                   |       |--B. distachyon (Linnaeus) Beauvois 1812 GPWG01, PL04 [=Trachynia distachya GR98]
                   |       |--B. mexicanum GPWG01
                   |       |--B. pinnatum (Linnaeus) Beauvois 1812 PL04
                   |       |--B. ramosum C74
                   |       |--B. retusum PT98
                   |       `--B. sylvaticum S03
                   `--+--Poeae GPWG01
                      |    |--Poa GPWG01
                      |    |--Avena GPWG01
                      |    `--Agrostis GPWG01
                      `--+--Bromus GPWG01
                         `--Triticeae A05
                              |--Triticum GPWG01
                              |--Hordeum A05
                              `--Australopyrum A05

Pooideae incertae sedis:
  Festuca GPWG01
  Lamarckia aurea GPWG01, K10
  Echinaria capitata GPWG01, Y98
  Cynosurus echinatus Linnaeus 1753 GPWG01, PL04
  Anthoxanthum GPWG01
    |--A. horsfieldii H03
    `--A. odoratum S03
  Phalaris GPWG01
    |--P. aquatica IHC01
    |--P. arundinacea GPWG01
    |--P. canariensis C55
    |--P. coerulescens KS98
    |--P. minor AGF98
    |--P. paradoxa MM09
    `--P. tuberosa H74
  Secale cereale GPWG01, E-SM02
  Sesleria GPWG01
    |--S. coerulea R91
    |--S. rigida H09
    `--S. sphaerocephala PS98
  Ammochloa GPWG01
  Lolium GPWG01
    |--L. multiflorum LNB03
    |--L. perenne LNB03
    L. rigidum OS04
    L. temulentum C55
  Rostraria GPWG01
    |--R. cristata PT98
    |--R. pumila AGF98
    `--R. salzmannii GR98
         |--R. s. ssp. salzmannii [=Koeleria pubescens var. salzmanni] GR98
         `--R. s. ssp. maroccana (Domin) Scholz in Greuter & Raus 1998 (see below for synonymy) GR98
  Brylkinia [Brylkinieae] GPWG01

Pooideae [Agrostidoideae, Anthoxanthoideae, Avenoideae, Cynosuroideae, Echinarioideae, Festucoideae, Glycerioideae, Hordeoideae, Phalaroideae, Secaloideae]

Rostraria salzmannii ssp. maroccana (Domin) Scholz in Greuter & Raus 1998 [=Koeleria salzmannii var. maroccana Domin 1907, K. pubescens var. maroccana] GR98

Trachynia platystachya (Balansa) Scholz in Greuter & Raus 1998 [=Brachypodium distachyon var. platystachyon Balansa ex Cosson in Cosson & Durieu 1855, B. distachyon subvar. platystachyon (Balansa) St.-Yves 1934] GR98

*Type species of generic name indicated


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