Pooideae

Brachypodium distachyon, photographed by Neil Harris.


Belongs within: Poaceae.
Contains: Festuca, Meliceae, Stipa, Poa, Avena, Agrostis, Bromus, Triticum, Hordeum.

The Pooideae is a clade of grasses characterised by the loss of stylar fusion (Grass Phylogeny Working Group 2001). Many pooids also possess multiple florets per spikelet and lack multicellular microhairs. Members of the clade include a number of significant grain species, such as wheat (Triticum), rye (Secale cereale), oats (Avena) and barley (Hordeum), and a number of major pasture grasses. In contrast, some species of Nassella (needle grasses) are regarded as weeds in pasture because of their low palatability for livestock.

Characters (from Grass Phylogeny Working Group 2001): Plants annual or perennial (rhizomatous, stoloniferous, or neither), herbaceous. Culms hollow (rarely solid). Leaves distichous; abaxial ligule absent; adaxial ligule scarious or membranous, the margin not or infrequently short ciliate fringed (rarely long ciliate); blades somewhat broad to usually narrow, rarely pseudopetiolate, venation parallel; sheaths sometimes auriculate. Inflorescences spicate, racemose, or paniculate, bracts outside of the spikelets absent or rarely present. Spikelets bisexual, infrequently unisexual or mixed, usually with two glumes (rarely without glumes or the first absent except on terminal spikelets), 1 to many female-fertile florets with apical or infrequently basal reductions, compressed laterally, infrequently not or dorsally compressed, disarticulating above the glumes (infrequently below the glumes or at the nodes of the inflorescence); lemma lacking uncinate macrohairs, if awned, the awn single; palea usually present and well developed, but variable and sometimes very reduced or absent; lodicules 2 (rarely 3, fused, or absent), usually lanceolate, broadly membranous apically (sometimes fleshy, truncate), often lobed, obscurely few-nerved, or infrequently more or less distinctly few-nerved, not or conspicuously ciliate on the margins; stamens usually 3 (infrequently 1 or 2); ovary glabrous or pubes- cent, rarely with an apical appendage or rostellum, haustorial synergids absent, styles usually 2, close, stigmas 2 (rarely 1 or 3). Caryopsis with the hilum linear and up to as long as the fruit, or subbasal and punctiform, linear, ellipsoidal, ovate, or circular and less than 1/3 the length of the fruit; endosperm hard or sometimes soft or liquid, with or without lipids, containing compound starch grains, or simple starch grains; embryo small, epiblast present (rarely absent), scutellar cleft absent (rarely present, but not deeply incised), mesocotyl internode absent (rarely short), embryonic leaf margins meeting (infrequently margins overlapping). Basic chromosome numbers: x = 7, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13. Foliar anatomy: Mesophyll nonradiate, adaxial palisade layer absent, fusoid cells absent, arm cells absent; Kranz anatomy absent; midrib simple; adaxial bulliform cells present. Foliar micromorphology: Stomata with parallel-sided subsidiary cells; bicellular microhairs absent (rarely present, where chloridoid or panicoid), unicellular microhairs absent (rarely present); papillae usually absent, when present rarely more than one per long cell. Photosynthetic pathway C3.

<==Pooideae (see below for synonymy)
    |--Brachyelytrum [Brachyelytreae] GPWG01
    |    `--B. erectum GPWG01
    `--+--+--Nardus [Nardeae] GPWG01
       |  |    `--N. stricta GPWG01
       |  `--Lygeum [Lygeeae] GPWG01
       |       `--L. spartum GPWG01
       `--+--Meliceae GPWG01
          `--+--+--+--Anisopogon avenaceus GPWG01
             |  |  `--Phaenosperma [Phaenospermatideae] GPWG01
             |  |       `--P. globosum GPWG01
             |  `--+--Ampelodesmos [Ampelodesmeae] GPWG01
             |     |    `--A. mauritanica GPWG01
             |     `--+--+--Stipa GPWG01
             |        |  `--Nassella GPWG01
             |        |       |--N. leucotricha GPWG01
             |        |       |--N. trichotoma HE80
             |        |       `--N. viridula GPWG01
             |        `--+--Piptatherum GPWG01
             |           |    |--P. coerulescens (Desfontaines) Beauvois 1812 PL04
             |           |    |--P. miliaceum GPWG01
             |           |    `--P. songaricum GPWG01
             |           `--Oryzopsis GPWG01
             |                |--O. hymenoides CL86
             |                |--O. lateralis O88
             |                |--O. miliacea AGF98
             |                |--O. munroi O88
             |                `--O. racemosa [=Piptatherum racemosum] GPWG01
             `--+--Diarrhena [Diarrheneae] GPWG01
                |    |--D. americana GPWG01
                |    `--D. obovata GPWG01
                `--+--+--Trachynia Link 1827 GR98
                   |  |    `--T. platystachya (Balansa) Scholz in Greuter & Raus 1998 (see below for synonymy) GR98
                   |  `--Brachypodium [Brachypodieae] GPWG01
                   |       |--B. distachyon (Linnaeus) Beauvois 1812 GPWG01, PL04 [=Trachynia distachya GR98]
                   |       |--B. mexicanum GPWG01
                   |       |--B. pinnatum (Linnaeus) Beauvois 1812 PL04
                   |       |--B. ramosum C74
                   |       |--B. retusum PT98
                   |       `--B. sylvaticum S03
                   `--+--Poeae GPWG01
                      |    |--Poa GPWG01
                      |    |--Avena GPWG01
                      |    `--Agrostis GPWG01
                      `--+--Bromus GPWG01
                         `--Triticeae A05
                              |--Triticum GPWG01
                              |--Hordeum A05
                              `--Australopyrum A05

Pooideae incertae sedis:
  Festuca GPWG01
  Lamarckia aurea GPWG01, K10
  Echinaria capitata GPWG01, Y98
  Cynosurus echinatus Linnaeus 1753 GPWG01, PL04
  Anthoxanthum GPWG01
    |--A. horsfieldii H03
    `--A. odoratum S03
  Phalaris GPWG01
    |--P. aquatica IHC01
    |--P. arundinacea GPWG01
    |--P. canariensis C55
    |--P. coerulescens KS98
    |--P. minor AGF98
    |--P. paradoxa MM09
    `--P. tuberosa H74
  Secale cereale GPWG01, E-SM02
  Sesleria GPWG01
    |--S. coerulea R91
    |--S. rigida H09
    `--S. sphaerocephala PS98
  Ammochloa GPWG01
  Lolium GPWG01
    |--L. multiflorum LNB03
    |--L. perenne LNB03
    L. rigidum OS04
    L. temulentum C55
  Rostraria GPWG01
    |--R. cristata PT98
    |--R. pumila AGF98
    `--R. salzmannii GR98
         |--R. s. ssp. salzmannii [=Koeleria pubescens var. salzmanni] GR98
         `--R. s. ssp. maroccana (Domin) Scholz in Greuter & Raus 1998 (see below for synonymy) GR98
  Brylkinia [Brylkinieae] GPWG01

Pooideae [Agrostidoideae, Anthoxanthoideae, Avenoideae, Cynosuroideae, Echinarioideae, Festucoideae, Glycerioideae, Hordeoideae, Phalaroideae, Secaloideae]

Rostraria salzmannii ssp. maroccana (Domin) Scholz in Greuter & Raus 1998 [=Koeleria salzmannii var. maroccana Domin 1907, K. pubescens var. maroccana] GR98

Trachynia platystachya (Balansa) Scholz in Greuter & Raus 1998 [=Brachypodium distachyon var. platystachyon Balansa ex Cosson in Cosson & Durieu 1855, B. distachyon subvar. platystachyon (Balansa) St.-Yves 1934] GR98

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A05] Aagesen, L. 2005. Direct optimization, affine gap costs, and node stability. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36: 641–653.

[AGF98] Abd El-Ghani, M. M., & A. G. Fahmy. 1998. Composition of and changes in the spontaneous flora of Feiran Oasis, S Sinai, Egypt, in the last 60 years. Willdenowia 28: 123–134.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C74] Coineau, Y. 1974. Éléments pour une monographie morphologique, écologique et biologique des Caeculidae (Acariens). Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, nouvelle série, Série A, Zoologie 81: 1–299, 24 pls.

[CL86] Collins, E. I., & R. W. Lichvar. 1986. Vegetation inventory of current and historic black-footed ferret habitat in Wyoming. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs 8: 85–93.

[E-SM02] Ellneskog-Staam, P., & A. Merker. 2002. Screening for resistance to powdery mildew and brown rust in wheat-Leymus racemosus and wheat-Thinopyrum junceiforme alloploids. Acta Agricultura Scandinavica Section B—Soil and Plant Science 52: 158–161.

[GPWG01] Grass Phylogeny Working Group. 2001. Phylogeny and subfamilial classification of the grasses (Poaceae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 88 (3): 373–457.

[GR98] Greuter, W., & T. Raus (eds.) 1998. Med-Checklist Notulae, 17. Willdenowia 28: 163–174.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311–449.

[HE80] Healy, A. J., & E. Edgar. 1980. Flora of New Zealand vol. 3. Adventive cyperaceous, petalous and spathaceous monocotyledons. P. D. Hasselberg, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[H74] Helson, G. A. H. 1974. Insect Pests: Identification, life history, and control of pests of farms, horticulture, gardens, and public health. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[H09] Heltmann, H. 2009. Der Königstein (Piatra Craiului), die Perle der Burzenländer Gebirge. Mauritiana 20 (3): 515–527.

[IHC01] Ireson, J. E., R. J. Holloway & W. S. Chatterton. 2001. An overview of investigations into the use of predatory mites to control the lucerne flea, Sminthurus viridis (L.) (Collembola: Sminthuridae), in Tasmanian pastures. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 444–452. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[K10] Keighery, G. 2010. The naturalised vascular plants of the Pilbara region, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 78 (1): 299–311.

[KS98] Klein, J., A. Sato, S. Nagl & C. O'hUigín. 1998. Molecular trans-species polymorphism. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 1–21.

[LNB03] Ledeganck, P., I. Nijs & L. Beyens. 2003. Plant functional group diversity promotes soil protist diversity. Protist 154 (2): 239–249.

[MM09] Mound, L. A., & M. Masumoto. 2009. Australian Thripinae of the Anaphothrips genus-group (Thysanoptera), with three new genera and thirty-three new species. Zootaxa 2042: 1–76.

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19–28.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95–116.

[PL04] Pohl, G., & I. Lenski. 2004. Zur Verbreitung und Vergesellschaftung von Pennisetum orientale Rich. in Nordeuböa (Griechenland) (Poaceae, Paniceae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 209–223.

[PS98] Prosser, F., & S. Scortegagna. 1998. Primula recubariensis, a new species of Primula sect. Auricula Duby endemic to the SE Prealps, Italy. Willdenowia 28: 27–46.

[R91] Reutimann, P. 1991. Alpine oribatid species and plant decomposition: feeding and faeces production. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 417–422. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[S03] Singh, J. N. 2003. Grasses and their hydro-edaphic characteristics in the grassland habitat of Nilgiris Biosphere Reserve, Tamil Nadu. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45 (1–4): 143–164.

[Y98] Yannitsaros, A. 1998. Additions to the flora of Kithira (Greece) I. Willdenowia 28: 77–94.

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